namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa

皈敬世尊、阿羅漢、正等正覺者


法句經 三、心品 多譯本對讀(段層次) Dhammapada (Dhp.) 3. Cittavaggo




偈頌目錄
Dhp033 Dhp034 Dhp035 Dhp036 Dhp037 Dhp038
Dhp039 Dhp040 Dhp041 Dhp042 Dhp043  

本對讀包含下列數個版本,請自行勾選欲對讀之版本 (感恩 Siong-Ui Te 師兄 提供程式支援):

Dhammapada Dhp. 033
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]

3. Cittavaggo.

33. Phandanaṃ capalaṃ cittaṃ durakkhaṃ dunnivārayaṃ
Ujuṃ karoti medhāvī usukāro'va tejanaṃ.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]

3. Cittavaggo

33. Phandanaṃ capalaṃ cittaṃ, dūrakkhaṃ [durakkhaṃ (sabbattha)] dunnivārayaṃ;
Ujuṃ karoti medhāvī, usukārova tejanaṃ.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3]

三、心品

三三 輕動變易心,難護難制服,智者調直之,如匠搦箭直。 [MettFn03-01][MettFn03-02][MettFn03-03]

漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]

第三:心品

33 心浮不定且搖晃,難以防護難控制,
智者把心調正直,就像矢師矯正箭。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:意駛於響,難護難禁,慧正其本,其明乃大T04, 563a
  2. 出曜經:心已離行,中間已滅,心為輕躁,難持難護T04, 759b
  3. 出曜經:智者能自正,猶匠搦箭直,有恚則知恚,有恚知有恚T04, 759c
  4. 法集要頌經:心已離諸行,中間是己心,心多為輕躁,難持難調護,智者能自正,如匠搦箭直,有恚則知恚,有恚知有恚T04, 795b
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

Chapter 3 Mind

STRAIGHTEN YOUR FICKLE MIND

  1. The flickering, fickle mind, [NāradaFn03-01] difficult to guard, difficult to control - the wise person straightens it as a fletcher straightens an arrow.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7]

Dhp III The Mind

  1. Just as a fletcher straightens an arrow shaft, even so the discerning man straightens his mind — so fickle and unsteady, so difficult to guard.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

Dhp III The Mind

33-37

Quivering, wavering,
hard to guard,
to hold in check:
  the mind.
The sage makes it straight —
like a fletcher,
the shaft of an arrow.

Like a fish
pulled from its home in the water
& thrown on land:
this mind flips & flaps about
  to escape Mara's sway.

Hard to hold down,
  nimble,
alighting wherever it likes:
  the mind.
Its taming is good.
The mind well-tamed
  brings ease.

So hard to see,
so very, very subtle,
alighting wherever it likes:
  the mind.
The wise should guard it.
The mind protected
  brings ease.

Wandering far,
going alone,
bodiless,
lying in a cave:
  the mind.
Those who restrain it:
  from Mara's bonds
  they'll be freed.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]

3. The Mind

33 This mind, so fickle and disturbed,
Hard to guard, and hard to curb,
The wise ones straighten, just as do
Skilled fletchers make their arrows true.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10]

Chapter III: Thought

33 As a fletcher makes straight his arrow, a wise man makes straight his trembling and unsteady thought, which is difficult to guard, difficult to hold back.

英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]

Chapter 3: The Mind

DhP 33
The wavering, unsteady mind, hard to guard, difficult to restrain,
the wise one straightens, like an arrow-maker an arrow. [DLMBSFn-V033]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 三、心品 (Cittavaggo) Dhp. 033
Dhammapada Dhp. 034
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
34. Vārijo'va thale khitto okamokata ubbhato
Pariphandatidaṃ cittaṃ māradheyyaṃ pahātave.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
34. Vārijova thale khitto, okamokataubbhato;
Pariphandatidaṃ cittaṃ, māradheyyaṃ pahātave.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三四 如魚離水棲,投於陸地上,以此戰慄心,擺脫魔境界。 [MettFn03-01]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
34 水中魚被取出投擲於地時,牠會跳躍不安;
嘗試要把此心帶離魔界時,它亦跳躍不安。[CFFn03-01]
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 出曜經:如魚在旱地,以離於深淵,心識極惶懅,魔眾而奔馳T04, 758c
  2. 法集要頌經:如魚在旱地,以離於深淵,心識極惶懼,魔眾而奔馳T04, 795b
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]
  1. Like a fish that is drawn from its watery abode and thrown upon land, even so does this mind flutter. Hence should the realm of the passions be shunned. [NāradaFn03-02]
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7]
  1. As a fish when pulled out of water and cast on land throbs and quivers, even so is this mind agitated. Hence should one abandon the realm of Mara.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

33-37

Quivering, wavering,
hard to guard,
to hold in check:
  the mind.
The sage makes it straight —
like a fletcher,
the shaft of an arrow.

Like a fish
pulled from its home in the water
& thrown on land:
this mind flips & flaps about
  to escape Mara's sway.

Hard to hold down,
  nimble,
alighting wherever it likes:
  the mind.
Its taming is good.
The mind well-tamed
  brings ease.

So hard to see,
so very, very subtle,
alighting wherever it likes:
  the mind.
The wise should guard it.
The mind protected
  brings ease.

Wandering far,
going alone,
bodiless,
lying in a cave:
  the mind.
Those who restrain it:
  from Mara's bonds
  they'll be freed.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
34 Like a fish that has been landed,
From the water drawn and stranded,
So this mind does shake and strain
In breaking free of Mara’s reign.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 34 As a fish taken from his watery home and thrown on dry ground, our thought trembles all over in order to escape the dominion of Mara (the tempter).
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 34
Like a fish, thrown from all abodes on a dry ground
this mind trembles in order to leave Mara's realm. [DLMBSFn-V034]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 三、心品 (Cittavaggo) Dhp. 034
Dhammapada Dhp. 035
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
35. Dunniggahassa lahuno1 yatthakāmanipātino
Cittassa damatho sādhu cittaṃ dantaṃ sukhāvahaṃ.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
35. Dunniggahassa lahuno, yatthakāmanipātino;
Cittassa damatho sādhu, cittaṃ dantaṃ sukhāvahaṃ.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三五 此心隨欲轉,輕躁難捉摸。善哉心調伏,心調得安樂。
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
35 心難控制且輕浮,隨著喜好而停留。
能調服心的確好,調服之心帶來樂。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:輕躁難持,唯欲是從,制意為善,自調則寧T04, 563a
  2. 出曜經:輕難護持,為欲所居,降心為善,以降便安T04, 758c
  3. 法集要頌經:心輕難調伏,為欲所居懷,降心則為善,以降便輕安T04,795b
  4. 瑜伽師地論:難調伏輕躁,淪墜於諸欲,善調伏其心,心調引安樂T30, 385b
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

CONTROL YOUR MIND

  1. The mind is hard to check, swift, flits wherever it listeth: to control it is good. A controlled mind is conducive to happiness.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7]
  1. Wonderful, indeed, it is to subdue the mind, so difficult to subdue, ever swift, and seizing whatever it desires. A tamed mind brings happiness.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

33-37

Quivering, wavering,
hard to guard,
to hold in check:
  the mind.
The sage makes it straight —
like a fletcher,
the shaft of an arrow.

Like a fish
pulled from its home in the water
& thrown on land:
this mind flips & flaps about
  to escape Mara's sway.

Hard to hold down,
  nimble,
alighting wherever it likes:
  the mind.
Its taming is good.
The mind well-tamed
  brings ease.

So hard to see,
so very, very subtle,
alighting wherever it likes:
  the mind.
The wise should guard it.
The mind protected
  brings ease.

Wandering far,
going alone,
bodiless,
lying in a cave:
  the mind.
Those who restrain it:
  from Mara's bonds
  they'll be freed.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
35 Hard to control is this mind, and so changeable,
Darting at what it conceives as delectable.
Mastering the mind is supremely commendable;
Mastered, it kindles a joy that’s ineffable.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 35 It is good to tame the mind, which is difficult to hold in and flighty, rushing wherever it listeth; a tamed mind brings happiness.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 35
Good is the taming of the mind, which is difficult to restrain, quick,
jumping at whatever it desires. Restrained mind brings happiness. [DLMBSFn-V035]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 三、心品 (Cittavaggo) Dhp. 035
Dhammapada Dhp. 036
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
36. Sududdasaṃ sunipunaṃ yatthakāmanipātinaṃ
Cittaṃ rakkhetha medhāvī cittaṃ guttaṃ sukhāvahaṃ.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
36. Sududdasaṃ sunipuṇaṃ, yatthakāmanipātinaṃ;
Cittaṃ rakkhetha medhāvī, cittaṃ guttaṃ sukhāvahaṃ.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三六 此心隨欲轉,微妙極難見。智者防護心,心護得安樂。 [MettFn03-04][MettFn03-05][NandFn03-01]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
36 心極難見極微細,隨著喜好而停留。
且讓智者防護心,受護之心帶來樂。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:意微難見,隨欲而行,慧常自護,能守即安T04, 563a
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

GUARD YOUR THOUGHTS

  1. The mind is very hard to perceive, extremely subtle, flits wherever it listeth. Let the wise person guard it; a guarded mind is conducive to happiness.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7]
  1. Let the discerning man guard the mind, so difficult to detect and extremely subtle, seizing whatever it desires. A guarded mind brings happiness.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

33-37

Quivering, wavering,
hard to guard,
to hold in check:
  the mind.
The sage makes it straight —
like a fletcher,
the shaft of an arrow.

Like a fish
pulled from its home in the water
& thrown on land:
this mind flips & flaps about
  to escape Mara's sway.

Hard to hold down,
  nimble,
alighting wherever it likes:
  the mind.
Its taming is good.
The mind well-tamed
  brings ease.

So hard to see,
so very, very subtle,
alighting wherever it likes:
  the mind.
The wise should guard it.
The mind protected
  brings ease.

Wandering far,
going alone,
bodiless,
lying in a cave:
  the mind.
Those who restrain it:
  from Mara's bonds
  they'll be freed.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9] 36 The mind is very subtle and difficult to see. It descends on whatever it finds pleasant. A wise person should protect the mind: a protected mind brings happiness.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 36 Let the wise man guard his thoughts, for they are difficult to perceive, very artful, and they rush wherever they list: thoughts well guarded bring happiness.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 36
O Wise Ones, you should protect the mind, which is very difficult to see, very subtle
and jumping at whatever it desires. Protected mind brings happiness. [DLMBSFn-V036]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 三、心品 (Cittavaggo) Dhp. 036
Dhammapada Dhp. 037
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
37. Dūraṅgamaṃ ekacaraṃ asarīraṃ kuhāsayaṃ
Ye cittaṃ saññamessanti mokkhanti mārabandhanā.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
37. Dūraṅgamaṃ ekacaraṃ [ekacāraṃ (ka.)], asarīraṃ guhāsayaṃ;
Ye cittaṃ saṃyamessanti, mokkhanti mārabandhanā.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三七 遠行與獨行,無形隱深窟。誰能調伏心,解脫魔羅縛。 [LChnFn03-01][MettFn03-06][MettFn03-07]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
37 心單獨行走活動,它無身住於洞穴。 [CFFn03-02]
能制伏己心的人,解脫魔王的束縛。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:獨行遠逝,覆藏無形,損意近道,魔繫乃解T04, 563a
  2. 出曜經:遠逝獨遊,隱藏無形,難降能降,是謂梵志T04, 774a
  3. 法集要頌經:遠逝獨遊行,隱藏無形影,難降能自調,是名為梵志T04,799a
4. 大毘婆沙論:能遠行獨行,無身寐於窟,調伏此心者,解脫大怖畏T27, 371b
5. 阿毘曇毘婆沙論:獨行遠逝,不依於身,能調是者,解脫怖畏T28, 281b
6. 阿毘曇毘婆沙論:獨行遠逝,不在此身,若能調伏,是世梵志T28,15c
7. 鞞婆沙論:遠行獨去,無身依身,難御能御,是世梵志T28, 427c
8. 瑜伽師地論:心遠行獨行,無身寐於窟,能調伏難伏,我說婆羅門T30,386a
9. 攝大乘論:遠至獨行故,無身窟所依,能調不調心,我說為淨行T31,101c
10. 攝大乘論本:若遠行獨行,無身寐於窟,調此難調心,我說真梵志T31,139a
11. 攝大乘論釋:遠行及獨行,無身住空窟,調伏難調伏,則解脫魔縛T31,185b
12. 攝論釋論:遠去及獨行,無身住空窟,能伏難伏心,我說為梵行T31,286c
13. 攝大乘論釋:若遠行獨行,無身寐於窟,調此難調心,我說真梵志T31,340a
14. 攝大乘論釋:若遠行獨行,無身寐於窟,調此難調心,我說真梵志T31,402a
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

FREE ARE THEY WHO HAVE CONTROLLED THEIR MINDS

  1. Faring far, wandering alone, [NāradaFn03-03] bodiless, [NāradaFn03-04] lying in a cave, [NāradaFn03-05] is the mind. Those who subdue it are freed from the bond of Māra.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7]
  1. Dwelling in the cave (of the heart), the mind, without form, wanders far and alone. Those who subdue this mind are liberated from the bonds of Mara.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

33-37 [ThaniSFn-V37]

Quivering, wavering,
hard to guard,
to hold in check:
  the mind.
The sage makes it straight —
like a fletcher,
the shaft of an arrow.

Like a fish
pulled from its home in the water
& thrown on land:
this mind flips & flaps about
  to escape Mara's sway.

Hard to hold down,
  nimble,
alighting wherever it likes:
  the mind.
Its taming is good.
The mind well-tamed
  brings ease.

So hard to see,
so very, very subtle,
alighting wherever it likes:
  the mind.
The wise should guard it.
The mind protected
  brings ease.

Wandering far,
going alone,
bodiless,
lying in a cave:
  the mind.
Those who restrain it:
  from Mara's bonds
  they'll be freed.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
37 How far the mind roams!
It wanders alone;
No body it owns;
Concealed is its home.
Once training it’s known,
From death’s bonds have you flown.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 37 Those who bridle their mind which travels far, moves about alone, is without a body, and hides in the chamber (of the heart), will be free from the bonds of Mara (the tempter).
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 37
Those, who can restrain the mind, which is going far, wandering alone, bodiless
and living in the cave, those will be freed from the bond of Mara. [DLMBSFn-V037]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 三、心品 (Cittavaggo) Dhp. 037
Dhammapada Dhp. 038
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
38. Anavaṭṭhitacittassa saddhammaṃ avijānato
Paripalavapasādassa paññā na paripūrati.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
38. Anavaṭṭhitacittassa, saddhammaṃ avijānato;
Pariplavapasādassa, paññā na paripūrati.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三八 心若不安定,又不了正法,信心不堅者,智慧不成就。
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
38 對於心不安定,又不了知正法,
信心動搖之人,其慧不會圓滿。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:心無住息,亦不知法,迷於世事,無有正智T04, 563a
  2. 出曜經:心無住息,亦不知法,迷於世事,無有正智T04, 760c
  3. 法集要頌經:心不住止息,亦不知善法,迷於出世事,無有正知見T04, 795c
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

TO THE VIGILANT THERE IS NO FEAR

  1. He whose mind is not steadfast, he who knows not the true doctrine, he whose confidence wavers - the wisdom [NāradaFn03-06] of such a one will never be perfect.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7]
  1. Wisdom never becomes perfect in one whose mind is not steadfast, who knows not the Good Teaching and whose faith wavers.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

38

For a person of unsteady mind,
not knowing true Dhamma,
  serenity
  set        adrift:
discernment doesn't grow full.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
38 In one who is
of unsteady mind,
ignorant of Dhamma,
of wavering faith,
wisdom does not mature.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 38 If a man's thoughts are unsteady, if he does not know the true law, if his peace of mind is troubled, his knowledge will never be perfect.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 38
The wisdom of a person, whose mind is unsteady, who does not understand the True Dharma and whose confidence is wavering will not become perfect. [DLMBSFn-V038]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 三、心品 (Cittavaggo) Dhp. 038
Dhammapada Dhp. 039
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
39. Anavassutacittassa ananavāhatacetaso
Puññapāpapahīṇassa natthi jāgarato bhayaṃ.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
39. Anavassutacittassa, ananvāhatacetaso;
Puññapāpapahīnassa, natthi jāgarato bhayaṃ.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三九 若得無漏心,亦無諸惑亂,超越善與惡,覺者無恐怖。 [LChnFn03-02][LChnFn03-03][MettFn03-08][MettFn03-09][MettFn03-10]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
39 對於心沒被貪浸透、心沒有被瞋恨打擊、
已斷善惡的警覺者,對他而言沒有怖畏。 [CFFn03-03]
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:念無適止,不絕無邊,福能遏惡,覺者為賢T04, 563a
  2. 出曜經:人不損其心,亦不毀其意,以善永滅惡,不憂墮惡道T04,743a
  3. 法集要頌經:人不損其心,亦不毀其意,以善永滅惡,不憂隨惡道T04,792a
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]
  1. He whose mind is not soaked (by lust) he who is not affected (by hatred), he who has transcended both good and evil [NāradaFn03-07] - for such a vigilant [NāradaFn03-08] one there is no fear.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7]
  1. There is no fear for an awakened one, whose mind is not sodden (by lust) nor afflicted (by hate), and who has gone beyond both merit and demerit. [BudRkFn-v39]
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

39 [ThaniSFn-V39]

For a person of unsoddened mind,
         unassaulted
awareness,
abandoning merit & evil,
  wakeful,
there is no danger
     no fear.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
39 For one whose mind is not flooded by lust, and not plagued by doubt; for one who has given up both merit and evil; for him, watchful and vigilant, there are no fears.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 39 If a man's thoughts are not dissipated, if his mind is not perplexed, if he has ceased to think of good or evil, then there is no fear for him while he is watchful.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 39
There is no fear for a person, whose mind is free of passions and not perplexed,
who has abandoned the idea of "good" and "bad" and who is watchful. [DLMBSFn-V039]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 三、心品 (Cittavaggo) Dhp. 039
Dhammapada Dhp. 040
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
40. Kumbhūpamaṃ kāyamimaṃ viditvā nagarūpamaṃ cittamidaṃ ṭhapetvā
Yodhetha māraṃ paññāyudhena jitañca rakkhe anivesano siyā.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
40. Kumbhūpamaṃ kāyamimaṃ viditvā, nagarūpamaṃ cittamidaṃ ṭhapetvā;
Yodhetha māraṃ paññāvudhena, jitañca rakkhe anivesano siyā.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 四0 知身如陶器,住心似城廓,慧劍擊魔羅,守勝莫染著。 [LChnFn03-04][LChnFn03-05][LChnFn03-06][MettFn03-11][MettFn03-12]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
40 了知此身脆如瓶,建立此心固若城,
當以慧器與魔戰,保護勝利不執著。 [CFFn03-04]
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:藏六如龜,防意如城,慧與魔戰,勝則無患T04, 563a
  2. 法句譬喻經:藏六如龜,防意如城,慧與魔戰,勝則無患T04, 584b
  3. 出曜經:觀身如空瓶,安心如立城,以叡與魔戰,守勝勿復失T04, 762a
  4. 出曜經:觀身如聚沫,解知焰野馬,以叡與魔戰,守勝勿復失T04,762a
5. 法集要頌經:觀身如空瓶,安心如丘城,以慧與魔戰,守勝勿復失。
觀身如聚沫,如陽焰野馬,以慧與魔戰,守勝勿復失T04, 795c
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

FORTIFY YOUR MIND AND BE NON-ATTACHED

  1. Realizing that this body is (as fragile) as a jar, establishing this mind (as firm) as a (fortified) city he should attack Māra [NāradaFn03-09] with the weapon of wisdom. He should guard his conquest [NāradaFn03-10] and be without attachment. [NāradaFn03-11]
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7]
  1. Realizing that this body is as fragile as a clay pot, and fortifying this mind like a well-fortified city, fight out Mara with the sword of wisdom. Then, guarding the conquest, remain unattached.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

40 [ThaniSFn-V40]

Knowing this body
  is like a clay jar,
securing this mind
  like a fort,
     attack Mara
  with the spear of discernment,
then guard what's won
  without settling there,
  without laying claim.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
40 Having realised this body’s like a pitcher - it’s as breakable -
And stabilised your mind until it’s stable as a citadel,
Then, using wisdom’s weapons, you should battle with the Evil One.
Your victory then defending, any yearnings you should overcome.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 40 Knowing that this body is (fragile) like a jar, and making this thought firm like a fortress, one should attack Mara (the tempter) with the weapon of knowledge, one should watch him when conquered, and should never rest.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 40
Having understood this body to be like a jar,
having established this mind like a city,
attack Mara with the weapon of wisdom,
you should protect the conquered territory and be without attachments. [DLMBSFn-V040]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 三、心品 (Cittavaggo) Dhp. 040
Dhammapada Dhp. 041
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
41. Aciraṃ vatayaṃ kāyo paṭhaviṃ adhisessati
Chuddho apetaviññāṇo niratthaṃ'va kaliṅgaraṃ.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
41. Aciraṃ vatayaṃ kāyo, pathaviṃ adhisessati;
Chuddho apetaviññāṇo, niratthaṃva kaliṅgaraṃ.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 四一 此身實不久,當睡於地下,被棄無意識,無用如木屑。 [LChnFn03-07][LChnFn03-08][MettFn03-13]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
41 的確在不久之後,此身將躺在大地,
被丟棄且無心識,如丟棄無用木頭。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:有身不久,皆當歸土,形壞神去,寄住何貪T04, 563a
  2. 法句譬喻經:有身不久,皆當歸土,形壞神去,寄住何貪T04, 584b
  3. 出曜經:是身不久,還歸於地,神識已離,骨幹獨存T04, 622c
4. 雜阿含265於此苦陰身,大智分別說:離於三法者,身為成棄物。
壽、暖及諸識,離此餘身分,永棄丘塚間,如木無識想。
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]
  1. Before long, alas! this body will lie upon the ground, cast aside, devoid of consciousness, even as a useless charred log. [NāradaFn03-12]
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7]
  1. Ere long, alas! this body will lie upon the earth, unheeded and lifeless, like a useless log.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

41

All too soon, this body
will lie on the ground
  cast off,
bereft of consciousness,
like a useless scrap
  of wood.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
41 Not long, indeed, till it will rest,
This body here, beneath the clod -
Discarded, void of consciousness,
As useless as a rotten log.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 41 Before long, alas! this body will lie on the earth, despised, without understanding, like a useless log.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 41
Alas! Before long will this body lay upon the ground,
rejected, devoid of consciousness, like a worthless log. [DLMBSFn-V041]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 三、心品 (Cittavaggo) Dhp. 041
Dhammapada Dhp. 042
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
42. Diso disaṃ yantaṃ kayirā verī vā pana verinaṃ
Micchāpaṇihitaṃ cittaṃ pāpiyo naṃ tato kare.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
42. Diso disaṃ yaṃ taṃ kayirā, verī vā pana verinaṃ;
Micchāpaṇihitaṃ cittaṃ, pāpiyo [pāpiyaṃ (?)] naṃ tato kare.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 四二 仇敵害仇敵,怨家對怨家,若心向邪行,惡業最為大。 [LChnFn03-09][LChnFn03-10][MettFn03-14]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
42 敵人對敵人所做的,怨家對怨家的傷害;
然而導向錯誤的心,卻比它們為害更大。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:心豫造處,往來無端,念多邪僻,自為招惡T04, 563a
  2. 法句譬喻經:心豫造處,往來無端,念多邪僻,自為招患T04, 584b
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

AN ILL-DISPOSED MIND IS THE GREATEST ENEMY

  1. Whatever (harm) a foe may do to a foe, or a hater to a hater, an ill-directed mind [NāradaFn03-13] can do one far greater (harm).
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7]
  1. Whatever harm an enemy may do to an enemy, or a hater to a hater, an ill-directed mind inflicts on oneself a greater harm.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

42-43 [ThaniSFn-V42]

Whatever an enemy might do
to an enemy,
or a foe to a foe,
the ill-directed mind
can do to you
  even worse.

Whatever a mother, father
or other kinsman
might do for you,
the well-directed mind
can do for you
  even better.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
42 Whatever aggressors might do to aggressors,
Or haters to men they despise,
We do harm to ourselves that’s immeasureably greater
With mind, if it's wrongly inclined.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 42 Whatever a hater may do to a hater, or an enemy to an enemy, a wrongly-directed mind will do us greater mischief.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 42
Whatever an enemy might do to an enemy, or a hater to a hated one,
wrongly directed mind can do one even worse (evil). [DLMBSFn-V042]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 三、心品 (Cittavaggo) Dhp. 042
Dhammapada Dhp. 043
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
43. Na taṃ mātā pitā kayirā aññe vā pi ca ñātakā
Sammāpaṇihitaṃ cittaṃ seyyaso naṃ tato kare.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
43. Na taṃ mātā pitā kayirā, aññe vāpi ca ñātakā;
Sammāpaṇihitaṃ cittaṃ, seyyaso naṃ tato kare.

Cittavaggo tatiyo niṭṭhito.

漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3]

四三 (善)非父母作,亦非他眷屬,若心向正行,善業最為大。 [LChnFn03-11][NandFn03-02]

心品第三竟

漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
43 不是母親與父親所做的,也不是任何親戚所做的,
能比得上導向正確的心,能為自己帶來更大幸福。

心品第三完畢

漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:是意自造,非父母為,可勉向正,為福勿回T04, 563a
  2. 出曜經:是意自造,非父母為,除邪就定,為福勿迴T04, 759c
  3. 法句譬喻經:是意自造,非父母為,可勉向正,為福勿回T04, 584b
  4. 法集要頌經:是意皆自造,非干父母為,除邪就正定,為福勿洄澓T04, 795b
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

A WELL-DIRECTED MIND IS FAR GREATER THAN EVEN A MOTHER OR A FATHER

  1. What neither mother, nor father, nor any other relative can do, a well-directed mind [NāradaFn03-14] does and thereby elevates one.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7]
  1. Neither mother, father, nor any other relative can do one greater good than one's own well-directed mind.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

42-43

Whatever an enemy might do
to an enemy,
or a foe to a foe,
the ill-directed mind
can do to you
  even worse.

Whatever a mother, father
or other kinsman
might do for you,
the well-directed mind
can do for you
  even better.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
43 What mother or father or kindred can’t do,
A mind well-directed could do it for you.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 43 Not a mother, not a father will do so much, nor any other relative; a well-directed mind will do us greater service.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 43
What a mother, father or even other relatives can not do,
a well directed mind can do even far better than that. [DLMBSFn-V043]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 三、心品 (Cittavaggo) Dhp. 043

備註:

[1](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) 〔註001〕  巴利原典 (PTS) Dhammapadapāḷi 乃參考 Access to InsightTipitaka : → Dhp{Dhp 1-20} ( Dhp ; Dhp 21-32 ; Dhp 33-43 , etc..)
[2](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) 〔註002〕  巴利原典 (CSCD) Dhammapadapāḷi 乃參考 `【國際內觀中心】(Vipassana Meditation (As Taught By S.N. Goenka in the tradition of Sayagyi U Ba Khin)所發行之《第六次結集》(巴利大藏經) CSCD ( Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana CD)。網路版原始出處(original)請參考: The Pāḷi Tipitaka (http://www.tipitaka.org/) (請於左邊選單“Tipiṭaka Scripts”中選 Roman → Web → Tipiṭaka (Mūla) → Suttapiṭaka → Khuddakanikāya → Dhammapadapāḷi → 1. Yamakavaggo (2. Appamādavaggo , 3. Cittavaggo , etc..)。]
[3](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11)

〔註003〕 本譯文請參考: 文言文版 ( 了參 法師 譯,台北市:圓明出版社,1991。) 另參:

一、 Dhammapada 法句經(中英對照) -- English translated by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ; Chinese translated by Yeh chun(葉均); Chinese commented by Ven. Bhikkhu Metta(明法比丘)Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ( 佛護 尊者 ) 英譯; 了參 法師(葉均) 譯; 明法比丘 註(增加許多濃縮的故事)〕: PDFDOCDOC (Foreign1 字型)

二、 法句經 Dhammapada (Pāḷi-Chinese 巴漢對照)-- 漢譯: 了參 法師(葉均) ; 單字注解:廖文燦; 注解: 尊者 明法比丘PDFDOCDOC (Foreign1 字型)

[4](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) 〔註004〕 本譯文請參考: 白話文版敬法 法師 譯,第二修訂版 2015,pdf原始出處,直接下載 pdf ; (初版 )
[5](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11)

〔註005〕 取材自:【部落格-- 荒草不曾鋤】-- 《法句經》 (涵蓋了T210《法句經》、T212《出曜經》、 T213《法集要頌經》、巴利《法句經》、巴利《優陀那》、梵文《法句經》,對他種語言的偈頌還附有漢語翻譯。)

參考相當之古漢譯對應經典:

[6](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) 〔註006〕 此英譯為 Ven Nārada Thera 所譯;請參考原始出處(original): Dhammapada -- PĀLI TEXT AND TRANSLATION WITH STORIES IN BRIEF AND NOTES BY Ven Nārada Thera
[7](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) 〔註007〕 此英譯為 Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita 所譯;請參考原始出處(original): The Buddha's Path of Wisdom, translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita : Preface with an introduction by Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi ; I. Yamakavagga: The Pairs (vv. 1-20) , Dhp II Appamadavagga: Heedfulness (vv. 21-32 ) , Dhp III Cittavagga: The Mind (Dhp 33-43) , ..., XXVI. The Holy Man (Dhp 383-423)
[8](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) 〔註008〕 此英譯為 Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ( 坦尼沙羅尊者 所譯;請參考原始出處(original): The Dhammapada, A Translation translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu : Preface ; introduction ; I. Yamakavagga: The Pairs (vv. 1-20) , Dhp II Appamadavagga: Heedfulness (vv. 21-32) , Dhp III Cittavagga: The Mind (Dhp 33-43) , ..., XXVI. The Holy Man (Dhp 383-423) (Access to Insight:Readings in Theravada BuddhismTipitakaDhp (Dhammapada The Path of Dhamma)
[9](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) 〔註009〕 此英譯為 Ven. Varado Bhikkhu and Samanera Bodhesako 所譯;請參考原始出處(original): Dhammapada in Verse -- Inward Path, Translated by Bhante Varado and Samanera Bodhesako, Malaysia, 2007
[10](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) 〔註010〕 此英譯為 Friedrich Max Müller 所譯;請參考原始出處(original): The Dhammapada : A Collection of Verses: Being One of the Canonical Books of the Buddhists, translated by Friedrich Max Müller (en.wikisource.org) (revised Jack Maguire, SkyLight Pubns, Woodstock, Vermont, 2002)
[11](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) 〔註011〕 取材自:【部落格-- 荒草不曾鋤】-- 《法句經》 (涵蓋了T210《法句經》、T212《出曜經》、 T213《法集要頌經》、巴利《法句經》、巴利《優陀那》、梵文《法句經》,對他種語言的偈頌還附有漢語翻譯。)
[12](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) 〔註012〕 取材自: 經文選讀佛學數位圖書館暨博物館 --- 語言教學. 巴利語教學
[LChnFn03-01]〔註03-01〕 這兩句都是形容心的。
[LChnFn03-02]〔註03-02〕 不漏落於貪欲。
[LChnFn03-03]〔註03-03〕 證得阿羅漢果以後,便不作新業,無論善業惡業都是超越了的。
[LChnFn03-04]〔註03-04〕 易碎的。
[LChnFn03-05]〔註03-05〕 「勝」利的果實是指進步的禪觀境界。
[LChnFn03-06]〔註03-06〕 不要染著於某種禪定境界,必須更求精進,努力向上。
[LChnFn03-07]〔註03-07〕 將被丟在一邊。
[LChnFn03-08]〔註03-08〕 在南方佛教國家中,佛弟子將死時,例請僧作最後供養。僧人即為頌此偈三遍。
[LChnFn03-09]〔註03-09〕 惡害。
[LChnFn03-10]〔註03-10〕 使他的心趨向於十種惡(Akusala)–– 殺生(Panatipato),偷盜(Adinnadanam),邪淫(Kamesu micchacaro),妄語(Musavado),兩舌(Pisuna vaca),粗惡語(Pharusa vaca),綺語(Samphappalapo),慳貪(Abhijjha),瞋恚(Vyapado),邪見(Micchaditthi)。
[LChnFn03-11]〔註03-11〕 使他的心趨向於十種善(Kusala)––佈施(Danam),持戒(Silam),修禪定(Bhavana),尊敬(Apacayanam),作事(Veyyavaccam),回向功德(Pattidanam),隨喜功德(Pattanumodana),聽法(Dhammasavanam),說法(Dhammadesana),正直見(Ditthujjukammam)。
[CFFn03-01]〔敬法法師註03-01〕 8 註:魔界是指煩惱輪轉。
[CFFn03-02]〔敬法法師註03-02〕 9 註:心單獨自活動是指在同一個心識剎那裡只能有一個心識生起。只有在前一個心識滅後,下一個心識才會生起。心是依靠位於心室裡的心所依處而生起的。
[CFFn03-03]〔敬法法師註03-04〕 10 註:已捨棄善惡即已成為阿羅漢。阿羅漢已根除了貪瞋痴,不再造業,包括善惡兩者。他的一切身語意行為都只是唯作而已。
[CFFn03-04]〔敬法法師註03-03〕 11 註:保護勝利是指保護已獲得的初階觀智,不執著是指不執著於禪那,而繼續修行觀禪直至證悟聖道果。
[MettFn03-01](1, 2)

〔明法尊者註03-01〕 Dh33-34的因緣是:彌醯長老(Meghiyatthera)當世尊的侍者時,他中意一處風景美好的地方,打算在此禪修,三次請求,世尊並不看好,但是最後還是答應他。彌醯長老在該處停留一天,但無法降服內心的煩惱。當他回到世尊的身邊時,世尊說出此偈。(參見DhA.;Ud.31)

PS: 請參 法句經故事集 ,三~一、無法控制心念的彌醯 (偈 033~34)。

[MettFn03-02]〔明法尊者註03-02〕 :ㄋㄨㄛˋ按壓及調整。此字屬補綴字,並不出現於文中。
[MettFn03-03]〔明法尊者註03-03〕 《本事經》:「無別有一法,性躁動如心,難調御難防,大仙之所說。譬如有智人,以火等眾具,調直於利箭,令遠有所中。如是諸苾芻,應善學方便,調直於心性,令速證涅槃。」(T4.673.1)
[MettFn03-04]〔明法尊者註03-04〕 安樂:DhA:指「道、果、涅槃的樂」(magga-phala-nibbāna-sukhāni)。
[MettFn03-05]

〔明法尊者註03-05〕 本偈的因緣為舍衛城的一位比丘,因要學的法很多而起煩惱,世尊因而以此偈頌教誡他。

PS: 請參 法句經故事集 ,三~二、能夠洞察他人內心的女士 (偈 035)。

[MettFn03-06]〔明法尊者註03-06〕 無形(體) :asarīra(a無+sarīra身體)。
[MettFn03-07]

〔明法尊者註03-07〕 僧護長老(Saṅgharakkhita)的一位侄子也出家,有一天,他打起一連串的妄想︰還俗,娶妻生子,駕車,跟太太搶孩子,孩子掉下車,被車子輾過,他生氣,打老婆。結果用扇子打到僧護長老。僧護長老說︰不打太太,怎麼打舅舅?」侄子感覺不安。僧護長老帶他去見佛陀。佛陀說了偈頌。

PS: 請參 037 典故 ;或 法句經故事集 ,三~四、心念容易飄浮不定 (偈 037)。

[MettFn03-08]〔明法尊者註03-08〕 無漏心 (anavassuta cittassa):無(煩惱)洩漏的心。
[MettFn03-09]〔明法尊者註03-09〕 超越善與惡 ︰puññapāpapahīnassa,阿羅漢已捨棄福(puñña)、惡(pāpa)之業(因),不造成未來的任何果報。
[MettFn03-10]

〔明法尊者註03-10〕 本偈為世尊因質多哈達長老(Cittahatthatthera)的證阿羅漢果後而說出的偈頌。質多哈達長老曾出家六次還俗六次。有一天,他看見妻子正在睡覺,大聲打鼾,張嘴流口水。他明白身體的不淨,並且想著:「我幾次出家半途而廢,就是因為迷戀如此德行的妻子。」就再度到精舍去出家,一路上,不停的念著「無常」、「苦」,而證得初果。出家後,過了幾天,他就證得阿羅漢果。

PS: 請參 038~39 典故 ;或 法句經故事集 ,三~五、心猿意馬的比丘 (偈 038~39)。

[MettFn03-11]〔明法尊者註03-11〕 守勝.莫染著 :守護所克服的成果,而不執著,繼續修至解脫。
[MettFn03-12]

〔明法尊者註03-12〕 五百位比丘到喜瑪拉雅山山下雨安居,受到樹神的干擾,世尊因此說《慈經》,諸比丘受到慈愛的保護,樹神不再干擾,雨安居後都證得阿羅漢果。

PS: 請參 法句經故事集 ,三~六、騷擾比丘的神祇 (偈 040)。

[MettFn03-13]

〔明法尊者註03-13〕 發臭的帝沙長老(Pūtigattatissatthera)身上首先長滿小疔,發膿發臭,同住者,沒人理會。佛陀預知他有證得阿羅漢果的潛能,親自去幫他燒熱水、洗滌。佛陀對他說︰「人死後,這身體無意識,將臥在地上,就像朽木一樣。」帝沙長老聞法後,就證得阿羅漢果,不久之後,也入滅了。佛陀說,帝沙長老在迦葉佛時是個殘酷的捕禽人,現在還有身體發臭的果報。最後,佛陀告誡諸比丘,出家為比丘,若不彼此照顧,誰會照顧你們?

Aciraṁ vat’ayaṁ kāyo paṭhaviṁ adhisessati chuddho apetaviññāṇo niratthaṁ va kaliṅgaraṁ.此句常為南傳佛教國家比丘為臨終者誦念的法句。

PS: 請參 法句經故事集 ,三~七、身體發臭的比丘 (偈 041)。

[MettFn03-14]

〔明法尊者註03-14〕 邪行 :micchāpaṇihitaṁ,不正行、邪道、惡業,在此指「瞋恚」。正行則指善業。

PS: 請參 法句經故事集 ,三~八、牧牛人難屠 (偈 042)。

[NandFn03-01]〔Nanda 校註03-01〕 請參 法句經故事集 ,三~三、智者應護持自己的心念 (偈 036)。
[NandFn03-02]〔Nanda 校註03-02〕 請參 法句經故事集 ,三~九、變性人 (偈 043)。
[NāradaFn03-01](Ven. Nārada 03-01) Citta is derived from the root cit, to think. The traditional interpretation of the term is "that which is aware of an object" (cinteti = vijānāti). Actually it is not that which thinks of an object as the term implies. If it could be said "it thinks" as one says in English "it rains", it would be more in consonance with the Buddha's teaching. From an ultimate standpoint citta may be defined as the awareness of an object, since Buddhism denies a subjective agent like a soul. According to Buddhism no distinction is made between mind and consciousness, terms which are used as equivalents for citta.
[NāradaFn03-02](Ven. Nārada 03-02) Pahātave is used in the sense of pahātabba = should be shunned.
[NāradaFn03-03](Ven. Nārada 03-03) Because no two thought moments arise at a particular time.
[NāradaFn03-04](Ven. Nārada 03-04) The imperceptible mind is immaterial and colourless.
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(Ven. Nārada 03-05) Guhāsayaṃ - i.e., the seat of consciousness. It is clear that the Buddha has not definitely assigned a specific basis for consciousness as He had done with the other senses. It was the cardiac theory (the theory that the heart is the seat of consciousness) that prevailed in His time, and this was evidently supported by the Upanishads. The Buddha could have adopted this popular theory, but He did not commit Himself. In the Paññhāna, the Book of Relations, the Buddha refers to the basis of consciousness in such indirect terms as yaṃ rūpaṃ nissāya, dependent on that material thing. What the material thing was the Buddha did not positively assert. According to the views of commentators like the Venerables Buddhaghosa and Anuruddha the seat of consciousness is the heart (hadayavatthu).

One wonders whether one is justified in presenting the cardiac theory as Buddhistic when the Buddha Himself neither rejected nor accepted this popular theory.

[NāradaFn03-06](Ven. Nārada 03-06) Namely: spiritual wisdom or insight.
[NāradaFn03-07](Ven. Nārada 03-07) The deeds of an Arahant, a perfect Saint, are neither good nor bad because he has gone beyond both good and evil. This does not mean that he is passive. He is active but his activity is selfless and is directed to help others to tread the path he has trod himself. His deeds, ordinarily accepted as good, lack creative power as regards himself in producing Kammic effects. He is not however exempt from the effects of his past actions. He accumulates no fresh kammic activities. Whatever actions he does, as an Arahant, are termed "inoperative" (kiriya), and are not regarded as Kamma. They are ethically ineffective. Understanding things as they truly are, he has finally shattered the cosmic chain of cause and effect.
[NāradaFn03-08](Ven. Nārada 03-08) It should not erroneously be understood that Arahants do not sleep. Whether asleep or awake they are regarded as sleepless or vigilant ones, since the five stimulating virtues - namely confidence (saddhā), energy (viriya), mindfulness (sati), concentration (samādhi), and wisdom (paññā) are ever present in them.
[NāradaFn03-09](Ven. Nārada 03-09) The passions.
[NāradaFn03-10](Ven. Nārada 03-10) By conquest is here meant the newly developed insight (vipassanā).
[NāradaFn03-11](Ven. Nārada 03-11) For the Jhānas (absorptions or ecstasies) which the aspirant has developed. The Jhānas are highly developed mental states obtained by intensified concentration.
[NāradaFn03-12](Ven. Nārada 03-12) Kaëingaraṃ, a rotten log which cannot be used for any purpose.
[NāradaFn03-13](Ven. Nārada 03-13) That is, the mind directed towards the ten kinds of evil - namely: 1. killing, 2. stealing, 3. sexual misconduct, 4. lying, 5. slandering, 6. harsh speech, 7. vain talk, 8. covetousness, 9. ill-will, and 10. false belief.
[NāradaFn03-14](Ven. Nārada 03-14) That is the mind directed towards the ten kinds of meritorious deeds (kusala) - namely: 1. generosity, 2. morality, 3. meditation, 4. reverence, 5. service, 6. transference of merit, 7. rejoicing in others' merit, 8. hearing the doctrine, 9. expounding the doctrine, and 10. straightening one's right views.
[BudRkFn-v39](Ven. Buddharakkhita v. 39) The arahant is said to be beyond both merit and demerit because, as he has abandoned all defilements, he can no longer perform evil actions; and as he has no more attachment, his virtuous actions no longer bear kammic fruit.
[ThaniSFn-V37](Ven. Thanissaro V. 37) "Lying in a cave": According to the Dhp Commentary (hereafter referred to as DhpA), "cave" here means the physical heart, as well as the four great properties — earth (solidity), water (liquidity), fire (heat), and wind (motion) — that make up the body. Sn 4.2 also compares the body to a cave.
[ThaniSFn-V39](Ven. Thanissaro V. 39) According to DhpA, "unsoddened mind" means one into which the rain of passion doesn't penetrate (see 13 and 14 ); "unassaulted awareness" means a mind not assaulted by anger. "Beyond merit & evil": The arahant is beyond merit and evil in that he/she has none of the mental defilements — passion, aversion, or delusion — that would lead to evil actions, and none of the attachments that would cause his/her actions to bear kammic fruit of any sort, good or bad.
[ThaniSFn-V40](Ven. Thanissaro V. 40) "Without settling there, without laying claim": two meanings of the word anivesano.
[ThaniSFn-V42](Ven. Thanissaro V. 42) AN 7.60 illustrates this point with seven ways that a person harms him/herself when angry, bringing on results that an enemy would wish: He/she becomes ugly, sleeps badly, mistakes profit for loss and loss for profit, loses wealth, loses his/her reputation, loses friends, and acts in such a way that — after death — he/she reappears in a bad rebirth.
[DLMBSFn-V033]

(DLMBS Commentary V033) Once the Buddha was staying on Cālika mountain. One of the monks, Meghiya Thera was attending upon him. This Thera saw a nice mango grove and asked the Buddha for permission to go there for meditation. But there were no other monks at that time and the Buddha needed an attendance. So he told Meghiya to wait for arrival of somebody else and then he could go.

But Meghiya wanted to go really badly, so he asked the Buddha again and again, until he got his permission. He went to the grove and started to meditate, only to find out that his mind was wandering. He stayed there the whole day, but made no progress.

In the evening he reported to the Buddha, how he was all the time assailed by thoughts associated with senses, ill will and cruelty. The Buddha told him the verses 33 and 34 and Meghiya attained Sotāpatti, the first stage on the way to awakenment.

[DLMBSFn-V034]

(DLMBS Commentary V034) The story for this verse is the same as for the previous one (DhP 33). Our mind is indeed wavering, writhing and difficult to restrain, like a snake or a young branch. An arrow maker making an arrow has to straighten it first; otherwise it would be a worthless arrow. In the same way, we have to straighten the mind; otherwise we cannot hit the goal with it.

When we want to leave Mara's realm, the world, the mind trembles and flickers just like a fish thrown on a dry ground, suddenly without its familiar surroundings, unable to relate to this new situation.

[DLMBSFn-V035]

(DLMBS Commentary V035) Sixty monks received their meditation subjects from the Buddha and they went to the village of Mātika. There the mother of the village headman, called Mātikamātā, built a monastery for them and gave them alms food regularly. So they decided to spend the Rain Retreat there. She asked them to teach her some Dharma and they taught her the 32 body parts and awareness of the body's decay. She practiced diligently and attained the third (last but one) stage of awakenment. She also attained some supernormal powers; she was able to read other people's minds. She used this power and saw that the sixty monks have not so far attained anything. She saw, that they all had potential for arahantship, but they needed proper food. So she gave them alms food and soon they all became arahants.

At the end of the retreat they went back to the Buddha and reported what happened. A certain monk decided to go to the same village. Mātikamātā personally came to the monastery and gave him alms food. He asked her about her supernormal powers, but she evaded this subject. He got scared that she will see his impure mind and left the village.

He told the Buddha about his fears, but the Buddha sent him back, telling him to control his mind under all circumstances. So the monk went back, thinking only about his meditation subject. Mātikamātā made sure that he had enough alms food and the monk too attained arahantship soon.

[DLMBSFn-V036]

(DLMBS Commentary V036) Once in the city of Sāvatthi, there lived a son of a banker. He asked a monk who came to his house for alms food, how to be liberated from the ills of life. The monk instructed him to divide his property into three parts. One he was to do business with, one to support his family, one for charity. The man did so and then asked what to do next. He was instructed to take refuge in the Buddha, Dharma and Sangha and to observe five precepts. But the man was still not satisfied. So the monk told him to renounce the world and to become a monk too.

As a monk he was taught Dharma by one teacher and Vinaya by another. Thus he felt that there was too much to learn, the rules were too strict and there was no freedom. He wanted to return to lay life. He began to have doubts, was discontent and unhappy, neglected his meditation. The Buddha told him that if he only could control his mind, he had nothing else to control. Then he told him this verse. The monk attained arahantship.

[DLMBSFn-V037]

(DLMBS Commentary V037) Saṅgharakkhita Thera was from the city of Sāvatthi. His sister gave birth to a son. People called him "The nephew Saṅgharakkhita". He also became a monk.

Once he was offered two sets of robes. He wanted to give one set to his uncle. So at the end of the retreat he went to see him, but his uncle did not want a robe, saying he had enough. The young man felt bad, thinking the uncle does not want to share with him. So he decided to leave the Order.

His mind began to wander and a train of thoughts appeared. When he became a layman he would sell his robes and buy a goat. The goat would breed quickly and soon he would have enough money to marry. His wife would give birth to a son. He would take his wife and son in a cart to see the uncle. On the way he would say he could carry the child. She would tell him to drive that she could carry the baby. But he will insist and grab the child. The child would fall down and the wheel would pass over him. He would get furious and hit his wife with the goading stick.

At that time he was fanning the Thera and absentmindedly hit him with the fan. His uncle said: "You were unable to beat your wife, why hit an old monk?" The young man was embarrassed and frightened of his uncle, so he fled. The monks chased him and took him to see the Buddha. He told him the verse and said that the mind has ability to think of objects far away and that one should strive for liberation. The young monk attained the first stage of awakenment.

[DLMBSFn-V038]

(DLMBS Commentary V038) A certain man from Sāvatthi was once looking for his ox lost in the forest. He got hungry so he went to a village monastery, where the monks gave him the remains of the morning meal. While eating, he realized that he was working hard every day, but did not even have enough food. What if he became a monk? So he asked the monks to grant him an ordination. As a monk he had plenty of food, soon he was quite fat.

After some time he grew tired of going for alms and so he decided to become a layman again. Later he again changed his mind, thinking the life too strenuous and became a monk. In this way he left the Order and came back six times.

While he was going back and forth, his wife became pregnant. Once he entered their bedroom when she was asleep. She was almost naked, snoring loudly, saliva trickling down the mouth. This and her bloated stomach made her look like a corpse. He was able to perceive impermanence and unpleasantness of the body. He was thinking that he was a monk for several times and only because of this woman he was not able to stay. So he left home for seventh time, repeating as he went the words "impermanence" and "suffering" and on the way to the monastery he attained the first stage of awakenment. But the monks did not want to permit him into the Order, joking: "You have been shaving your head so often, that it looks like a whetting stone." He asked once more and the monks granted him the ordination one last time. Within few days he attained arahantship.

The monks were surprised to see him staying so long, so they asked what happened. The man said he had no attachments any more, so why would he leave. But they did not believe him and asked the Buddha, who said it was the truth. The man was an arahant now, who discarded both the ideas of good and evil.

[DLMBSFn-V039]

(DLMBS Commentary V039) The story for this verse is identical with the previous one (DhP 38).

If the mind is unsteady, the confidence in the Teaching wavering and one is not really resolved to do anything about it, the wisdom will not grow. But with a strong conscientiousness and watchfulness, the mind can get rid of the passions and unsteadiness. Then one is able to abandon all the ideas of good and evil and become free, just like the man from our story did.

[DLMBSFn-V040]

(DLMBS Commentary V040) Our body is like a jar, very fragile. And our mind should be like a fortified city, guarded everywhere. The story for this verse says:

Five hundred monks from Sāvatthi received the meditation subjects and went far away to a large grove. The guardian spirits of the trees there saw that the monks came and decided that it would be impolite to stay in the trees. So they descended, thinking the monks will only stay one night. But they decided to spend the Rain retreat there. The spirits did not want to live on the ground so long, so they scared the monks by terrible sounds and ghostly images.

The monks ran away and told the Buddha what happened. He told them that they did not have any weapon, so they must be armed with loving kindness (Mettā). He then taught them the Mettā sutta. He further instructed them to recite the poem from the outskirts of the forest and enter the monastery still reciting. The monks did accordingly.

The spirits received their loving kindness, welcomed them and did them no harm. The monks meditated on the 32 parts of the body and realized its impermanence. The Buddha saw it from away, appeared in front of them, saying, yes, the body is like a jar. He also told them this verse (DhP 40). All five hundred monks became arahants.

[DLMBSFn-V041]

(DLMBS Commentary V041) There was a monk called Thera Tissa. He diligently meditated and had many students, but then he was afflicted with a disease. Small boils appeared all over his body, and then big sores developed from them. Later sores burst, emitting pus and blood; his robes became dirty and stinky. The monks called him Pūtigatatissa, Tissa with stinking body. They kept away from him, even his pupils abandoned him, and nobody would go near him.

The Buddha saw his sorrowful state, saw that he would soon die, but that he could also attain arahantship very quickly. So the Buddha went to the fire-shed close to the place, where the Thera was living. He boiled some water, went to the monk's room and started to carry him out. Other monks also gathered and helped him to carry the sick Thera out. They brought him to the fire-shed, bathed him and washed his robes.

After taking the bath, the monk became fresh in body and mind, he developed one-pointedness and concentration. The Buddha then related this verse (DhP 41) and Thera Tissa became an arahant immediately. Soon after that he passed away.

[DLMBSFn-V042]

(DLMBS Commentary V042) In the country of Kosala there once lived a herdsman named Nanda. He looked after the cows of the famous benefactor Anāthapiṇḍika. Sometimes he would go to Anāthapiṇḍika's house and listen to the Buddha's discourses. Once Nanda asked the Buddha to come to his house for alms food. The Buddha replied that he would come, but the time is not yet right and Nanda should wait.

After some time the Buddha was traveling and went off his usual route to see Nanda, because he knew that the time for him to do so was ripe. Nanda received him, served the Buddha and monks milk and milk products and all kinds of food. This lasted for seven days. On the last day after hearing the Buddha's discourse, Nanda attained the first stage of awakenment.

When the Buddha was leaving, Nanda carried his bowl for him some distance and then turned back home. Suddenly a hunter, his old enemy, shot him. The monks saw Nanda laying dead on the road. They told the Buddha that because of them, because they came to his house and he was accompanying them, Nanda died. But the Buddha said that there was no escape from death for him. And he told the monks this verse (DhP 42).

[DLMBSFn-V043]

(DLMBS Commentary V043) In the city of Soreyya, there once lived a son of rich man. His name was also Soreyya. Once he was going with friend in a luxurious carriage to take a bath. They saw Mahākaccāyana Thera adjusting his robe before he entered Soreyya to get his alms food. Soreyya said: "I wish the monk was my wife, or my wife had a complexion like he has!" With that he changed to a woman. He was ashamed and ran away and began to travel to the city of Taxila. His friend was looking for him everywhere, but did not find any trace.

Soreyya (now woman) offered her ring to some people, going to Taxila, and they took her with them in a carriage. When they got there, the people told one young rich man about the beautiful girl who came with them to the city. The man married her. She gave birth to two sons, but also had two sons from the previous marriage as a man.

Once a merchant from Soreyya came to Taxila to do some business. She sent for him, because she recognized an old friend in him. But of course, he did not know who she was. She asked many questions about her old family and other friends. The man related to her the story about the disappeared man. She revealed her identity and told him all what happened. The man advised her to ask pardon from the Thera.

Mahākaccāyana was invited to her house and she offered him alms food. The lady explained what happened and asked for pardon. The Thera said: "Get up, I forgive you." With that she became a man again.

But he kept thinking how during a single life his body could undergo two changes of sex and have children both as a man and as a woman. He felt these things were very repulsive and decided to leave the lay life.

People often asked him if he loved more the two sons he had as a man or the two sons he had as a woman. He always answered that the sons whom he (as a woman) personally delivered were closer to him. People asked him this question so often that he became ashamed and annoyed. He stayed by himself, diligently meditating on the decay of the body. Soon he attained arahantship. When people again asked him the same question, he said he had no affection for any one in particular.

Others thought he does not speak the truth, so they asked the Buddha about it. But he told them that Soreyya does not lie. Now he is an arahant, his well directed mind brought him a well being which neither the father nor the mother could bestow on him.



巴利文經典最突出的特點,同時也是缺乏同情心的讀者最感厭倦的特點,就是單字、語句和整段文節的重複。這一部分是文法或至少是文體所產生的結果。 …,…,…,

…,…,…, 這種文句冗長的特性,另外還有一個原因,那就是在長時期中三藏經典只以口授相傳。 …,…,…,

…,…,…, 巴利文經典令人生厭的機械性的重覆敘述,也可能一部分是由於僧伽羅人(Sinhalese)不願遺失外國傳教師傳授給他們的聖語 …,…,…,

…,…,…, 重覆敘述不僅是說教記錄的特點,而且也是說教本身的特點。我們持有的版本,無疑地是把一段自由說教壓縮成為編有號碼的段落和重覆敘述的產品。佛陀所說的話一定比這些生硬的表格更為活潑柔軟得多。

(節錄自: 巴利系佛教史綱 第六章 聖典 二 摘錄 )