namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa

皈敬世尊、阿羅漢、正等正覺者


長部16經 大般涅槃經 整部多譯本對讀


《大般涅槃經》多譯本對讀(分章) Content of Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ
第一頌 第二頌 第三頌 第四頌 第五頌 第六頌
在摩揭陀國 遊化至毘舍離 捨壽 世尊最後一餐 在拘尸那羅 大般涅槃
In Māgadha The Journey to Vesali Relinquishing the Will to Live The Last Meal At Kusinara The Blessed One's Final Exhortation

目錄


本對讀包含下列數個版本,請自行勾選欲對讀之版本 (感恩 Siong-Ui Te 師兄 提供程式支援):

  • 第一頌(第一章)
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 131
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ
  1. Evaṃ me sutaṃ – ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā rājagahe viharati gijjhakūṭe pabbate. Tena kho pana samayena rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto vajjī abhiyātukāmo hoti. So evamāha – ‘‘ahaṃ hime vajjī evaṃmahiddhike evaṃmahānubhāve ucchecchāmi ucchejjāmi (syā. pī.), ucchijjāmi (ka.) vajjī, vināsessāmi vajjī, anayabyasanaṃ āpādessāmi vajjī’’ti āpādessāmi vajjīti (sabbattha) a. ni. 7.22 passitabbaṃ.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 般涅槃大經 (長部16經/大品[第二],莊春江譯)
  1. 我聽到這樣[CFn001]

有一次[CFn002] ,世尊住在王舍城耆闍崛山[CFn003]

當時,摩揭陀國阿闍世王 韋提希子想要攻打跋耆,他這麼說:

「我要滅絕這些這麼大神通力[CFn004] 、這麼大威力的跋耆,我要使跋耆滅亡,我要帶給跋耆人不幸與厄運。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 大般湼槃經
  1. 1.這是我所聽見的:

有一次,世尊住在王舍城靈鷲山。

這時候,摩揭陀王阿闍世.韋提希子[SFn01] 想攻打跋祇。他說:“我要鏟除這個強大的跋祇,我要摧毀跋祇,我要使跋祇永無寧日。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

南傳大般涅槃經

第一章

  1. 01 如是我聞,一時薄伽梵住在王舍城靈鷲山峰。爾時摩竭陀阿闍世王––韋提希之子立意 欲征伐越祗人,彼自念言:「我將摧毀越祗人使之根絕種滅,雖然說彼等是很強盛」。
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

The Discourse about the Great Emancipation

A Translation of Mahāparinibbānasutta (DN 16)

The First Chapter for Recitation

1: King Ajātasattu

  1. Thus I heard:

At one time the Gracious One was living near Rājagaha on the Vultures' Peak Mountain.[AFn001]

Now at that time the Magadhan King Ajātasattu,[AFn002] the son of Lady Wisdom, had a desire to attack the Vajjians.[AFn003] He said this: “I will annihilate these Vajjians, who are so successful, so powerful, I will destroy the Vajjians, I will bring about the downfall and destruction of the Vajjians”.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ

Maha-parinibbana Sutta: Last Days of the Buddha

Part One: In Magadha

  1. 1. Thus have I heard. Once the Blessed One[VFn01] dwelt at Rajagaha, on the hill called Vultures' Peak. At that time the king of Magadha, Ajatasattu, son of the Videhi queen,[VFn02] desired to wage war against the Vajjis. He spoke in this fashion: "These Vajjis, powerful and glorious as they are, I shall annihilate them, I shall make them perish, I shall utterly destroy them."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 132
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto vassakāraṃ brāhmaṇaṃ magadhamahāmattaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘ehi tvaṃ, brāhmaṇa, yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkama; upasaṅkamitvā mama vacanena bhagavato pāde sirasā vandāhi, appābādhaṃ appātaṅkaṃ lahuṭṭhānaṃ balaṃ phāsuvihāraṃ puccha – ‘rājā, bhante, māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto bhagavato pāde sirasā vandati, appābādhaṃ appātaṅkaṃ lahuṭṭhānaṃ balaṃ phāsuvihāraṃ pucchatī’ti. Evañca vadehi – ‘rājā, bhante, māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto vajjī abhiyātukāmo. So evamāha – ‘‘ahaṃ hime vajjī evaṃmahiddhike evaṃmahānubhāve ucchecchāmi vajjī, vināsessāmi vajjī, anayabyasanaṃ āpādessāmī’’’ti. Yathā te bhagavā byākaroti, taṃ sādhukaṃ uggahetvā mama āroceyyāsi. Na hi tathāgatā vitathaṃ bhaṇantī’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,摩揭陀國阿闍世王韋提希子召喚摩揭陀國大臣作雨者婆羅門[CFn005]

「來!婆羅門!請你去見世尊。抵達後,請你以我的名義以頭禮拜世尊的足[CFn006] ,請詢問〔是否〕無病、健康、輕快、有力、樂住[CFn007] 〔並且說〕:『大德!摩揭陀國阿闍世王韋提希子以頭禮拜世尊的足,他詢問〔你是否〕無病、健康、輕快、有力、樂住。』並且請你這麼說:『大德!摩揭陀國阿闍世王韋提希子想要攻打跋耆,他這麼說:「我要滅絕這些這麼大神通力、這麼大威力的跋耆,我要使跋耆滅亡,我要帶給跋耆不幸與厄運。」』你徹底地學得世尊的回答後,〔回來〕向我報告,因為諸如來[CFn008] 都不說不實的。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 2.於是,摩揭陀王阿闍世.韋提希子吩咐大臣雨行婆羅門: “婆羅門,來吧,你前往世尊那裏,用我的名義頂禮世尊雙足,問候世尊,問他是否無疾、無病、輕快、強健、安穩地生活。還有,你這樣說: ‘大德,摩揭陀王阿闍世.韋提希子想攻打跋祇。他說要鏟除這個強大的跋祇,摧毀跋祇,使跋祇永無寧日。’ 當世尊對攻打跋祇的事情向你作出預言後,好好記著它,然後回來告訴我。如來一定不會說不真實的話。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 02 於是他告摩竭陀宰相瓦沙卡羅說:「來,婆羅門,你去薄伽梵處稱我名頂禮佛足,問其少 病少惱,健愉輕安否?你白佛言:『世尊,摩竭陀阿闍世王頂禮佛足,並問候世尊少病少惱, 健愉輕安否?』又說:『世尊,摩竭陀阿闍世王立意欲征伐越祗人,他曾說:『我將摧毀越祗 人使之根絕種滅,雖然說彼等是很強盛。』凡薄伽梵所指示者應善憶念,轉述於我,因為如 來是不語虛妄。」
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then the Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom,[AFn004] addressed the Magadhan chief minister the brahmin Vassakāra, (saying):[AFn005]

“Go, brahmin, and approach the Gracious One, and after approaching worship the Gracious One's feet in my name, and ask whether he is free from sickness, free from illness, in good health, and living comfortably, (and say): ‘The Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, reverend Sir, worships with his head at the Gracious One's feet, and asks whether you are free from sickness, free from illness, in good health, and living comfortably.’

And say this: ‘The Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, reverend Sir, desires to attack the Vajjians. He says this: “I will annihilate these Vajjians, who are so successful, so powerful, I will destroy the Vajjians, I will bring about the downfall and destruction of the Vajjians.” And just what the Gracious One says to you, after learning it well, you must inform me, for the Realised Ones do not speak falsely.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 2.And Ajatasattu, the king of Magadha, addressed his chief minister, the brahman Vassakara, saying: "Come, brahman, go to the Blessed One, pay homage in my name at his feet, wish him good health, strength, ease, vigour, and comfort, and speak thus: 'O Lord, Ajatasattu, the king of Magadha, desires to wage war against the Vajjis. He has spoken in this fashion: "These Vajjis, powerful and glorious as they are, I shall annihilate them, I shall make them perish, I shall utterly destroy them."' And whatever the Blessed One should answer you, keep it well in mind and inform me; for Tathagatas[VFn03] do not speak falsely."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 133
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Vassakārabrāhmaṇo

  1. ‘‘Evaṃ, bho’’ti kho vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto rañño māgadhassa ajātasattussa vedehiputtassa paṭissutvā bhaddāni bhaddāni yānāni yojetvā bhaddaṃ bhaddaṃ yānaṃ abhiruhitvā bhaddehi bhaddehi yānehi rājagahamhā niyyāsi, yena gijjhakūṭo pabbato tena pāyāsi. Yāvatikā yānassa bhūmi, yānena gantvā, yānā paccorohitvā pattikova yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘rājā, bho gotama, māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto bhoto gotamassa pāde sirasā vandati, appābādhaṃ appātaṅkaṃ lahuṭṭhānaṃ balaṃ phāsuvihāraṃ pucchati. Rājā evañca vadeti rājā (ka.), bho gotama, māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto vajjī abhiyātukāmo. So evamāha – ‘ahaṃ hime vajjī evaṃmahiddhike evaṃmahānubhāve ucchecchāmi vajjī, vināsessāmi vajjī, anayabyasanaṃ āpādessāmī’’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

作雨者婆羅門

  1. 「是的,先生[CFn009] !」摩揭陀國大臣作雨者婆羅門回答摩揭陀國阿闍世王韋提希子後,令一輛輛吉祥車上軛後,登上一輛吉祥車,一輛輛吉祥車從王舍城出發,往耆闍崛山前進,以車輛一直到車輛能通行之處,然後下車步行,去見世尊。抵達後,與世尊互相歡迎。歡迎與寒暄後,在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,摩揭陀國大臣作雨者婆羅門對世尊這麼說:

「喬達摩[CFn010] 先生!摩揭陀國阿闍世王韋提希子以頭禮拜喬達摩先生的足,他詢問〔你是否〕無病、健康、輕快、有力、樂住。喬達摩先生!摩揭陀國阿闍世王韋提希子想要攻打跋耆,而且他這麼說:『我要滅絕這些這麼大神通力、這麼大威力的跋耆,我要使跋耆滅亡,我要帶給跋耆不幸與厄運。』」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3] 133. 3. “大王,遵命。” 大臣雨行婆羅門回答摩揭陀王阿闍世.韋提希子後,便吩咐安排多部車輛,他登上其中一部,和其他車輛一起從王舍城出發,前往靈鷲山。車輛到了車路的盡頭時,他下車徒步走到世尊那裏,和世尊互相問候,作了一番悅意的交談,然後坐在一邊。摩揭陀大臣雨行婆羅門對世尊說:“喬答摩賢者,摩揭陀王阿闍世.韋提希子頂禮喬答摩賢者雙足,問世尊是否無疾、無病、輕快、強健、安穩地生活。喬答摩賢者,摩揭陀王阿闍世.韋提希子想攻打跋祇。他說要鏟除這個強大的跋祇,摧毀跋祇,使跋祇永無寧日。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 03 「誠然」,摩竭陀宰相瓦沙卡羅回答說。他下令準備好許多輛精美車乘,自己坐上一輛車, 與其侍從離開王舍城進向靈鷲山峰。凡可通車的地方皆以車行,後乃下車步行去到佛陀的住 處,到已,同佛陀互敘寒暄及問候起居,就座其側以後,摩竭陀宰相瓦沙卡羅白佛言:「世尊,摩竭陀阿闍世王––韋提希之子,頂禮佛足,並問候慈座少病少惱,健愉輕安否?彼立意欲征伐越祗人,他曾說:『我將摧毀越祗人使之根絕種滅,雖然說彼等是很強盛』」
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. “Very well, dear Sir,” and the Magadhan chief minister the brahmin Vassakāra, after replying to the Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, and having (many) great and august vehicles prepared, and mounting (those) great and august vehicles, departed with those great and august vehicles from Rājagaha, and after approaching by vehicle to the Vultures' Peak Mountain as far as the ground for vehicles (would allow), and descending from the vehicles, he approached the Gracious One by foot, and after approaching, he exchanged greetings with the Gracious One, and after exchanging courteous talk and greetings, he sat down on one side. While sitting on one side, the Magadhan chief minister the brahmin Vassakāra said this to the Gracious One:

“The Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, dear Gotama, worships with his head at dear Gotama's feet, and asks whether you are free from sickness, free from illness, in good health, and living comfortably.[AFn006]

The Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, dear Gotama, desires to attack the Vajjians. He says this: ‘I will annihilate these Vajjians, who are so successful, so powerful, I will destroy the Vajjians, I will bring about the downfall and destruction of the Vajjians’ ”.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 3."Very well, sire," said the brahman Vassakara in assent to Ajatasattu, king of Magadha. And he ordered a large number of magnificent carriages to be made ready, mounted one himself, and accompanied by the rest, drove out to Rajagaha towards Vultures' Peak. He went by carriage as far as the carriage could go, then dismounting, he approached the Blessed One on foot. After exchanging courteous greetings with the Blessed One, together with many pleasant words, he sat down at one side and addressed the Blessed One thus: "Venerable Gotama, Ajatasattu, the king of Magadha, pays homage at the feet of the Venerable Gotama and wishes him good health, strength, ease, vigour, and comfort. He desires to wage war against the Vajjis, and he has spoken in this fashion: 'These Vajjis, powerful and glorious as they are, I shall annihilate them, I shall make them perish, I shall utterly destroy them.'"
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 134-1
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Rājaaparihāniyadhammā

  1. Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā ānando bhagavato piṭṭhito ṭhito hoti bhagavantaṃ bījayamāno vījayamāno (sī.), vījiyamāno (syā.). Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘kinti te, ānanda, sutaṃ, ‘vajjī abhiṇhaṃ sannipātā sannipātabahulā’ti? ‘‘Sutaṃ metaṃ, bhante – ‘vajjī abhiṇhaṃ sannipātā sannipātabahulā’’ti. ‘‘Yāvakīvañca, ānanda, vajjī abhiṇhaṃ sannipātā sannipātabahulā bhavissanti, vuddhiyeva, ānanda, vajjīnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

國王-不衰退法

  1. 當時,尊者[CFn011] 阿難站在世尊背後為世尊搧著風。那時,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「阿難!你是否聽聞:『跋耆人有經常的集合、時常的集合嗎?』」

「大德!這被我聽聞:『跋耆人有經常的集合、時常的集合。』」

「阿難!只要跋耆人有經常的集合、時常的集合,阿難!跋耆的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 4.這時候,阿難尊者站在世尊背後為世尊扇涼。於是,世尊對阿難尊者說: “阿難,你有沒有聽說,跋祇人常常集會,定期集會呢?” “大德,我聽說跋祇人常常集會,定期集會。” “阿難,只要跋祇人常常集會,定期集會;他們便將日益強盛,不會衰退。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 04 爾時尊者阿難立於佛後用扇扇佛。薄伽梵語尊者阿難說:

「阿難,你是否聽聞越祗人常相集會?」

「我聽聞越祗人常相集會,世尊。」

「阿難,當越祗人仍常相集會,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

2: Seven Things which Prevent Decline in the Vajjians[AFn007]

  1. Now at that time venerable Ānanda was stood behind the Gracious One fanning the Gracious One.[AFn008] Then the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying):[AFn009]

1) “Have you heard, Ānanda: ‘The Vajjians assemble regularly and assemble frequently?’ ”[AFn010] “I have heard this, reverend Sir: ‘The Vajjians assemble regularly and assemble frequently.’ ” “For as long, Ānanda, as the Vajjians will assemble regularly and assemble frequently surely growth, Ānanda, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Conditions of a Nation's Welfare

  1. 4.At that time the Venerable Ananda[VFn04] was standing behind the Blessed One, fanning him, and the Blessed One addressed the Venerable Ananda thus: "What have you heard, Ananda: do the Vajjis have frequent gatherings, and are their meetings well attended?"

"I have heard, Lord, that this is so."

"So long, Ananda, as this is the case, the growth of the Vajjis is to be expected, not their decline.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 134-2
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1] ‘‘Kinti te, ānanda, sutaṃ , ‘vajjī samaggā sannipatanti, samaggā vuṭṭhahanti, samaggā vajjikaraṇīyāni karontī’ti? ‘‘Sutaṃ metaṃ, bhante – ‘vajjī samaggā sannipatanti, samaggā vuṭṭhahanti, samaggā vajjikaraṇīyāni karontī’’ti. ‘‘Yāvakīvañca, ānanda, vajjī samaggā sannipatissanti, samaggā vuṭṭhahissanti, samaggā vajjikaraṇīyāni karissanti, vuddhiyeva, ānanda, vajjīnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

「阿難!你是否聽聞:『跋耆人和合地集合、和合地結束、和合地作跋耆人應該做的事嗎?』」

「大德!這被我聽聞:『跋耆人和合地集合、和合地結束、和合地作跋耆人應該做的事。』」

「阿難!只要跋耆人和合地集合、和合地結束、和合地作跋耆人應該做的事,阿難!跋耆的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3] “阿難,你有沒有聽說,跋祇人和洽地集會,和洽地散會,和洽地處理跋祇人的事情呢?” “大德,我聽說跋祇人和洽地集會,和洽地散會,和洽地處理跋祇人的事情。” “阿難,只要跋祇人和洽地集會,和洽地散會,和洽地處理跋祇人的事情;他們便將日益強盛,不會衰退。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

阿難,你是否聽聞越祗 人是一心一德相會、相起及相負責任?」

「我聽聞越祗人是一心一德相會、相起及相負責任,世尊。」

「阿難,當越祗人仍是一心一德相會、相起及相負責任,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5] 2) Have you heard, Ānanda: ‘The Vajjians assemble unanimously, rise unanimously, and carry out their Vajjian duties unanimously?’ ” “I have heard this, reverend Sir, that the Vajjians assemble unanimously, rise unanimously, and carry out their Vajjian duties unanimously.” “For as long, Ānanda, as the Vajjians will assemble unanimously, rise unanimously, and carry out their Vajjian duties unanimously, surely growth, Ānanda, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

"What have you heard, Ananda: do the Vajjis assemble and disperse peacefully and attend to their affairs in concord?"

"I have heard, Lord, that they do."

"So long, Ananda, as this is the case, the growth of the Vajjis is to be expected, not their decline.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 134-3
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1] ‘‘Kinti te, ānanda, sutaṃ, ‘vajjī apaññattaṃ na paññapenti, paññattaṃ na samucchindanti, yathāpaññatte porāṇe vajjidhamme samādāya vattantī’’’ti? ‘‘Sutaṃ metaṃ, bhante – ‘vajjī apaññattaṃ na paññapenti, paññattaṃ na samucchindanti, yathāpaññatte porāṇe vajjidhamme samādāya vattantī’’’ti. ‘‘Yāvakīvañca, ānanda, ‘‘vajjī apaññattaṃ na paññapessanti, paññattaṃ na samucchindissanti, yathāpaññatte porāṇe vajjidhamme samādāya vattissanti, vuddhiyeva, ānanda, vajjīnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

「阿難!你是否聽聞:『跋耆人不安立[CFn012] 沒被安立的,不斷絕已被安立的,依往昔跋耆人所安立的法受持後轉起[CFn013] 嗎?』」

「大德!這被我聽聞:『跋耆人不安立沒被安立的,不斷絕已被安立的,依往昔跋耆人所安立的法受持後轉起。』」

「阿難!只要跋耆人不安立沒被安立的,不斷絕已被安立的,依往昔跋耆人所安立的法受持後轉起,阿難!跋耆的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3] “阿難,你有沒有聽說,跋祇人不訂新的法規,不廢除固有的法規,遵守和奉行傳統的跋祇律法呢?” “大德,我聽說跋祇人不訂新的法規,不廢除固有的法規,遵守和奉行傳統的跋祇律法。” “阿難,只要跋祇人不訂新的法規,不廢除固有的法規,遵守和奉行傳統的跋祇律法;他們便將日益強盛,不會衰退。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

阿難,你是否聽聞越祗人凡有所作為皆依照越祗古昔所傳制度,而是未興者不興,已興者不廢?」

「世尊,我聽聞越祗人凡有所作為皆依照越祗古昔所傳制度,是未興者不興,已興者不廢。」

「阿難,當越祗人凡有所作為皆依照越祗古昔所傳制度,仍是未興者不興,已興者不廢, 則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5] 3) Have you heard, Ānanda: ‘The Vajjians do not establish (new) laws that were not established, (or) cut off (old) laws that were established, and carry on with such laws as were accepted in the Ancient Vajjian Constitution?’ ” “I have heard this, reverend Sir: ‘The Vajjians do not establish (new) laws that were not established, (or) cut off (old) laws that were established, and they carry on with such laws as were accepted in the Ancient Vajjian Constitution.’ ” “For as long, Ānanda, as the Vajjians do not establish (new) laws that were not established, (or) cut off (old) laws that were established, and they carry on with such laws as were accepted in the Ancient Vajjian Constitution surely growth, Ānanda, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

"What have you heard, Ananda: do the Vajjis neither enact new decrees nor abolish existing ones, but proceed in accordance with their ancient constitutions?" "I have heard, Lord, that they do."

"So long, Ananda, as this is the case, the growth of the Vajjis is to be expected, not their decline.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 134-4
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1] ‘‘Kinti te, ānanda, sutaṃ, ‘vajjī ye te vajjīnaṃ vajjimahallakā, te sakkaronti garuṃ karonti garukaronti (sī. syā. pī.) mānenti pūjenti, tesañca sotabbaṃ maññantī’’’ti? ‘‘Sutaṃ metaṃ, bhante – ‘vajjī ye te vajjīnaṃ vajjimahallakā, te sakkaronti garuṃ karonti mānenti pūjenti, tesañca sotabbaṃ maññantī’’’ti. ‘‘Yāvakīvañca, ānanda, vajjī ye te vajjīnaṃ vajjimahallakā , te sakkarissanti garuṃ karissanti mānessanti pūjessanti, tesañca sotabbaṃ maññissanti, vuddhiyeva, ānanda, vajjīnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

「阿難!你是否聽聞:『跋耆人恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬那些跋耆的跋耆大老,並且認為應該聽他們的嗎?』」

「大德!這被我聽聞:『跋耆人恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬那些跋耆的跋耆大老,並且認為應該聽他們的。』」

「阿難!只要跋耆人恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬那些跋耆的跋耆大老,並且認為應該聽他們的,阿難!跋耆的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3] “阿難,你有沒有聽說,跋祇人照料、恭敬、尊重、供養跋祇的長者,聽從長者的教誨呢?” “大德,我聽說跋祇人照料、恭敬、尊重、供養跋祇的長者,聽從長者的教誨。” “阿難,只要跋祇人照料、恭敬、尊重、供養跋祇的長者,聽從長者的教誨;他們便將日益強盛,不會衰退。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

阿難,你是否聽聞越祗人恭敬尊奉其年長者並接受其忠告?」

「我聽聞越祗人恭敬尊奉其年長者並接受其忠告,世尊。」

「阿難,當越祗人仍恭敬尊奉其年長者並接受其忠告,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5] 4) Have you heard, Ānanda: ‘The Vajjians honour the elders of the Vajjians, respect, revere, worship and think them worth listening to?’ ” “I have heard this, reverend Sir: ‘The Vajjians honour the elders of the Vajjians, respect, revere, worship and think them worth listening to.’ ” “For as long, Ānanda, as the Vajjians will honour the elders of the Vajjians, respect, revere, worship and think them worth listening to, surely growth, Ānanda, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

"What have you heard, Ananda: do the Vajjis show respect, honor, esteem, and veneration towards their elders and think it worthwhile to listen to them?"

"I have heard, Lord, that they do."

"So long, Ananda, as this is the case, the growth of the Vajjis is to be expected, not their decline.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 134-5
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1] ‘‘Kinti te, ānanda, sutaṃ, ‘vajjī yā tā kulitthiyo kulakumāriyo, tā na okkassa pasayha vāsentī’’’ti? ‘‘Sutaṃ metaṃ, bhante – ‘vajjī yā tā kulitthiyo kulakumāriyo tā na okkassa pasayha vāsentī’’’ti. ‘‘Yāvakīvañca, ānanda, vajjī yā tā kulitthiyo kulakumāriyo, tā na okkassa pasayha vāsessanti, vuddhiyeva, ānanda, vajjīnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

阿難!你是否聽聞:『跋耆人不對良家婦人、良家少女強拉後強迫同居嗎?』」

「大德!這被我聽聞:『跋耆人不對良家婦人、良家少女強拉後強迫同居。』」

「阿難!只要跋耆人不對良家婦人、良家少女強拉後強迫同居,阿難!跋耆的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3] “阿難,你有沒有聽說,跋祇人不讓婦女生活在暴力威脅之中呢?” “大德,我聽說跋祇人不讓婦女生活在暴力威脅之中。” “阿難,只要跋祇人不讓婦女生活在暴力威脅之中;他們便將日益強盛,不會衰退。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

阿難,你是否聽聞過越祗人不誘迫其本族的婦女與之同居?」

「我聽聞越祗人不誘迫其本族的婦女與之同居,世尊。」

「阿難,當越祗人仍不誘迫其本族的婦女與之同居,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5] 5) Have you heard, Ānanda: ‘The Vajjians do not coerce and force their women and girls to dwell (with them) against their will?’ ”[AFn011] “I have heard this, reverend Sir: ‘The Vajjians do not coerce and force their women and girls to dwell (with them) against their will.’ ” “For as long, Ānanda, as the Vajjians will not coerce and force their women and girls to dwell (with them) against their will, surely growth, Ānanda, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

"What have you heard, Ananda: do the Vajjis refrain from abducting women and maidens of good families and from detaining them?"

"I have heard, Lord, that they refrain from doing so."

"So long, Ananda, as this is the case, the growth of the Vajjis is to be expected, not their decline.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 134-6
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1] ‘‘Kinti te, ānanda, sutaṃ, ‘vajjī yāni tāni Vajjīnaṃ vajjicetiyāni abbhantarāni ceva bāhirāni ca, tāni sakkaronti garuṃ karonti mānenti pūjenti, tesañca dinnapubbaṃ katapubbaṃ dhammikaṃ baliṃ no parihāpentī’’’ti? ‘‘Sutaṃ metaṃ, bhante – ‘vajjī yāni tāni vajjīnaṃ vajjicetiyāni abbhantarāni ceva bāhirāni ca, tāni sakkaronti garuṃ karonti mānenti pūjenti tesañca dinnapubbaṃ katapubbaṃ dhammikaṃ baliṃ no parihāpentī’’’ti. ‘‘Yāvakīvañca, ānanda, vajjī yāni tāni vajjīnaṃ vajjicetiyāni abbhantarāni ceva bāhirāni ca, tāni sakkarissanti garuṃ karissanti mānessanti pūjessanti, tesañca dinnapubbaṃ katapubbaṃ dhammikaṃ baliṃ no parihāpessanti, vuddhiyeva, ānanda, vajjīnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

「阿難!你是否聽聞:『跋耆人恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬那些跋耆的跋耆塔廟[CFn014] ,〔不論〕內部與外部,不使先前所施與、先前所作合法的供物衰損嗎?』」

「大德!這被我聽聞:『跋耆人恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬那些跋耆的跋耆塔廟,〔不論〕內部與外部,不使先前所施與、先前所作合法的供物衰損。』」

「阿難!只要跋耆人恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬那些跋耆的跋耆塔廟,〔不論〕內部與外部,不使先前所施與、先前所作合法的供物衰損,阿難!跋耆的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3] “阿難,你有沒有聽說,跋祇人照料、恭敬、尊重、供養跋祇所有的寺廟,布施不斷,建設不斷呢?” “大德,我聽說跋祇人照料、恭敬、尊重、供養跋祇所有的寺廟,布施不斷,建設不斷。” “阿難,只要跋祇人照料、恭敬、尊重、供養跋祇所有的寺廟,布施不斷,建設不斷;他們便將日益強盛,不會衰退。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

阿 難,你是否聽聞越祗人恭敬尊奉其城巿或鄉鎮的神舍,不廢棄往昔所規定,所遵行的正當祭獻?」

「我聽聞越祗人恭敬尊奉其城巿或鄉鎮的神舍,不廢棄往昔所規定,所遵行的正當祭獻, 世尊。」

「阿難,當越祗人仍恭敬尊奉其城巿或鄉鎮的神舍,不廢棄往昔所規定,所遵行的正當 祭獻,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5] 6) Have you heard, Ānanda: ‘The Vajjians honour the Vajjian shrines amongst the Vajjians, both within and without (the city), respect, revere, and worship (them), and do not allow the righteous sacrifices that were formerly given, formerly made, to be neglected?’ ” “I have heard this, reverend Sir: ‘The Vajjians honour the Vajjian shrines amongst the Vajjians, both within and without (the city), respect, revere, and worship (them), and do not allow the righteous sacrifices that were formerly given, formerly made, to be neglected.” “For as long, Ānanda, as the Vajjians will honour the Vajjian shrines amongst the Vajjians, both within and without (the city), respect, revere, and worship (them), and do not allow the righteous sacrifices that were formerly given, formerly made, to be neglected surely growth, Ānanda, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline.[AFn012]
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

"What have you heard, Ananda: do the Vajjis show respect, honor, esteem, and veneration towards their shrines, both those within the city and those outside it, and do not deprive them of the due offerings as given and made to them formerly?"

"I have heard, Lord, that they do venerate their shrines, and that they do not deprive them of their offerings."

"So long, Ananda, as this is the case, the growth of the Vajjis is to be expected, not their decline.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 134-7
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1] ‘‘Kinti te, ānanda, sutaṃ, ‘vajjīnaṃ arahantesu dhammikā rakkhāvaraṇagutti susaṃvihitā, kinti anāgatā ca arahanto vijitaṃ āgaccheyyuṃ, āgatā ca arahanto vijite phāsu vihareyyu’’’nti? ‘‘Sutaṃ metaṃ, bhante ‘vajjīnaṃ arahantesu dhammikā rakkhāvaraṇagutti susaṃvihitā kinti anāgatā ca arahanto vijitaṃ āgaccheyyuṃ, āgatā ca arahanto vijite phāsu vihareyyu’’’nti. ‘‘Yāvakīvañca, ānanda, vajjīnaṃ arahantesu dhammikā rakkhāvaraṇagutti susaṃvihitā bhavissati, kinti anāgatā ca arahanto vijitaṃ āgaccheyyuṃ, āgatā ca arahanto vijite phāsu vihareyyunti. Vuddhiyeva, ānanda, vajjīnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihānī’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

「阿難!你是否聽聞:『跋耆人對阿羅漢[CFn015] 如法地善安排守護、防護、保護〔以考量〕:是否未來過的阿羅漢會來跋耆,已來過的阿羅漢會在跋耆安樂地居住嗎?』」

「大德!這被我聽聞:『跋耆人對阿羅漢如法地善安排守護、防護、保護〔以考量〕:是否未來過的阿羅漢會來跋耆,已來過的阿羅漢會在跋耆安樂地居住。』」

「阿難!只要跋耆人對阿羅漢如法地善安排守護、防護、保護〔以考量〕:是否未來過的阿羅漢會來跋耆,已來過的阿羅漢會在跋耆安樂地居住,阿難!跋耆的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3] “阿難,你有沒有聽說,跋祇人有一套完善的律法保護、照顧阿羅漢,目的是吸引國外的阿羅漢來本國,及使本國的阿羅漢能夠安穩地生活呢?” “大德,我聽說跋祇人有一套完善的律法保護、照顧阿羅漢,目的是吸引國外的阿羅漢來本國,及使本國的阿羅漢能夠安穩地生活。” “阿難,只要跋祇人有一套完善的律法保護、照顧阿羅漢,目的是吸引國外的阿羅漢來本國,及使本國的阿羅漢能夠安穩地生活;他們便將日益強盛,不會衰退。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

阿難,你是否聽聞越祗人對諸阿羅漢有適當的保護, 防衛及供養,其在遠地者將趨赴境內,而已在境內者會平安居處?」

「我聽聞越祗人對諸阿羅漢有適當的保護、防衛及供養,其在遠地者將趨赴境內,而已 在境內者會平安居處,世尊。」

「阿難,當越祗人仍對諸阿羅漢有適當的保護、防衛及供養,其在遠地者將趨赴境內, 而已在境內者會平安居處,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5] 7) Have you heard, Ānanda: ‘The Vajjians have made good arrangements in regard to the lawful protection, safety, and guarding of the Worthy Ones, so that Worthy Ones in the future can enter the realm, and having entered the Worthy Ones can live comfortably in the realm?” “I have heard this, reverend Sir: ‘The Vajjians have made good arrangements in regard to the lawful protection, safety, and guarding of the Worthy Ones, and that the Worthy Ones in the future can enter the realm, and having entered the Worthy Ones can live comfortably in the realm.” “For as long, Ānanda, as the Vajjians will make good arrangements in regard to the lawful protection, safety, and guarding of the Worthy Ones, and that the Worthy Ones in the future can enter the realm, and having entered, the Worthy Ones can live comfortably in the realm, surely growth, Ānanda, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline.”
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

"What have you heard, Ananda: do the Vajjis duly protect and guard the arahats, so that those who have not come to the realm yet might do so, and those who have already come might live there in peace?"

"I have heard, Lord, that they do."

"So long, Ananda, as this is the case, the growth of the Vajjis is to be expected, not their decline."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 135-1
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavā vassakāraṃ brāhmaṇaṃ magadhamahāmattaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘ekamidāhaṃ, brāhmaṇa, samayaṃ vesāliyaṃ viharāmi sārandade sānandare (ka.) cetiye. Tatrāhaṃ vajjīnaṃ ime satta aparihāniye dhamme desesiṃ. Yāvakīvañca, brāhmaṇa, ime satta aparihāniyā dhammā vajjīsu ṭhassanti, imesu ca sattasu aparihāniyesu dhammesu vajjī sandississanti, vuddhiyeva, brāhmaṇa, vajjīnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihānī’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊召喚摩揭陀國大臣作雨者婆羅門:

「婆羅門!有一次,我住在毘舍離沙愣達達塔廟。婆羅門!在那裡,我教導跋耆人這七不衰退法[CFn016] 。婆羅門!只要這七不衰退法在跋耆中住立,以及跋耆人在這七不衰退法〔的確立〕上被看見,婆羅門!跋耆的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 5.於是,世尊對摩揭陀大臣雨行婆羅門說: “婆羅門,有一次我住在毗舍離沙蘭達達廟,在那裏我對跋祇人說這七不退法。婆羅門,只要七不退法在跋祇人之中得到確立,只要跋祇人和七不退法相應地生活;他們便將日益強盛,不會衰退。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 05 於是佛陀語摩竭陀宰相瓦沙卡羅婆羅門說:「婆羅門,往昔我住在毘舍離的沙然達達神 舍,以此七興盛法教越祗人,當此七法尚存在於越祗人中,當越祗人仍諄諄以此相訓,婆羅 門,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。」
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then the Gracious One addressed the Magadhan chief minister the brahmin Vassakāra, (saying): “At one time, brahmin, I was living near Vesālī near to the Sārandada Shrine and there I taught the Vajjians these seven things which prevent decline.[AFn013] For as long, brahmin, as the Vajjians maintain these seven things which prevent decline, and the Vajjians agree with these seven things which prevent decline, surely growth, brahmin, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline.”
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 5. And the Blessed One addressed the brahman Vassakara in these words: "Once, brahman, I dwelt at Vesali, at the Sarandada shrine, and there it was that I taught the Vajjis these seven conditions leading to (a nation's) welfare.[VFn05] So long, brahman, as these endure among the Vajjis, and the Vajjis are known for it, their growth is to be expected, not their decline."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 135-2
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1] Evaṃ vutte, vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘ekamekenapi, bho gotama, aparihāniyena dhammena samannāgatānaṃ vajjīnaṃ vuddhiyeva pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni . Ko pana vādo sattahi aparihāniyehi dhammehi. Akaraṇīyāva akaraṇīyā ca (syā. ka.), bho gotama, vajjī vajjīnaṃ (ka.) raññā māgadhena ajātasattunā vedehiputtena yadidaṃ yuddhassa, aññatra upalāpanāya aññatra mithubhedā. Handa ca dāni mayaṃ, bho gotama, gacchāma , bahukiccā mayaṃ bahukaraṇīyā’’ti. ‘‘Yassadāni tvaṃ, brāhmaṇa, kālaṃ maññasī’’ti. Atha kho vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinanditvā anumoditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

當這麼說時,摩揭陀國大臣作雨者婆羅門對世尊這麼說:

「喬達摩先生!即便只具備一不衰退法,跋耆的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損,何況說〔具備〕七不衰退法。喬達摩先生!摩揭陀國阿闍世王韋提希子不應該以戰爭取跋耆,除非以欺騙[CFn017] ,除非以離間[CFn018] 。喬達摩先生!好啦,現在,我們應該走了,我們是有許多該做之事的忙人。」

「婆羅門!現在,你考量適當的時間[CFn019] 。」

那時,摩揭陀國大臣作雨者婆羅門歡喜、隨喜[CFn020] 世尊所說後,起座離開。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]

世尊說了這番話後,摩揭陀大臣雨行婆羅門對他說: “喬答摩賢者,跋祇人即使只具備一種不退法,他們都將會日益強盛,不會衰退;更遑論具備七種不退法了!喬答摩賢者,摩揭陀王阿闍世.韋提希子不能以戰爭來征服跋祇人,除非使用計謀,或除非跋祇人內部分裂才能征服他們。喬答摩賢者,我還有很多事情要做,我要告辭了。”

“婆羅門,如果你認為是時候的話,請便。”

摩揭陀大臣雨行婆羅門聽了世尊的說話後感到歡喜,感到愉快,之後起座離去。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

時摩竭陀宰相瓦沙卡羅白佛言:「喬達摩,若越祗人有此七興盛法之一,已只會興盛,不 會衰微,何況彼等有此七法,若如是,喬達摩,摩竭陀國王是不能屈伏越祗人;那是說在戰 爭中得採用詭謀,或離間其同盟,國事繁忙,現請告辭。」

佛言:「婆羅門,可宜知時。」

時摩竭陀宰相瓦沙卡羅對佛陀的教言發生欣喜,遂離座而去。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

After this was said, the Magadhan chief minister the brahmin Vassakāra addressed the Gracious One, (saying): “If the Vajjians, dear Gotama, were endowed with even one or the other of these seven things which prevent decline, surely growth is to be expected not decline, what to say about having seven things which prevent decline? The Vajjians cannot be overcome, dear Gotama, by the Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, by war, but only through diplomacy, or through the breaking of an alliance.[AFn014] And now, dear Gotama, we shall go, as we have many duties, and there is much which ought to be done.”

“Now is the time, brahmin, for whatever you are thinking.”[AFn015] Then the Magadhan chief minister the brahmin Vassakāra, after greatly rejoicing and gladly receiving this word of the Gracious One, rose from his seat and departed.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Thereupon the brahman Vassakara spoke thus to the Blessed One: "If the Vajjis, Venerable Gotama, were endowed with only one or another of these conditions leading to welfare, their growth would have to be expected, not their decline. What then of all the seven? No harm, indeed, can be done to the Vajjis in battle by Magadha's king, Ajatasattu, except through treachery or discord. Well, then, Venerable Gotama, we will take our leave, for we have much to perform, much work to do."

"Do as now seems fit to you, brahman." And the brahman Vassakara, the chief minister of Magadha, approving of the Blessed One's words and delighted by them, rose from his seat and departed.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 136-1
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Bhikkhuaparihāniyadhammā

  1. Atha kho bhagavā acirapakkante vassakāre brāhmaṇe magadhamahāmatte āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘gaccha tvaṃ, ānanda, yāvatikā bhikkhū rājagahaṃ upanissāya viharanti, te sabbe upaṭṭhānasālāyaṃ sannipātehī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā yāvatikā bhikkhū rājagahaṃ upanissāya viharanti, te sabbe upaṭṭhānasālāyaṃ sannipātetvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṃ ṭhito kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘sannipatito, bhante, bhikkhusaṅgho, yassadāni, bhante, bhagavā kālaṃ maññatī’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

比丘-不衰退法

  1. 那時,在摩揭陀國大臣作雨者婆羅門離去不久,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「阿難!請你集合所有依王舍城居住的比丘[CFn021] 到講堂中。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊後,集合了所有依王舍城居住的比丘到講堂中,然後去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊[CFn022] ,接著坐在一旁。在一旁坐好後,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:

「大德!比丘僧團[CFn023] 已經集合,大德!現在,請世尊考量適當的時間。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 6.摩揭陀大臣雨行婆羅門離去不久,世尊對阿難尊者說: “阿難,你去叫所有住在王舍城一帶的比丘到大堂聚集。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 於是叫所有住在王舍城一帶的比丘到大堂聚集。之後,他去世尊那裏,對世尊作禮,站在一邊,然後對世尊說: “大德,比丘僧團已經聚集好了。如果世尊認為是時候的話,請便。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 06 瓦沙卡羅去已,薄伽梵語尊者阿難說:「阿難,你往告住在王舍城附近的諸比丘盡集講堂。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。他即往告住在王舍城附近的諸比丘盡會講堂。回來時 他向佛作禮,退立一面說:「世尊,比丘僧眾已齊集講堂,唯聖知時。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[3: Seven Things which Prevent Decline in the Community (1-7)]

  1. Then the Gracious One, not long after the Magadhan chief minister, the brahmin Vassakāra, had gone, addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Go, Ānanda, and whatever monks there are living in dependence on Rājagaha,[AFn016] assemble them in the Attendance Hall.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One, and assembling whatever monks there were living in dependence on Rājagaha in the Attendance Hall, he approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he stood on one side.

While standing on one side venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: “The Community of monks have assembled, reverend Sir, now is the time, Gracious One, for whatever you are thinking.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Welfare of the Bhikkhus

  1. 6. Then, soon after Vassakara's departure, the Blessed One addressed the Venerable Ananda thus: "Go now, Ananda, and assemble in the hall of audience as many bhikkhus as live around Rajagaha."

"Very well, Lord." And the Venerable Ananda did as he was requested and informed the Blessed One: "The community of bhikkhus is assembled, Lord. Now let the Blessed One do as he wishes."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 136-2
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1] Atha kho bhagavā uṭṭhāyāsanā yena upaṭṭhānasālā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Nisajja kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘satta vo, bhikkhave, aparihāniye dhamme desessāmi, taṃ suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasikarotha, bhāsissāmī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca –
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

那時,世尊前往講堂。抵達後,在舖設好的座位坐下。坐好後,世尊召喚比丘們:

「比丘們!我將教導你們七不衰退法,你們要聽!你們要好好作意[CFn024] !我要說了。」

「是的,大德[CFn025] !」那些比丘回答世尊。

世尊這麼說:

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]

於是世尊起座前往大堂,坐在為他預備好的座位上,然後對比丘說: “比丘們,我要對你們說七不退法,留心聽,好好用心思量,我現在說了。”

比丘回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

世尊說:

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

爾時佛陀即從座起,走向講堂,就座後,告諸比丘說:「諸比丘,我將宣說七種興盛法, 且專心諦聽!」

「是,世尊。」諸比丘回答說。

薄伽梵說:

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

Then the Gracious One after rising from his seat approached the Attendance Hall, and after approaching he sat down on the prepared seat. While sitting the Gracious One addressed the monks, (saying):

“I will teach you seven things which prevent decline, listen to it, apply your minds well, and I will speak.”[AFn017] “Very well, reverend Sir,” those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Thereupon the Blessed One rose from his seat, went up to the hall of audience, took his appointed seat there, and addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Seven conditions leading to welfare I shall set forth, bhikkhus. Listen and pay heed to what I shall say."

"So be it, Lord."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 136-3
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

‘‘Yāvakīvañca , bhikkhave, bhikkhū abhiṇhaṃ sannipātā sannipātabahulā bhavissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū samaggā sannipatissanti, samaggā vuṭṭhahissanti, samaggā saṅghakaraṇīyāni karissanti , vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū apaññattaṃ na paññapessanti, paññattaṃ na samucchindissanti, yathāpaññattesu sikkhāpadesu samādāya vattissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū ye te bhikkhū therā rattaññū cirapabbajitā saṅghapitaro saṅghapariṇāyakā, te sakkarissanti garuṃ karissanti mānessanti pūjessanti, tesañca sotabbaṃ maññissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū uppannāya taṇhāya ponobbhavikāya na vasaṃ gacchissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū āraññakesu senāsanesu sāpekkhā bhavissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū paccattaññeva satiṃ upaṭṭhapessanti – ‘kinti anāgatā ca pesalā sabrahmacārī āgaccheyyuṃ, āgatā ca pesalā sabrahmacārī phāsu phāsuṃ (sī. syā. pī.) vihareyyu’nti. Vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, ime satta aparihāniyā dhammā bhikkhūsu ṭhassanti, imesu ca sattasu aparihāniyesu dhammesu bhikkhū sandississanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

「比丘們!只要比丘們有經常的集合、時常的集合,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們和合地集合、和合地結束、和合地作比丘應該做的事,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們不安立沒被安立的,不斷絕已被安立的,依所安立的學處[CFn026] 受持後轉起,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬那些有經驗且已長久出家之上座比丘[CFn027] 、僧團父[CFn028] 、僧團領導者,並且認為應該聽他們的,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們不受已生起、導致再生的渴愛影響,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們是林野住處的期待者,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們各自提起正念:是否未來過的美善同梵行者[CFn029] 會來,已來過的美善同梵行者會安樂地居住,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要這七不衰退法在諸比丘中住立,以及諸比丘在這七不衰退法〔的確立〕上被看見,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]

“比丘們,只要比丘常常集會,定期集會;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘和洽地集會,和洽地散會,和洽地處理比丘的事情;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘不訂新的戒律,不廢除固有的戒律,遵守和奉行已有的戒律;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,長老比丘有經驗,出家時間長,是僧團之父,是僧團的領導。只要比丘照料、恭敬、尊重、供養長老比丘,聽從長老比丘的教誨;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘不被導致投生的渴愛所征服;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘樂於居住山林;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘內心保持念,目的是吸引外間質素好的同修到自己的地方來,及使自己地方質素好的同修能夠安穩地生活;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要這七不退法在比丘之中得到確立,只要比丘和這七不退法相應地生活;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4] 「諸比丘,當諸比丘(一)仍常相集會;(二)當彼等仍是一心一德相會、相 起及相盡力於僧團職務;(三)當彼等依照所制定的律法而行,仍是未興者不興,已興者不廢; (四)當彼等仍恭敬尊奉年高望重富於經驗之長老,僧伽之師父,並接受其忠告;(五)當能 使人轉世的貪欲既起,彼等仍不為其所影響;(六)當彼等仍樂於隱居;(七)當彼等仍守心 於一,其同道中之良善者將趨赴之,而已來者將平安居處,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。 當此七法尚存在於諸比丘中,當諸比丘仍諄諄以此相訓,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。」
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

1) “For as long, monks, as the monks will assemble regularly and assemble frequently, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.[AFn018]

2) For as long, monks, as the monks will assemble unanimously, rise unanimously, and carry out their Community duties unanimously, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

3) For as long, monks, as the monks do not establish (new) laws that were not established, (or) cut off (old) laws that were established,[AFn019] and they carry on with such training-rules as have been accepted, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

4) For as long, monks, as the monks will honour the elder monks, those of long-standing, a long time gone-forth, the Fathers of the Community, the Leaders of the Community, respect, revere, worship and think them worth listening to, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

5) For as long, monks, as the monks will not come under the influence of craving which has arisen for continued existence, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

6) For as long, monks, as the monks will have desire for forest dwellings, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

7) For as long, monks, as the monks individually will attend to the ways of mindfulness, so that their fellow celibates, who are well-behaved, in the future can come, and having come to their fellow celibates, who are well-behaved, can live comfortably, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

For as long, monks, as the monks will maintain these seven things which prevent decline, and the monks will agree with these seven things which prevent decline, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6] "The growth of the bhikkhus is to be expected, not their decline, bhikkhus, so long as they assemble frequently and in large numbers; meet and disperse peacefully and attend to the affairs of the Sangha in concord; so long as they appoint no new rules, and do not abolish the existing ones, but proceed in accordance with the code of training (Vinaya) laid down; so long as they show respect, honor, esteem, and veneration towards the elder bhikkhus, those of long standing, long gone forth, the fathers and leaders of the Sangha, and think it worthwhile to listen to them; so long as they do not come under the power of the craving that leads to fresh becoming; so long as they cherish the forest depths for their dwellings; so long as they establish themselves in mindfulness, so that virtuous brethren of the Order who have not come yet might do so, and those already come might live in peace; so long, bhikkhus, as these seven conditions leading to welfare endure among the bhikkhus and the bhikkhus are known for it, their growth is to be expected, not their decline.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 137
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Aparepi vo, bhikkhave, satta aparihāniye dhamme desessāmi, taṃ suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasikarotha, bhāsissāmī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca –

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū na kammārāmā bhavissanti na kammaratā na kammārāmatamanuyuttā, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū na bhassārāmā bhavissanti na bhassaratā na bhassārāmatamanuyuttā, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū na niddārāmā bhavissanti na niddāratā na niddārāmatamanuyuttā, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū na saṅgaṇikārāmā bhavissanti na saṅgaṇikaratā na saṅgaṇikārāmatamanuyuttā, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū na pāpicchā bhavissanti na pāpikānaṃ icchānaṃ vasaṃ gatā, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū na pāpamittā bhavissanti na pāpasahāyā na pāpasampavaṅkā, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū na oramattakena visesādhigamena antarāvosānaṃ āpajjissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, ime satta aparihāniyā dhammā bhikkhūsu ṭhassanti, imesu ca sattasu aparihāniyesu dhammesu bhikkhū sandississanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 比丘們!我將教導你們另外的七不衰退法,你們要聽!你們要好好作意!我要說了。」

「是的,大德!」那些比丘回答世尊。

世尊這麼說:

「比丘們!只要比丘們是不樂於做事者[CFn030] 、不愛好做事者、不樂於致力做事者[CFn031] ,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們是不樂於言談者、不愛好言談者、不樂於致力言談者,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們是不樂於睡眠者、不愛好睡眠者、不樂於致力睡眠者,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們是不樂於聚會者、不愛好聚會者、不樂於致力聚會者,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們是非惡欲求者,不進入惡欲求的影響,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們沒有惡朋友、惡伴侶、惡同志者,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們不以低量的勝智停留在終結的中途[CFn032] ,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要這七不衰退法在諸比丘中住立,以及諸比丘在這七不衰退法〔的確立〕上被看見,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 7.“比丘們,我要說另一種七不退法,留心聽,好好用心思量,我現在說了。”

比丘回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

世尊說:

“比丘們,只要比丘不喜好事務,不樂著事務,不耽於事務;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘不喜好談話,不樂著談話,不耽於談話;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘不喜好睡眠,不樂著睡眠,不耽於睡眠;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘不喜好聯群結黨,不樂著聯群結黨,不耽於聯群結黨;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘沒有惡欲,不被惡欲所征服;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘不交惡友,不與惡友為伴,不隨從惡友;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘不滯留在細小的證悟之中;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要這七不退法在比丘之中得到確立,只要比丘和這七不退法相應地生活;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 07 「諸比丘,復有七種興盛法,我將宣說,且專心諦聽!」

「是,世尊。」諸比丘回答說。

薄伽梵說:

「諸比丘,(一)當諸比丘仍不喜沾染俗務;(二)當彼等仍不愛好閒談;(三) 當彼等仍不喜偷懶;(四)當彼等仍不喜交遊;(五)當彼等仍不懷邪欲,或為邪欲所左右;(六) 當彼等仍不與惡人為友或伴侶;(七)當彼等仍不因已證小果而停止進趣最高聖位,則彼等是 只會興盛,不會衰微。當此七興盛法尚存在於諸比丘中,當彼等仍諄諄以此相訓,則彼等是 只會興盛,不會衰微。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[4: Seven Further Things which Prevent Decline in the Community (8-14)]

  1. I will teach you a further seven things which prevent decline, listen to it, apply your minds well, and I will speak.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

1) “For as long, monks, as the monks are not devoted to the pleasure in work, the delight in work, and are not attached to work, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.[AFn020]

2) For as long, monks, as the monks are not devoted to the pleasure in speech, the delight in speech, and are not attached to speech, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.[AFn021]

3) For as long, monks, as the monks are not devoted to the pleasure in sleep, the delight in sleep, and are not attached to sleep, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

4) For as long, monks, as the monks are not devoted to the pleasure of company, the delight in company, and are not attached to company, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

5) For as long, monks, as the monks do not have evil wishes, do not go under the influence of evil wishes, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

6) For as long, monks, as the monks do not have wicked friends, do not have wicked companions, do not have wicked comrades, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.[AFn022]

7) For as long, monks, as the monks do not achieve only mundane or incomplete attainment,[AFn023] surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

For as long, monks, as the monks will maintain these seven things which prevent decline, and the monks will agree with these seven things which prevent decline, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 7."Seven further conditions leading to welfare I shall set forth, bhikkhus. Listen and pay heed to what I shall say."

"So be it, Lord."

"The growth of the bhikkhus is to be expected, not their decline, bhikkhus, so long as they do not delight in, are not pleased with, and are not fond of activities, talk, sleep, and company; so long as they do not harbor, do not come under the spell of evil desires; have no bad friends, associates, or companions; and so long as they do not stop halfway on account of some trifling achievement. So long, bhikkhus, as these seven conditions leading to welfare endure among the bhikkhus and the bhikkhus are known for it, their growth is to be expected, not their decline.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 138
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Aparepi vo, bhikkhave, satta aparihāniye dhamme desessāmi…pe… ‘‘yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū saddhā bhavissanti…pe… hirimanā bhavissanti… ottappī bhavissanti… bahussutā bhavissanti… āraddhavīriyā bhavissanti… upaṭṭhitassatī bhavissanti… paññavanto bhavissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, ime satta aparihāniyā dhammā bhikkhūsu ṭhassanti, imesu ca sattasu aparihāniyesu dhammesu bhikkhū sandississanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 比丘們!我將教導你們另外的七不衰退法,……(中略)。

比丘們!只要比丘們是有信者,……(中略)是有慚者,……(中略)是有愧者,……(中略)是多聞者,……(中略)是活力已被發動者,……(中略)是念已現前者[CFn033] ,……(中略)是有慧者,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要這七不衰退法在諸比丘中住立,以及諸比丘在這七不衰退法〔的確立〕上被看見,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 8.“比丘們,我要說另一種七不退法,留心聽,好好用心思量,我現在說了。”

比丘回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

世尊說: “比丘們,只要比丘有信,有慚,有愧,多聞,精進,保持念,有智慧;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要這七不退法在比丘之中得到確立,只要比丘和這七不退法相應地生活;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 08 「諸比丘,復有七種興盛法,我將宣說,且專心諦聽!」

「是,世尊。」諸比丘回答說。

薄伽梵說;「當諸比丘仍有(一)信心,(二)恥心,(三)畏惡,(四)多聞,(五)精進, (六)警勤,(七)多智慧,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。當此七興盛法尚存在於諸比丘中, 當彼等仍諄諄以此相訓,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[5: Seven Further Things which Prevent Decline in the Community (15-21)]

  1. I will teach you a further seven things which prevent decline, listen to it, apply your minds well, and I will speak.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

  1. “For as long, monks, as the monks will have faith, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. [AFn024]
  2. For as long, monks, as the monks will have a conscientious mind, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.
  3. For as long, monks, as the monks will have a sense of shame, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.
  4. For as long, monks, as the monks will be learned, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.[AFn025]
  5. For as long, monks, as the monks will be strenuous, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.
  6. For as long, monks, as the monks will attend to mindfulness, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.
  7. For as long, monks, as the monks will possess wisdom, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

For as long, monks, as the monks will maintain these seven things which prevent decline, and the monks will agree with these seven things which prevent decline, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Seven Good Qualities[VFn06]

  1. 8."Seven further conditions leading to welfare I shall set forth, bhikkhus. Listen and pay heed to what I shall say."

"So be it, Lord."

"The growth of the bhikkhus is to be expected, not their decline, bhikkhus, so long as they shall have faith, so long as they have moral shame and fear of misconduct, are proficient in learning, resolute, mindful, and wise. So long, bhikkhus, as these seven conditions leading to welfare endure among the bhikkhus, and the bhikkhus are known for it, their growth is to be expected, not their decline.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 139
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Aparepi vo, bhikkhave, satta aparihāniye dhamme desessāmi, taṃ suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasikarotha, bhāsissāmī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca –

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu satisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāvessanti…pe… dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāvessanti… vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāvessanti… pītisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāvessanti… passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāvessanti… samādhisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāvessanti… upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāvessanti, vuddhiyeva , bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, ime satta aparihāniyā dhammā bhikkhūsu ṭhassanti, imesu ca sattasu aparihāniyesu dhammesu bhikkhū sandississanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā no parihāni.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 比丘們!我將教導你們另外的七不衰退法,你們要聽!你們要好好作意!我要說了。」

「是的,大德!」那些比丘回答世尊。

世尊這麼說:

「比丘們!只要比丘們修習[CFn034] 念覺支,……(中略)修習擇法覺支[CFn035] ……修習活力覺支[CFn036] ……修習喜覺支[CFn037] ……修習寧靜覺支[CFn038] ……修習定覺支……修習平靜覺支[CFn039] ,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要這七不衰退法在諸比丘中住立,以及諸比丘在這七不衰退法〔的確立〕上被看見,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 9.比丘們,我要說另一種七不退法,留心聽,好好用心思量,我現在說了。”

比丘回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

世尊說:

“比丘們,只要比丘修習念覺支,修習擇法覺支,修習精進覺支,修習喜覺支,修習猗覺支,修習定覺支,修習捨覺支;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要這七不退法在比丘之中得到確立,只要比丘和這七不退法相應地生活;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 09 「諸比丘,復有七種興盛法,我將宣說,且專心諦聽!」

「是,世尊。」諸比丘回答說。

薄伽梵說:

「諸比丘,當諸比丘仍修七菩提分:(一)念菩提分,(二)擇法菩提分,(三) 精進菩提分,(四)喜菩提分,(五)輕安菩提分,(六)禪定菩提分,(七)捨菩提分,則彼 等是只會興盛,不會衰微。

當此七興盛法尚存在於諸比丘中,當彼等仍諄諄以此相訓,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[6: Seven Further Things which Prevent Decline in the Community (22-28)]

  1. I will teach you a further seven things which prevent decline, listen to it, apply your minds well, and I will speak.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

1) “For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Mindfulness, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.[AFn026]

2) For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Investigation of (the nature of) things, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

3) For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Energy, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

4) For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Rapture, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

5) For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Calm, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

6) For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Concentration, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

7) For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Equanimity, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

For as long, monks, as the monks will maintain these seven things which prevent decline, and the monks will agree with these seven things which prevent decline, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Seven Factors of Enlightenment [VFn07]

  1. 9."Seven further conditions leading to welfare I shall set forth, bhikkhus. Listen and pay heed to what I shall say."

"So be it, Lord."

"The growth of the bhikkhus is to be expected, not their decline, bhikkhus, so long as they cultivate the seven factors of enlightenment, that is: mindfulness, investigation into phenomena, energy, bliss, tranquillity, concentration, and equanimity.

So long, bhikkhus, as these seven conditions leading to welfare endure among the bhikkhus, and the bhikkhus are known for it, their growth is to be expected, not their decline.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 140
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

‘‘Aparepi vo, bhikkhave, satta aparihāniye dhamme desessāmi, taṃ suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasikarotha, bhāsissāmī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca –

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū aniccasaññaṃ bhāvessanti…pe… anattasaññaṃ bhāvessanti… asubhasaññaṃ bhāvessanti… ādīnavasaññaṃ bhāvessanti… pahānasaññaṃ bhāvessanti… virāgasaññaṃ bhāvessanti… nirodhasaññaṃ bhāvessanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca , bhikkhave, ime satta aparihāniyā dhammā bhikkhūsu ṭhassanti, imesu ca sattasu aparihāniyesu dhammesu bhikkhū sandississanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 比丘們!我將教導你們另外的七不衰退法,你們要聽!你們要好好作意!我要說了。」

「是的,大德!」那些比丘回答世尊。

世尊這麼說:

「比丘們!只要比丘們修習無常想,……(中略)修習無我想……修習不淨想……修習過患[CFn040] 想……修習捨斷想……修習離貪[CFn041] 想……修習滅想,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要這七不衰退法在諸比丘中住立,以及諸比丘在這七不衰退法〔的確立〕上被看見,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 10.“比丘們,我要說另一種七不退法,留心聽,好好用心思量,我現在說了。”

比丘回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

世尊說:

“比丘們,只要比丘修習無常想,修習無我想,修習不淨想,修習過患想,修習斷想,修習無欲想,修習寂滅想;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要這七不退法在比丘之中得到確立,只要比丘和這七不退法相應地生活;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 10 「諸比丘,復有七種興盛法,我將宣說,且專心諦聽!」

「是,世尊。」諸比丘回答說。

薄伽梵說:

「諸比丘,當諸比丘仍有(一)無常觀,(二)無我觀,(三)不淨觀,(四)邪念危險觀,(五)捨離觀,(六)心清淨觀,(七)涅槃觀,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。「諸比丘,當諸比丘仍有(一)無常觀,(二)無我觀,(三)不淨觀,(四)邪念危險觀,(五)捨離觀,(六)心清淨觀,(七)涅槃觀,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。

當此七興盛法尚存在於諸比丘中,當彼等仍諄諄以此相訓,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[7: Seven Further Things which Prevent Decline in the Community (29-35)]

  1. I will teach you a further seven things which prevent decline, listen to it, apply your minds well, and I will speak.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

1) “For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the perception of impermanence, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.[AFn027]

2) For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the perception of non-self, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.[AFn028]

3) For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the perception of the unattractive, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.[AFn029]

4) For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the perception of danger, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.[AFn030]

5) For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the perception of giving up, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.[AFn031]

6) For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the perception of dispassion, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.[AFn032]

7) For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the perception of cessation, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

For as long, monks, as the monks will maintain these seven things which prevent decline, and the monks will agree with these seven things which prevent decline, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)

Seven Perceptions

  1. 10. "Seven further conditions leading to welfare I shall set forth, bhikkhus. Listen and pay heed to what I shall say."

"So be it, Lord."

"The growth of the bhikkhus is to be expected, not their decline, bhikkhus, so long as they cultivate the perception of impermanence, of egolessness, of (the body's) impurity, of (the body's) wretchedness, of relinquishment, of dispassion, and of cessation. So long, bhikkhus, as these seven conditions leading to welfare endure among the bhikkhus, and the bhikkhus are known for it, their growth is to be expected, not their decline.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 141
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Cha, vo bhikkhave, aparihāniye dhamme desessāmi, taṃ suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasikarotha, bhāsissāmī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca –

‘‘Yāvakīvañca , bhikkhave, bhikkhū mettaṃ kāyakammaṃ paccupaṭṭhāpessanti sabrahmacārīsu āvi ceva raho ca, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū mettaṃ vacīkammaṃ paccupaṭṭhāpessanti …pe… mettaṃ manokammaṃ paccupaṭṭhāpessanti sabrahmacārīsu āvi ceva raho ca, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū, ye te lābhā dhammikā dhammaladdhā antamaso pattapariyāpannamattampi tathārūpehi lābhehi appaṭivibhattabhogī bhavissanti sīlavantehi sabrahmacārīhi sādhāraṇabhogī, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū yāni kāni sīlāni akhaṇḍāni acchiddāni asabalāni akammāsāni bhujissāni viññūpasatthāni viññuppasatthāni (sī.) aparāmaṭṭhāni samādhisaṃvattanikāni tathārūpesu sīlesu sīlasāmaññagatā viharissanti sabrahmacārīhi āvi ceva raho ca, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū yāyaṃ diṭṭhi ariyā niyyānikā, niyyāti takkarassa sammā dukkhakkhayāya, tathārūpāya diṭṭhiyā diṭṭhisāmaññagatā viharissanti sabrahmacārīhi āvi ceva raho ca, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

‘‘Yāvakīvañca , bhikkhave, ime cha aparihāniyā dhammā bhikkhūsu ṭhassanti, imesu ca chasu aparihāniyesu dhammesu bhikkhū sandississanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihānī’’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 比丘們!我將教導你們六不衰退法,你們要聽!你們要好好作意!我要說了。」

「是的,大德!」那些比丘回答世尊。

世尊這麼說:

「比丘們!只要比丘們對同梵行者公開地與私下地現起[CFn042] 慈身業,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們對同梵行者公開地與私下地現起慈語業,……(中略)將對同梵行者公開地與私下地現起慈意業,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們是所有那些根據法而得到的如法利養[CFn043] ,乃至包含自己鉢裡的,以像這樣的利養與有戒的同梵行者平等地受用者、共同分享者,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們對所有無毀壞的、無瑕疵的、無污點的、無雜色的、自由的、智者所稱讚的、不取著的、導向定的戒,在像這樣的戒上與同梵行者公開地與私下地住於戒的一致[CFn044] ,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要比丘們對所有這聖的、出離的、帶領那樣的行為者到苦的完全滅盡之見,在像這樣的見上與同梵行者公開地與私下地住於見的一致,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。

比丘們!只要這六不衰退法在諸比丘中住立,以及諸比丘在這六不衰退法〔的確立〕上被看見,比丘們!比丘們的增長應該可以被預期,而非減損。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 11. “比丘們,我要說六不退法,留心聽,好好用心思量,我現在說了。”

比丘回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

世尊說:

“比丘們,只要比丘無論在公開或隱蔽的場合,都以慈心作身業來對待同修;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘無論在公開或隱蔽的場合,都以慈心作口業來對待同修;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘樂於和具戒的同修共同受用如法取得的東西,即使是缽中的食物,都樂於和人均分;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘無論在公開或隱蔽的場合,和同修一起生活在戒之中,他們的戒不破、不穿、沒有污垢、沒有污點、清淨、受智者稱讚、不取著、帶來定;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要比丘無論在公開或隱蔽的場合,和同修一起生活在正見之中,他們的正見是聖者之見,是出世間之見,能使人徹底清除苦;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。

“比丘們,只要這六不退法在比丘之中得到確立,只要比丘和這六不退法相應地生活;比丘便將日益強盛,不會衰退。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

141. 11 「諸比丘,復有六種興盛法,我將宣說,且專心諦聽!」 「是,世尊。」諸比丘回答說。 薄伽梵說:

「諸比丘,當諸比丘仍在公在私均以(一)身慈,(二)口慈及(三)意慈對待其同道;(四)當彼等仍公平分配及與其善友分享從僧伽所獲得之法定淨物,下至缽中所有;(五)當彼等在公在私仍與聖者同居,修習那圓滿、不缺、不染、清淨、助長智慧,為賢者所稱讚,及不為後世欲所玷污的德行;(六)當彼等與聖者同居仍在公在私執持那依之而行可以使痛苦完全毀滅的正見,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。當此六興盛法尚存在於諸比丘中,當彼等仍諄諄以此相訓,則彼等是只會興盛,不會衰微。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[8: Six Things which Prevent Decline in the Community (36-41)]

  1. I will teach you a further six things which prevent decline, listen to it, apply your minds well, and I will speak.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

1) “For as long, monks, as the monks with friendly actions by way of the body will serve (their) fellow celibates, both in public and in private, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.[AFn033]

2) For as long, monks, as the monks with friendly actions by way of speech will serve (their) fellow celibates, both in public and in private, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

3) For as long, monks, as the monks with friendly actions by way of the mind will serve (their) fellow celibates, both in public and in private, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.[AFn034]

4) For as long, monks, as the monks (in regard to) those righteous gains, received in accordance with the Teaching - whatever amount has been received in the bowl - will divide and share such gains with those who are virtuous, fellow celibates, and share (them) in common, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

5) For as long, monks, as the monks (are endowed with) those virtues which are unbroken, faultless, unspotted, unblemished, productive of freedom, praised by the wise, not clung to, leading to concentration, (and) will live endowed with virtue amongst their fellow celibates who (themselves) possess such virtue, both in public and in private, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

6) For as long, monks, as the monks (are endowed with) that which is Ariyan View, which leads out, which leads to the complete destruction of suffering for one who acts thus, (and) will live endowed with (Right) View amongst those who (themselves) possess such (Right) View, both in public and in private, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

For as long, monks, as the monks will maintain these six things which prevent decline, and the monks will agree with these six things which prevent decline, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Six Conditions to be Remembered[VFn08]

  1. 11."Six further conditions leading to welfare I shall set forth, bhikkhus. Listen and pay heed to what I shall say."

"So be it, Lord."

"The growth of the bhikkhus is to be expected, not their decline, bhikkhus, so long as they attend on each other with loving-kindness in deed, word, and thought, both openly and in private; so long as in respect of what they receive as due offerings, even the contents of their alms bowls, they do not make use of them without sharing them with virtuous members of the community; so long as, in company with their brethren, they train themselves, openly and in private, in the rules of conduct, which are complete and perfect, spotless and pure, liberating, praised by the wise, uninfluenced (by mundane concerns), and favorable to concentration of mind; and in company with their brethren, preserve, openly and in private, the insight that is noble and liberating, and leads one who acts upon it to the utter destruction of suffering.

So long, bhikkhus, as these six conditions leading to welfare endure among the bhikkhus, and the bhikkhus are known for it, their growth is to be expected, not their decline.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 142
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Tatra sudaṃ bhagavā rājagahe viharanto gijjhakūṭe pabbate etadeva bahulaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ dhammiṃ kathaṃ karoti – ‘‘iti sīlaṃ, iti samādhi, iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṃso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṃsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṃ cittaṃ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṃ – kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 在那裡,當世尊住在王舍城耆闍崛山時,他就對比丘們多作這法說:

「像這樣是戒;像這樣是定;像這樣是慧,當已遍修習戒時,定有大果、大效益[CFn045] ;當已遍修習定時,慧有大果、大效益;已遍修習慧的心就完全地解脫煩惱,即:欲的煩惱、有的煩惱[CFn046] 、無明的煩惱[CFn047] 。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 12. 世尊住在王舍城靈鷲山的時候,常對比丘說的,是有關戒、有關定、有關慧的教法──戒成熟時便得定,是大果報、大利益;定成熟時便得慧,是大果報、大利益;慧成熟時心便能徹底解脫欲漏、有漏、見漏、無明漏。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 12 薄伽梵住王舍城靈鷲山峰與諸比丘如是宣說關於戒定慧的法要。彼謂:「修戒則定有很大利益與果報;修定則慧有很大利益與果報;修慧則心從漏得解脫––欲漏、有漏、見漏及無明漏。」
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. There also the Gracious One, while living near Rājagaha on the Vultures' Peak Mountain, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, (saying):

“Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom,[AFn035] when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of (craving for) continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Counsel to the Bhikkhus

  1. 12. And the Blessed One, living at Rajagaha, at the hill called Vultures' Peak, often gave counsel to the bhikkhus thus: "Such and such is virtue; such and such is concentration; and such and such is wisdom.[VFn09] Great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of concentration when it is fully developed by virtuous conduct; great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of wisdom when it is fully developed by concentration; utterly freed from the taints[VFn10] of lust, becoming, and ignorance is the mind that is fully developed in wisdom."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 143
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavā rājagahe yathābhirantaṃ viharitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘āyāmānanda, yena ambalaṭṭhikā tenupasaṅkamissāmā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ yena ambalaṭṭhikā tadavasari. Tatra sudaṃ bhagavā ambalaṭṭhikāyaṃ viharati rājāgārake. Tatrāpi sudaṃ bhagavā ambalaṭṭhikāyaṃ viharanto rājāgārake etadeva bahulaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ dhammiṃ kathaṃ karoti – ‘‘iti sīlaṃ iti samādhi iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṃso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṃsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṃ cittaṃ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṃ – kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊如其意住在王舍城後,召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!我們去芒果樹苖圃。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。

那時,世尊與大比丘僧團一起抵達芒果樹苖圃。在那裡,世尊住在國王的芒果樹苖圃。在那裡,當世尊住在國王的芒果樹苖圃時,他也對比丘們多作這法說:

「像這樣是戒;像這樣是定;像這樣是慧,當已遍修習戒時,定有大果、大效益;當已遍修習定時,慧有大果、大效益;已遍修習慧的心就完全地解脫煩惱,即:欲的煩惱、有的煩惱、無明的煩惱。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 13. 世尊在靈鷲山住了一段時間後,便對阿難尊者說: “阿難,來吧,我們一起去芒果樹苗林。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 於是世尊便和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起前往芒果樹苗林。

  1. 世尊住在芒果樹苗林一間屬於國王的小屋。當世尊住在芒果樹苗林小屋的時候,常對比丘說的,是有關戒、有關定、有關慧的教法──戒成熟時便得定,是大果報、大利益;定成熟時便得慧,是大果報、大利益;慧成熟時心便能徹底解脫欲漏、有漏、見漏、無明漏。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 13 爾時薄伽梵在王舍城隨宜住已,語尊者阿難說:「來,阿難,我等去安巴拉提卡。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。於是佛與大比丘僧眾向安巴拉提卡進行。

14 於安巴拉提卡,佛陀住在王宮內。彼亦向諸比丘宣說關於戒定慧的法要。彼謂:「修戒則定有很大利益與果報;修定則慧有很大利益與果報;修慧則心從漏得解脫––欲漏、有漏、見漏及無明漏。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[9: The Story of the Teaching at Ambalaṭṭhikā]

  1. Then the Gracious One, after living near Rājagaha for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come Ānanda let us approach Ambalaṭṭhikā.”[AFn036]

“Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Ambalaṭṭhikā. There the Gracious One lived near Ambalaṭṭhikā in the King's Rest House.

* * *

There also the Gracious One, while living in Ambalaṭṭhikā in the King's Rest House, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, (saying):

“Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of (craving for) continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 13. When the Blessed One had stayed at Rajagaha as long as he pleased, he addressed the Venerable Ananda thus: "Come, Ananda, let us go to Ambalatthika."

"So be it, Lord."

And the Blessed One took up his abode at Ambalatthika, together with a large community of bhikkhus.

  1. At Ambalatthika the Blessed One came to stay in the king's rest house; and there, too, the Blessed One often gave counsel to the bhikkhus thus:

"Such and such is virtue; such and such is concentration; and such and such is wisdom. Great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of concentration when it is fully developed by virtuous conduct; great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of wisdom when it is fully developed by concentration; utterly freed from the taints of lust, becoming, and ignorance is the mind that is fully developed in wisdom."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 144
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavā ambalaṭṭhikāyaṃ yathābhirantaṃ viharitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘āyāmānanda, yena nāḷandā tenupasaṅkamissāmā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ yena nāḷandā tadavasari, tatra sudaṃ bhagavā nāḷandāyaṃ viharati pāvārikambavane .
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊如其意住在國王的芒果樹苖圃後,召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!我們去那爛陀。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。

那時,世尊與大比丘僧團一起去那爛陀。在那裡,世尊住在那爛陀賣衣者的芒果園中。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 15. 世尊在芒果樹苗林住了一段時間後,便對阿難尊者說: “阿難,來吧,我們一起去那爛陀。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 於是世尊便和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起前往那爛陀。世尊住在那爛陀的波婆迦芒果園。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 15 爾時薄伽梵在安巴拉提卡隨宜住已,語尊者阿難說:「來,阿難,我等去那爛陀。」 「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。於是佛與大比丘僧眾向那爛陀進行。到已,佛住在帕瓦哩卡杧菓林。
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[10: Sāriputta's Lion's Roar]

  1. Then the Gracious One, after living near Ambalaṭṭhikā for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come Ānanda let us approach Nāḷandā.”[AFn037] “Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Nāḷandā. There the Gracious One lived near Nāḷandā in Pāvārika's Mango Wood.[AFn038]
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 15. When the Blessed One had stayed at Ambalatthika as long as he pleased, he addressed the Venerable Ananda thus: "Come, Ananda, let us go to Nalanda."

"So be it, Lord."

And the Blessed One took up his abode at Nalanda together with a large community of bhikkhus, and came to stay in the mango grove of Pavarika.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 145-1
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Sāriputtasīhanādo

  1. Atha kho āyasmā sāriputto yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā sāriputto bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘evaṃ pasanno ahaṃ, bhante, bhagavati; na cāhu na ca bhavissati na cetarahi vijjati añño samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā bhagavatā bhiyyobhiññataro yadidaṃ sambodhiya’’nti. ‘‘Uḷārā kho te ayaṃ, sāriputta, āsabhī vācā āsabhivācā (syā.) bhāsitā, ekaṃso gahito, sīhanādo nadito – ‘evaṃpasanno ahaṃ, bhante, bhagavati; na cāhu na ca bhavissati na cetarahi vijjati añño samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā bhagavatā bhiyyobhiññataro yadidaṃ sambodhiya’nti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 舍利弗的獅子吼

那時,尊者舍利弗去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,尊者舍利弗對世尊這麼說:

「大德!我對世尊有這樣的淨信[CFn048] :過去不存在,將來不存在,現在也不存在其他的沙門[CFn049] 或婆羅門[CFn050] 比世尊更高證智[CFn051] 的,即:正覺[CFn052] 。」

「舍利弗!你所說的這如牛王之語[CFn053] 實在崇高,作一向的[CFn054] 、絕對的獅子吼:『大德!我對世尊有這樣的淨信:過去不存在,將來不存在,現在也不存在其他的沙門或婆羅門比世尊更高證智的,即:正覺。』

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 16. 這時候,舍利弗尊者去到世尊那裏,對世尊作禮,然後坐在一邊。舍利弗尊者對世尊說: “大德,我對世尊有這份淨信:無論過去、將來或現在,沒有任何沙門或婆羅門比世尊有更高的覺悟。”

“舍利弗,你說出這樣重、這樣無畏的話,以堅定的語氣作出獅子吼: ‘大德,我對世尊有這份淨信:無論過去、將來或現在,沒有任何沙門或婆羅門比世尊有更高的覺悟。’

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 16 爾時尊者舍利弗走向佛之住處向佛作禮,就座其側以後,白佛言:「世尊,我於如來有如是信心:於過去、未來及現在,在高深智慧方面,沒有任何其他沙門或婆羅門比如來為更偉大及聰慧。」 「舍利弗,你所說如獅子吼是偉大而勇敢。舍利弗,誠然,你發出喜不自勝之歌。
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then venerable Sāriputta approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side. While sitting on one side venerable Sāriputta said this to the Gracious One: “I have confidence, reverend Sir, in the Gracious One in this way: that neither in the past, the future, or at present is there found another ascetic or brahmin who has more deep knowledge in regard to Perfect Awakening than the Gracious One.”

“You have spoken this great and imposing speech, Sāriputta, a definite, (well-)grasped, lion's roar that was roared, (saying): ‘I have confidence, reverend Sir, in the Gracious One in this way: that neither in the past, the future, or at present is there found another ascetic or brahmin who has more deep knowledge in regard to Perfect Awakening than the Gracious One.’

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Sariputta's Lion's Roar[VFn11]

  1. 16. Then the Venerable Sariputta went to the Blessed One, respectfully greeted him, sat down at one side, and spoke thus to him:

"This faith, Lord, I have in the Blessed One, that there has not been, there will not be, nor is there now, another recluse or brahman more exalted in Enlightenment than the Blessed One."

"Lofty indeed is this speech of yours, Sariputta, and lordly! A bold utterance, a veritable sounding of the lion's roar!

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 145-2
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

‘‘Kiṃ te kiṃ nu (syā. pī. ka.), sāriputta, ye te ahesuṃ atītamaddhānaṃ arahanto sammāsambuddhā, sabbe te bhagavanto cetasā ceto paricca viditā – ‘evaṃsīlā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipi, evaṃdhammā evaṃpaññā evaṃvihārī evaṃvimuttā te bhagavanto ahesuṃ itipī’’’ti? ‘‘No hetaṃ, bhante’’.

‘‘Kiṃ pana te kiṃ pana (syā. pī. ka.), sāriputta, ye te bhavissanti anāgatamaddhānaṃ arahanto sammāsambuddhā, sabbe te bhagavanto cetasā ceto paricca viditā – ‘evaṃsīlā te bhagavanto bhavissanti itipi, evaṃdhammā evaṃpaññā evaṃvihārī evaṃvimuttā te bhagavanto bhavissanti itipī’’’ti? ‘‘No hetaṃ, bhante’’.

‘‘Kiṃ pana te, sāriputta, ahaṃ etarahi arahaṃ sammāsambuddho cetasā ceto paricca vidito – ‘‘evaṃsīlo bhagavā itipi , evaṃdhammo evaṃpañño evaṃvihārī evaṃvimutto bhagavā itipī’’’ti? ‘‘No hetaṃ, bhante’’.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

舍利弗!你以心熟知心後[CFn055] ,知道凡那些存在於過去世的阿羅漢[CFn056] 、遍正覺者[CFn057] :那一切世尊:『那些世尊有這樣的戒。』或『那些世尊有這樣的法、這樣的慧、這樣的住處、這樣的解脫。』嗎?」

「不,大德!」

「又,舍利弗!你以心熟知心後,知道凡那些將存在於未來世的阿羅漢、遍正覺者;那一切世尊:『那些世尊將有這樣的戒。』或『那些世尊將有這樣的法、這樣的慧、這樣的住處、這樣的解脫。』嗎?」

「不,大德!」

「又,舍利弗!你以心熟知心後,知道我現在阿羅漢、遍正覺者:『世尊有這樣的戒。』或『世尊有這樣的法、這樣的慧、這樣的住處、這樣的解脫。』嗎?」

「不,大德!」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]

“ 舍利弗,你曾用他心智來觀察過去所有的阿羅漢.等正覺.世尊的心,知道他們是什麼樣的戒行,什麼樣的特質,什麼樣的智慧,什麼樣的生活,什麼樣的解脫嗎?”

“大德,沒有。”

“舍利弗,你曾用他心智來觀察將來所有的阿羅漢.等正覺.世尊的心,知道他們是什麼樣的戒行,什麼樣的特質,什麼樣的智慧,什麼樣的生活,什麼樣的解脫嗎?”

“大德,沒有。”

“舍利弗,你曾用他心智來觀察現在的我,阿羅漢.等正覺.世尊的心,知道我是什麼樣的戒行,什麼樣的特質,什麼樣的智慧,什麼樣的生活,什麼樣的解脫嗎?”

“大德,沒有。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

你當然知久遠世過去諸佛為阿羅漢,正等正覺。是否以你的心了悟彼等的心,並覺知其操行、智慧、生活方式及所證之解脫?」 「世尊,不如是。」

「既如是,舍利弗,你當然知久遠世未來諸佛為阿羅漢正等正覺。是否以你的心了悟彼等的心,並覺知其操行、智慧、生活方式及所證之解脫?」 「世尊,不如是。」

「既如是,舍利弗,最低限度你知我為現在世阿羅漢、正等正覺。是否以你的心了悟我的心,並覺知我之操行、智慧、生活方式及所證之解脫?」 「世尊,不如是。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

But have you, Sāriputta, understood those who, in past times, were Worthy and Perfect Sambuddhas, and known with your mind the minds of those Gracious Ones? (Or that) those Gracious Ones had such and such virtues, those Gracious Ones had such and such qualities, those Gracious Ones had such and such wisdom, those Gracious Ones had such and such lifestyles, those Gracious Ones had such and such liberations?”

“No, reverend Sir.”

“But have you, Sāriputta, understood those who, in the future times, will be Worthy and Perfect Sambuddhas, and known with your mind the minds of those Gracious Ones? (Or that) those Gracious Ones will have such and such virtues, those Gracious Ones will have such and such qualities, those Gracious Ones will have such and such wisdom, those Gracious Ones will have such and such lifestyles, those Gracious Ones will have such and such liberations?”

“No, reverend Sir.”

“But have you understood I, who am, at present, a Worthy and Perfect Sambuddha, and known with your mind (my) mind? (Or that) the Gracious One has such and such virtues, the Gracious One has such and such qualities, the Gracious One has such and such wisdom, the Gracious One has such and such a lifestyle, the Gracious One has such and such a liberation?”

“No, reverend Sir.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

But how is this, Sariputta? Those Arahants, Fully Enlightened Ones of the past — do you have direct personal knowledge of all those Blessed Ones, as to their virtue, their meditation,[VFn12] their wisdom, their abiding, and their emancipation?"[VFn13]

"Not so, Lord."

"Then how is this, Sariputta? Those Arahants, Fully Enlightened Ones of the future — do you have direct personal knowledge of all those Blessed Ones, as to their virtue, their meditation, their wisdom, their abiding, and their emancipation?"

"Not so, Lord."

"Then how is this, Sariputta? Of me, who am at present the Arahant, the Fully Enlightened One, do you have direct personal knowledge as to my virtue, my meditation, my wisdom, my abiding, and my emancipation?"

"Not so, Lord."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 145-3
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1] ‘‘Ettha ca hi te, sāriputta, atītānāgatapaccuppannesu arahantesu sammāsambuddhesu cetopariyañāṇaṃ cetopariññāyañāṇaṃ (syā.), cetasā cetopariyāyañāṇaṃ (ka.) natthi. Atha kiñcarahi te ayaṃ, sāriputta, uḷārā āsabhī vācā bhāsitā, ekaṃso gahito, sīhanādo nadito – ‘evaṃpasanno ahaṃ, bhante, bhagavati; na cāhu na ca bhavissati na cetarahi vijjati añño samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā bhagavatā bhiyyobhiññataro yadidaṃ sambodhiya’’’nti?
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2] 「舍利弗!這裡,當你對過去、未來、現在阿羅漢、遍正覺者沒有他心智[CFn058] 時,那麼,舍利弗!你為何說這崇高如牛王之語,作一向的、絕對的獅子吼:『大德!我對世尊有這樣的淨信:過去不存在,將來不存在,現在也不存在其他的沙門或婆羅門比世尊更高證智的,即:正覺。』呢?」
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3] “舍利弗,既然你沒有用他心智來觀察過去、將來、現在的阿羅漢.等正覺.世尊的心,那你為什麼說出這樣重、這樣無畏的話,以堅定的語氣作出獅子吼呢?”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4] 「既如此,舍利弗,你是不能以你的心了悟過去、現在及未來阿羅漢、正等正覺諸佛的心。舍利弗,為何你所說如獅子吼,是偉大而勇敢?你為何發出如是喜不自勝之歌?」
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5] “Here then, Sāriputta, in regard to those past, future, and present Worthy and Perfect Sambuddhas you have no full and exact knowledge with (your own) mind. Then how is it, Sāriputta, at present that you have spoken (such) a great and imposing speech, a definite, (well-)grasped, lion's roar that was roared, (saying): ‘I have confidence, reverend Sir, in the Gracious One in this way: that neither in the past, the future, or at present is there found another ascetic or brahmin who has more deep knowledge in regard to Perfect Awakening than the Gracious One’?”
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6] "Then it is clear, Sariputta, that you have no such direct personal knowledge of the Arahats, the Fully Enlightened Ones of the past, the future, and the present. How then dare you set forth a speech so lofty and lordly, an utterance so bold, a veritable sounding of the lion's roar, saying: 'This faith, Lord, I have in the Blessed One, that there has not been, there will not be, nor is there now another recluse or brahman more exalted in Enlightenment than the Blessed One'?"
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 146
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Na kho me, bhante, atītānāgatapaccuppannesu arahantesu sammāsambuddhesu cetopariyañāṇaṃ atthi, api ca me dhammanvayo vidito. Seyyathāpi, bhante, rañño paccantimaṃ nagaraṃ daḷhuddhāpaṃ daḷhapākāratoraṇaṃ ekadvāraṃ, tatrassa dovāriko paṇḍito viyatto medhāvī aññātānaṃ nivāretā ñātānaṃ pavesetā. So tassa nagarassa samantā anupariyāyapathaṃ anucariyāyapathaṃ (syā.) anukkamamāno na passeyya pākārasandhiṃ vā pākāravivaraṃ vā, antamaso biḷāranikkhamanamattampi. Tassa evamassa na passeyya tassa evamassa (syā.) – ‘ye kho keci oḷārikā pāṇā imaṃ nagaraṃ pavisanti vā nikkhamanti vā, sabbe te imināva dvārena pavisanti vā nikkhamanti vā’ti. Evameva kho me, bhante, dhammanvayo vidito – ‘ye te, bhante, ahesuṃ atītamaddhānaṃ arahanto sammāsambuddhā , sabbe te bhagavanto pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu supatiṭṭhitacittā sattabojjhaṅge yathābhūtaṃ bhāvetvā anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambujjhiṃsu. Yepi te, bhante, bhavissanti anāgatamaddhānaṃ arahanto sammāsambuddhā , sabbe te bhagavanto pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu supatiṭṭhitacittā satta bojjhaṅge yathābhūtaṃ bhāvetvā anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambujjhissanti. Bhagavāpi, bhante, etarahi arahaṃ sammāsambuddho pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu supatiṭṭhitacitto satta bojjhaṅge yathābhūtaṃ bhāvetvā anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 「大德!我對過去、未來、現在阿羅漢、遍正覺者確實沒有他心智,但我已知道法的類比[CFn059]

大德!猶如國王邊境的城市,有堅固的壁壘,堅固的城牆與城門,只有一道門,在那裡的賢智、能幹、有智慧守門人阻止陌生人,而使熟人進入。當他依序環繞整個城市的道路時,不可能看到城牆有甚至貓能出去大小的間隙或裂口,他這麼想:『凡任何夠大的生物進出這城市,都僅能經由此門進出。』同樣的,大德!我已知道法的類比:『大德!凡那些存在於過去世的阿羅漢、遍正覺者;那一切世尊都捨斷心的小雜染[CFn060] 、慧的減弱之五蓋[CFn061] 後,在四念住[CFn062] 上心善建立,如實修習七覺支[CFn063] 後,現正覺[CFn064] 無上遍正覺。大德!凡那些將存在於未來世的阿羅漢、遍正覺者;那一切世尊也都捨斷心的小雜染、慧的減弱之五蓋後,在四念住上心善建立,如實修習七覺支後,將現正覺無上遍正覺。大德!現在的世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者也捨斷心的小雜染、慧的減弱之五蓋後,在四念住上心善建立,如實修習七覺支後,現正覺無上遍正覺。』」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 17. “大德,雖然我沒有用他心智來觀察過去、將來、現在的阿羅漢.等正覺.世尊的心,但我能夠從推斷之中明白這個道理。大德,就正如在邊境有一座都城,都城有堅固的地基、堅固的圍牆和一道城門,有一個智慧、聰明、能幹的守門人在那裏,他阻截陌生人入城和讓熟悉的人入城。他在環繞城牆的道路巡視時,看不見城牆有任何裂縫或孔洞,即使貓兒也不能從城牆進出。守門人心想: ‘所有體型大的眾生要進出這座都城,都要通過這道唯一的城門。’

“大德,同樣地,我能夠從推斷之中明白這個道理。大德,過去所有的阿羅漢.等正覺.世尊都是要通過捨棄使內心污穢、使智慧軟弱的五蓋,內心善保持在四念處之中,培育七覺支,然後覺悟無上正等正覺。將來所有的阿羅漢.等正覺.世尊也是要通過捨棄使內心污穢、使智慧軟弱的五蓋,內心善保持在四念處之中,培育七覺支,然後覺悟無上正等正覺。現在的阿羅漢.等正覺.世尊也是要通過捨棄使內心污穢、使智慧軟弱的五蓋,內心善保持在四念處之中,培育七覺支,然後覺悟無上正等正覺。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 17 「世尊,我不能瞭解過去、未來及現在阿羅漢、正等正覺諸佛的心,我只知傳承的信仰。世尊,譬如國王有城在其邊境,城基城牆及城樓均甚堅固,且唯有一門;其守門者精敏多智,拒納陌生人,唯許相識者入內。當其環巡該城附近,或許未察及城牆相聯處,或有孔之罅隙可容小貓出入。但彼知任何較大動物欲出入此城,非從此門進出不可。世尊,我所知傳承的信仰亦復如是。世尊,過去世阿羅漢,正等正覺諸佛捨棄貪、嗔、懶惰、煩惱、困惑。此五障為心病能使解悟羸弱;持心於四正念。兼修習七菩提分而證無上正等正覺之圓果。未來世阿羅漢、正等正覺諸佛亦將如此行之。」
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. “I do not, reverend Sir, in regard to those past, future, and present Worthy and Perfect Sambuddhas have full and exact knowledge with (my own) mind. However, I understand (what I said) is in conformity with the Teaching.

It is like a King's city, reverend Sir, near the border areas, having strong foundations, strong walls and gateways, and a single door, and there is a watchman, wise, accomplished, and intelligent, warding off those unknown, and letting through those well-known. While going around the road on inspection through the whole of that city he may not see (such) fissures in the wall or openings in the wall that even a cat could go out through, it may be so, (but he knows): ‘Whatever grosser beings enter or depart from this city all of them surely enter or depart through this door.’

Similarly, reverend Sir, I understand it is in conformity with the Teaching, that whoever, reverend Sir, in the past times, are Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas, all those Gracious Ones, after giving up the five hindrances,[AFn039] have penetrated with wisdom the corruptions of the mind that make one feeble, have established their minds in the four ways of attending to mindfulness,[AFn040] and after developing just as it is the Seven Factors of Awakening,[AFn041] have awakened to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening.

That whoever, reverend Sir, in the future times, are Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas all those Gracious Ones, after giving up the five hindrances, and penetrating with wisdom the corruptions of the mind that make one feeble, and establishing their minds in the four ways of attending to mindfulness, and developing just as it is the Seven Factors of Awakening, will awaken to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening.

And the Gracious One, reverend Sir, in the present time, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha, (also) after giving up the five hindrances, has penetrated with wisdom the corruptions of the mind that make one feeble, has established his mind in the four ways of attending to mindfulness, and after developing just as it is the Seven Factors of Awakening, has awoken to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 17. "No such direct personal knowledge, indeed, is mine, Lord, of the Arahants, the Fully Enlightened Ones of the past, the future, and the present; and yet I have come to know the lawfulness of the Dhamma. Suppose, Lord, a king's frontier fortress was strongly fortified, with strong ramparts and turrets, and it had a single gate, and there was a gatekeeper, intelligent, experienced, and prudent, who would keep out the stranger but allow the friend to enter. As he patrols the path that leads all around the fortress, he does not perceive a hole or fissure in the ramparts even big enough to allow a cat to slip through. So he comes to the conclusion: 'Whatever grosser living things are to enter or leave this city, they will all have to do so just by this gate.' In the same way, Lord, I have come to know the lawfulness of the Dhamma.

"For, Lord, all the Blessed Ones, Arahants, Fully Enlightened Ones of the past had abandoned the five hindrances,[VFn14] the mental defilements that weaken wisdom; had well established their minds in the four foundations of mindfulness;[VFn15] had duly cultivated the seven factors of enlightenment, and were fully enlightened in unsurpassed, supreme Enlightenment.

"And, Lord, all the Blessed Ones, Arahants, Fully Enlightened Ones of the future will abandon the five hindrances, the mental defilements that weaken wisdom; will well establish their minds in the four foundations of mindfulness; will duly cultivate the seven factors of enlightenment, and will be fully enlightened in unsurpassed, supreme Enlightenment.

"And the Blessed One too, Lord, being at present the Arahant, the Fully Enlightened One, has abandoned the five hindrances, the mental defilements that weaken wisdom; has well established his mind in the four foundations of mindfulness; has duly cultivated the seven factors of enlightenment, and is fully enlightened in unsurpassed, supreme Enlightenment."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 147
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Tatrapi sudaṃ bhagavā nāḷandāyaṃ viharanto pāvārikambavane etadeva bahulaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ dhammiṃ kathaṃ karoti – ‘‘iti sīlaṃ, iti samādhi, iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṃso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṃsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṃ cittaṃ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṃ – kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 在那裡,當世尊住在那爛陀賣衣者的芒果園中時,他也對比丘們多作這法說:

「像這樣是戒;像這樣是定;像這樣是慧,當已遍修習戒時,定有大果、大效益;當已遍修習定時,慧有大果、大效益;已遍修習慧的心就完全地解脫煩惱,即:欲的煩惱、有的煩惱、無明的煩惱。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 18. 世尊住在那爛陀波婆迦芒果園的時候,常對比丘說的,是有關戒、有關定、有關慧的教法──戒成熟時便得定,是大果報、大利益;定成熟時便得慧,是大果報、大利益;慧成熟時心便能徹底解脫欲漏、有漏、見漏、無明漏。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 18 薄伽梵住那爛陀的帕瓦哩卡杧菓林與諸比丘如是宣說關於戒定慧的法要。彼謂:「修戒則定有很大利益與果報;修定則慧有很大利益與果報;修慧則心從漏得解脫——欲漏、有漏、見漏及無明漏。」
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. There also the Gracious One, while living near Nāḷandā in Pāvārika's Mango Wood, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, (saying):

“Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of (craving for) continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 18. And also in Nalanda, in the mango grove of Pavarika, the Blessed One often gave counsel to the bhikkhus thus:

"Such and such is virtue; such and such is concentration; and such and such is wisdom. Great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of concentration when it is fully developed by virtuous conduct; great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of wisdom when it is fully developed by concentration; utterly freed from the taints of lust, becoming, and ignorance is the mind that is fully developed in wisdom."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 148
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Dussīlaādīnavā
  1. Atha kho bhagavā nāḷandāyaṃ yathābhirantaṃ viharitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘āyāmānanda, yena pāṭaligāmo tenupasaṅkamissāmā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi . Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ yena pāṭaligāmo tadavasari. Assosuṃ kho pāṭaligāmikā upāsakā – ‘‘bhagavā kira pāṭaligāmaṃ anuppatto’’ti. Atha kho pāṭaligāmikā upāsakā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu. Ekamantaṃ nisinnā kho pāṭaligāmikā upāsakā bhagavantaṃ etadavocuṃ – ‘‘adhivāsetu no, bhante, bhagavā āvasathāgāra’’nti. Adhivāsesi bhagavā tuṇhībhāvena. Atha kho pāṭaligāmikā upāsakā bhagavato adhivāsanaṃ viditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā yena āvasathāgāraṃ tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā sabbasanthariṃ sabbasantharitaṃ satthataṃ (syā.), sabbasanthariṃ santhataṃ (ka.) āvasathāgāraṃ santharitvā āsanāni paññapetvā udakamaṇikaṃ patiṭṭhāpetvā telapadīpaṃ āropetvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṃsu, upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu. Ekamantaṃ ṭhitā kho pāṭaligāmikā upāsakā bhagavantaṃ etadavocuṃ – ‘‘sabbasantharisanthataṃ sabbasanthariṃ santhataṃ (sī. syā. pī. ka.), bhante, āvasathāgāraṃ, āsanāni paññattāni, udakamaṇiko patiṭṭhāpito, telapadīpo āropito; yassadāni, bhante, bhagavā kālaṃ maññatī’’ti. Atha kho bhagavā sāyanhasamayaṃ idaṃ padaṃ vinayamahāvagga na dissati. Nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya saddhiṃ bhikkhusaṅghena yena āvasathāgāraṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā pāde pakkhāletvā āvasathāgāraṃ pavisitvā majjhimaṃ thambhaṃ nissāya puratthābhimukho puratthimābhimukho (ka.) nisīdi. Bhikkhusaṅghopi kho pāde pakkhāletvā āvasathāgāraṃ pavisitvā pacchimaṃ bhittiṃ nissāya puratthābhimukho nisīdi bhagavantameva purakkhatvā. Pāṭaligāmikāpi kho upāsakā pāde pakkhāletvā āvasathāgāraṃ pavisitvā puratthimaṃ bhittiṃ nissāya pacchimābhimukhā nisīdiṃsu bhagavantameva purakkhatvā.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 破戒(壞品德)的過患

那時,世尊如其意住在那爛陀後,召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!我們去巴吒釐村。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。

那時,世尊與大比丘僧團一起抵達巴吒釐村。 巴吒釐村的優婆塞[CFn065] 們聽聞:「世尊已抵達巴吒釐村。」那時,巴吒釐村的優婆塞們去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,巴吒釐村的優婆塞們對世尊這麼說:「大德!請世尊同意〔住〕我們的招待所。」世尊以沈默同意了。那時,巴吒釐村的優婆塞們知道世尊同意了後,起座向世尊問訊,然後作右繞[CFn066] ,接著去招待所。抵達後,鋪設招待所的一切鋪設物、設置座位、設立水瓶、懸掛油燈後,去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁站立。在一旁站好後,巴吒釐村的優婆塞們對世尊這麼說:

「大德!招待所的一切鋪設物已鋪設、座位已設置、水瓶已設立、油燈已懸掛,大德!現在請世尊考量適當的時間。」

那時,世尊在傍晚時,穿好衣服後,取鉢與僧衣,與比丘僧團一起去招待所。抵達後,洗腳,然後進入招待所,接著靠中央柱子面向東坐下,比丘僧團也洗腳、進入招待所,然後靠西邊牆壁面向東,在世尊後面坐下,巴吒釐村的優婆塞們洗腳、進入招待所,然後靠東邊牆壁面向西,面對世尊坐下。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 19. 世尊在那爛陀住了一段時間後,便對阿難尊者說: “阿難,來吧,我們一起去波吒釐村。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 於是世尊便和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起前往波吒釐村。

  1. 波吒釐村的優婆塞聽到世尊到來的消息,他們去到世尊那裏,對世尊作禮,然後坐在一邊。他們對世尊說: “大德,願世尊到我們的客堂來。” 世尊保持沈默以表示接受邀請。
  2. 波吒釐村的優婆塞知道世尊接受邀請後,他們起座,向世尊作禮,右繞世尊,然後前往客堂。他們去到客堂後,舖蓋整個客堂的地面,擺設坐具,放置水瓶,掛起油燈,之後前往世尊那裏。他們去到世尊那裏後,對世尊作禮,站在一邊,然後對世尊說: “大德,客堂的地已經舖好,坐具已經擺好,水瓶已經放好,油燈已經掛好了。如果世尊認為是時候的話,請便。”
  3. 於是,世尊穿好衣服,拿著大衣和缽,和比丘僧團一起前往客堂。世尊洗足後進入客堂,靠在中央的柱,面向東方坐下來。比丘僧團洗足後進入客堂,靠在西面的牆,面向東方坐下來,向著世尊坐。波吒釐村的優婆塞洗足後進入客堂,靠在東面的牆,面向西方坐下來,向著世尊坐。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 19 爾時薄伽梵在那爛陀隨宜住已,語尊者阿難說:「來,阿難,我等去拔塔里村。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。於是佛與大比丘僧眾向拔塔里村進行。

20 爾時拔塔里村諸優婆塞聞佛已到達該處。彼等走向佛所,向佛作禮,就座其側以後,白佛言:「世尊慈愍,請到村上休息室去。」薄伽梵默然許可。

21 拔塔里村諸優婆塞知佛已接受邀請,從座起向佛作禮,右遶畢,即向村上休息室走去。到已,彼等散鮮沙於地,鋪設地毯於休息室,安置水瓶並掛上油燈。彼等再到佛前向佛作禮,就座其側以後白佛言:「世尊,村上休息室已全部佈置就緒,鮮沙、地毯、水瓶、油燈,均已安置,唯聖知時。

22 爾時薄伽梵著衣持缽與大比丘僧眾走向村上休息室。到已,洗腳入室,靠中柱而坐面向東。比丘僧眾亦洗腳入室,靠西壁遶佛而坐面向東。拔塔里村諸優婆塞亦洗腳入室,靠東壁坐在佛之對方,面向西。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[11: The Advantages of Virtue]

  1. Then the Gracious One, after living near Nāḷandā for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come Ānanda let us approach Pāṭaligāma.”[AFn042]

“Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Pāṭaligāma.

The laymen of Pāṭaligāma heard: “The Gracious One, it seems, had reached Pāṭaligāma.” Then the laymen of Pāṭaligāma approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, they sat down on one side. While sitting on one side, the laymen of Pāṭaligāma said this to the Gracious One: “May the Gracious One consent, reverend Sir, to (stay in) our rest house.”[AFn043] The Gracious One consented by maintaining silence.

Then the laymen of Pāṭaligāma, having understood the Gracious One's consent, after rising from their seats, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, approached their rest house, and after approaching, and spreading (the mats) so that the rest house was spread all over, and preparing the seats, setting up the water-pot, and lighting the oil-lamp, they approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, they stood on one side. While standing on one side, the laymen of Pāṭaligāma said this to the Gracious One:

“The rest house is spread with mats all over, reverend Sir, the seats are prepared, the water-pot is set up, and the oil-lamp is lit, now is the time, reverend Sir, for whatever the Gracious One is thinking.”

Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the evening time, after picking up his bowl and robe, together with the Community of monks, approached the rest house, and after approaching, washing his feet, and entering the rest house, he sat down near to the middle pillar, facing the East, and the Community of monks, after washing their feet, and entering the rest house, sat down (behind the Gracious One) near the West wall, facing the East, having the Gracious One in front (of them). Also the laymen of Pāṭaligāma, after washing their feet, and entering the rest house, sat down (in front of the Gracious One) near the East wall, facing the West, having the Gracious One in front (of them).

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 19.When the Blessed One had stayed at Nalanda as long as he pleased, he addressed the Venerable Ananda thus:

"Come, Ananda, let us go to Pataligama."

"So be it, Lord."

And the Blessed One took up his abode at Pataligama together with a large community of bhikkhus.

  1. Then the devotees of Pataligama came to know: "The Blessed One, they say, has arrived at Pataligama." And they approached the Blessed One, respectfully greeted him, sat down at one side, and addressed him thus: "May the Blessed One, Lord, kindly visit our council hall." And the Blessed One consented by his silence.
  2. Knowing the Blessed One's consent, the devotees of Pataligama rose from their seats, respectfully saluted him, and keeping their right sides towards him, departed for the council hall. Then they prepared the council hall by covering the floor all over, arranging seats and water, and setting out an oil lamp. Having done this, they returned to the Blessed One, respectfully greeted him, and standing at one side, announced: "Lord, the council hall is ready, with the floor covered all over, seats and water prepared, and an oil lamp has been set out. Let the Blessed One come, Lord, at his convenience.
  3. And the Blessed One got ready, and taking his bowl and robe, went to the council hall together with the company of bhikkhus. After rinsing his feet, the Blessed One entered the council hall and took his seat close to the middle pillar, facing east. The community of bhikkhus, after rinsing their feet, also entered the council hall and took seats near the western wall, facing east, so that the Blessed One was before them. And the devotees of Pataligama, after rinsing their feet and entering the council hall, sat down near the eastern wall, facing west, so that the Blessed One was in front of them.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 149
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavā pāṭaligāmike upāsake āmantesi – ‘‘pañcime, gahapatayo, ādīnavā dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā. Katame pañca? Idha, gahapatayo, dussīlo sīlavipanno pamādādhikaraṇaṃ mahatiṃ bhogajāniṃ nigacchati. Ayaṃ paṭhamo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, gahapatayo, dussīlassa sīlavipannassa pāpako kittisaddo abbhuggacchati. Ayaṃ dutiyo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, gahapatayo, dussīlo sīlavipanno yaññadeva parisaṃ upasaṅkamati – yadi khattiyaparisaṃ yadi brāhmaṇaparisaṃ yadi gahapatiparisaṃ yadi samaṇaparisaṃ – avisārado upasaṅkamati maṅkubhūto. Ayaṃ tatiyo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, gahapatayo, dussīlo sīlavipanno sammūḷho kālaṅkaroti. Ayaṃ catuttho ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, gahapatayo, dussīlo sīlavipanno kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā apāyaṃ duggatiṃ vinipātaṃ nirayaṃ upapajjati. Ayaṃ pañcamo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā. Ime kho, gahapatayo, pañca ādīnavā dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊召喚巴吒釐村的優婆塞們:

「屋主們!有這五種破戒、戒壞失的過患[CFn067] ,哪五種呢?屋主們!這裡,破戒者、戒已壞失者因為放逸而遭受大財產的損失,這是第一種破戒、戒壞失的過患。

再者,屋主們!破戒者、戒已壞失者的惡名聲傳出去,這是第二種破戒、戒壞失的過患。

再者,屋主們!破戒者、戒已壞失者往見任何群眾:剎帝利[CFn068] 眾或婆羅門眾或屋主眾或沙門眾,他無自信地、心虛地往見,這是第三種破戒、戒壞失的過患。

再者,屋主們!破戒者、戒已壞失者迷亂地死去,這是第四種破戒、戒壞失的過患。

再者,屋主們!破戒者、戒已壞失者以身體的崩解,死後往生到苦界[CFn069] 、惡趣[CFn070] 、下界[CFn071] 、地獄,這是第五種破戒、戒壞失的過患。

屋主們!這些是五種破戒、戒壞失的過患。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 23. 世尊對波吒釐村的優婆塞說: “居士們,戒行不好、戒行不正的人有五種過患。這五種過患是什麼呢?居士們,戒行不好、戒行不正的人因為放逸,會失去大量財富。這是第一種過患。

“居士們,再者,戒行不好、戒行不正的人會帶來壞名聲。這是第二種過患。

“居士們,再者,戒行不好、戒行不正的人無論去到剎帝利眾、婆羅門眾、居士眾、沙門眾等任何大眾之中,都會沒有自信、感到不安。這是第三種過患。

“居士們,再者,戒行不好、戒行不正的人在臨終時內心會昏亂。這是第四種過患。

“居士們,再者,戒行不好、戒行不正的人在身壞命終之後,會投生在惡趣、地獄之中。這是第五種過患。居士們,這些就是戒行不好、戒行不正的人的五種過患了。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 23 爾時薄伽梵告拔塔里村諸優婆塞說:「諸居士,此是行惡不正直的五失。何者為五?第一,行惡不正直,因懶惰而遭貧困。第二、惡名遠播。第三、無論其參加任何社團如剎帝利、婆羅門、居士或沙門––彼覺得自慚與忐忑不寧。第四、死時憂慮不安。第五、身壞命終,墮入地獄。諸居士,此是行惡的五失。」
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then the Gracious One addressed the laymen of Pāṭaligāma, (saying): “There are these five dangers, householders, for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

What are the five?

1) Here, householders, one lacking in virtue, one who has lost his virtue, because of being heedless undergoes a great loss of riches. This is the first danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

2) Furthermore, householders, for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue, a bad report goes round. This is the second danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

3) Furthermore, householders, one lacking in virtue, one who has lost his virtue, whatever assembly he approaches, whether an assembly of Nobles, or an assembly of brahmins, or an assembly of householders, or an assembly of ascetics, he approaches without confidence, with confusion. This is the third danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

4) Furthermore, householders, one lacking in virtue, one who has lost his virtue, dies bewildered. This is the fourth danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

5) Furthermore, householders, one lacking in virtue, one who has lost his virtue, at the break-up of the body, after death, arises in the lower world, in an unfortunate destiny, in the fall, in the nether regions. This is the fifth danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

These are the five dangers, householders, for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 23. Thereupon the Blessed One addressed the devotees of Pataligama thus: "The immoral man, householders, by falling away from virtue, encounters five perils: great loss of wealth through heedlessness; an evil reputation; a timid and troubled demeanor in every society, be it that of nobles, brahmans, householders, or ascetics; death in bewilderment; and, at the breaking up of the body after death, rebirth in a realm of misery, in an unhappy state, in the nether world, in hell.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 150
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Sīlavanttaānisaṃsā
  1. ‘‘Pañcime , gahapatayo, ānisaṃsā sīlavato sīlasampadāya. Katame pañca? Idha, gahapatayo, sīlavā sīlasampanno appamādādhikaraṇaṃ mahantaṃ bhogakkhandhaṃ adhigacchati. Ayaṃ paṭhamo ānisaṃso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, gahapatayo, sīlavato sīlasampannassa kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggacchati. Ayaṃ dutiyo ānisaṃso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, gahapatayo, sīlavā sīlasampanno yaññadeva parisaṃ upasaṅkamati – yadi khattiyaparisaṃ yadi brāhmaṇaparisaṃ yadi gahapatiparisaṃ yadi samaṇaparisaṃ visārado upasaṅkamati amaṅkubhūto. Ayaṃ tatiyo ānisaṃso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, gahapatayo, sīlavā sīlasampanno asammūḷho kālaṅkaroti. Ayaṃ catuttho ānisaṃso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, gahapatayo, sīlavā sīlasampanno kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjati. Ayaṃ pañcamo ānisaṃso sīlavato sīlasampadāya. Ime kho, gahapatayo, pañca ānisaṃsā sīlavato sīlasampadāyā’’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 持戒(有品德)的效益

屋主們!有這五種持戒、戒具足的效益,哪五種呢?屋主們!這裡,持戒者、戒具足者因為不放逸而到達大財產的聚集,這是第一種持戒、戒具足的效益。

再者,屋主們!持戒者、戒具足者的好名聲傳出去,這是第二種持戒、戒具足的效益。

再者,屋主們!持戒者、戒具足者往見任何群眾:剎帝利眾或婆羅門眾或屋主眾或沙門眾,他有自信地、不心虛地往見,這是第三種持戒、戒具足的效益。

再者,屋主們!持戒者、戒具足者不迷亂地死去,這是第四種持戒、戒具足的效益。

再者,屋主們!持戒者、戒具足者以身體的崩解,死後往生到善趣[CFn072] 、天界,這是第五種持戒、戒具足的效益。

屋主們!這些是五種持戒、戒具足的效益。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 24. “居士們,具戒、持戒的人有五種利益。這五種利益是什麼呢?具戒、持戒的人因為不放逸,會得到大量財富。這是第一種利益。

“居士們,再者,具戒、持戒的人會帶來好名聲。這是第二種利益。

“居士們,再者,具戒、持戒的人無論去到剎帝利眾、婆羅門眾、居士眾、沙門眾等任何大眾之中,都會有自信、感到心安。這是第三種利益。

“居士們,再者,具戒、持戒的人在臨終時內心不會昏亂。這是第四種利益。

“居士們,再者,具戒、持戒的人在身壞命終之後,會投生在善趣、天界之中。這是第五種利益。居士們,這些就是具戒、持戒的人的五種利益了。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 24 「諸居士,此是行善的五得。何者為五?第一、行善者因實行正直,因勤奮而獲大財富。第二、善名遠播。第三、無論其參加任何社團如剎帝利、婆羅門、居士或沙門––他有自信力和鎮定。第四、死時無憂慮。第五、身壞命終,上生天界。諸居士,此是行善的五得。」
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. There are these five advantages, householders, for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.[AFn044]

What are the five?

1) Here, householders, one who is virtuous, one accomplished in virtue, because of being heedful obtains a great mass of riches.

This is the first advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.

2) Furthermore, householders, of one who is virtuous, of one accomplished in virtue, a good report goes round. This is the second advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.

3) Furthermore, householders, one who is virtuous, one accomplished in virtue, whatever assembly he approaches, whether an assembly of Nobles, or an assembly of brahmins, or an assembly of householders, or an assembly of ascetics, he approaches with confidence, without confusion. This is the third advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.

4) Furthermore, householders, one who is virtuous, one accomplished in virtue, dies without bewilderment. This is the fourth advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.

5) Furthermore, householders, one who is virtuous, one accomplished in virtue, at the break-up of the body, after death, arises in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world. This is the fifth advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.

These are the five advantages, householders, for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 24."Five blessings, householders, accrue to the righteous man through his practice of virtue: great increase of wealth through his diligence; a favorable reputation; a confident deportment, without timidity, in every society, be it that of nobles, brahmans, householders, or ascetics; a serene death; and, at the breaking up of the body after death, rebirth in a happy state, in a heavenly world."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 151
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavā pāṭaligāmike upāsake bahudeva rattiṃ dhammiyā kathāya sandassetvā samādapetvā samuttejetvā sampahaṃsetvā uyyojesi – ‘‘abhikkantā kho, gahapatayo, ratti, yassadāni tumhe kālaṃ maññathā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho pāṭaligāmikā upāsakā bhagavato paṭissutvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā pakkamiṃsu. Atha kho bhagavā acirapakkantesu pāṭaligāmikesu upāsakesu suññāgāraṃ pāvisi.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵巴吒釐村的優婆塞們大半夜,使之歡喜[CFn073] ,然後令他們離開:

「屋主們!夜已過,現在請你們考量適當的時間。」

「是的,大德!」巴吒釐村的優婆塞們回答世尊後,起座向世尊問訊,然後作右繞,接著離開。

那時,世尊在巴吒釐村優婆塞們離去不久進入空屋。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 25. 世尊整夜為波吒釐村的優婆塞說法,對他們開示,對他們教導,使他們景仰,使他們歡喜,之後著他們離去。世尊說: “居士們,夜快過了。如果你們認為是時候的話,請便。”

波吒釐村的優婆塞回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 他們起座,對世尊作禮,右繞世尊,然後離去。波吒釐村的優婆塞離去不久,世尊便進入靜室。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 25 爾時薄伽梵向拔塔里村的優婆塞開示法要至於深夜,使彼等皆大歡喜。彼謂:「諸居士,現已深夜,可宜知時。」

「是,世尊。」彼等回答說;即從座起,向佛作禮,右遶而去。於彼等歸去後不久,薄伽梵亦退入其丈室。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then the Gracious One, after instructing, rousing, enthusing, and cheering the laymen of Pāṭaligāma for most of the night with a talk about the Teaching,[AFn045] dismissed them, (saying): “The night has passed, householders, now is the time for whatever you are thinking.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” said those laymen of Pāṭaligāma, and after replying to the Gracious One, rising from their seats, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, went away.

Then the Gracious One, not long after the laymen of Pāṭaligāma had gone, entered an empty place.[AFn046]

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 25. And the Blessed One spent much of the night instructing the devotees of Pataligama in the Dhamma, rousing, edifying, and gladdening them, after which he dismissed them, saying: "The night is far advanced, householders. You may go at your convenience.

"So be it, Lord." And the devotees of Pataligama rose from their seats, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and keeping their right sides towards him, departed. And the Blessed One, soon after their departure, retired into privacy.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 152
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Pāṭaliputtanagaramāpanaṃ

  1. Tena kho pana samayena sunidhavassakārā sunīdhavassakārā (syā. ka.) magadhamahāmattā pāṭaligāme nagaraṃ māpenti vajjīnaṃ paṭibāhāya. Tena samayena sambahulā devatāyo sahasseva sahassasseva (sī. pī. ka.), sahassaseva (ṭīkāyaṃ pāṭhantaraṃ), sahassasahasseva (udānaṭṭhakathā) pāṭaligāme vatthūni pariggaṇhanti. Yasmiṃ padese mahesakkhā devatā vatthūni pariggaṇhanti, mahesakkhānaṃ tattha raññaṃ rājamahāmattānaṃ cittāni namanti nivesanāni māpetuṃ. Yasmiṃ padese majjhimā devatā vatthūni pariggaṇhanti, majjhimānaṃ tattha raññaṃ rājamahāmattānaṃ cittāni namanti nivesanāni māpetuṃ. Yasmiṃ padese nīcā devatā vatthūni pariggaṇhanti, nīcānaṃ tattha raññaṃ rājamahāmattānaṃ cittāni namanti nivesanāni māpetuṃ. Addasā kho bhagavā dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena tā devatāyo sahasseva pāṭaligāme vatthūni pariggaṇhantiyo. Atha kho bhagavā rattiyā paccūsasamayaṃ paccuṭṭhāya āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘ke nu kho ko nu kho (sī. syā. pī. ka.), ānanda, pāṭaligāme nagaraṃ māpentī’’ti māpetīti (sī. syā. pī. ka.)? ‘‘Sunidhavassakārā, bhante, magadhamahāmattā pāṭaligāme nagaraṃ māpenti vajjīnaṃ paṭibāhāyā’’ti. ‘‘Seyyathāpi, ānanda, devehi tāvatiṃsehi saddhiṃ mantetvā, evameva kho, ānanda, sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā pāṭaligāme nagaraṃ māpenti vajjīnaṃ paṭibāhāya. Idhāhaṃ, ānanda, addasaṃ dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena sambahulā devatāyo sahasseva pāṭaligāme vatthūni pariggaṇhantiyo. Yasmiṃ , ānanda, padese mahesakkhā devatā vatthūni pariggaṇhanti, mahesakkhānaṃ tattha raññaṃ rājamahāmattānaṃ cittāni namanti nivesanāni māpetuṃ. Yasmiṃ padese majjhimā devatā vatthūni pariggaṇhanti, majjhimānaṃ tattha raññaṃ rājamahāmattānaṃ cittāni namanti nivesanāni māpetuṃ. Yasmiṃ padese nīcā devatā vatthūni pariggaṇhanti, nīcānaṃ tattha raññaṃ rājamahāmattānaṃ cittāni namanti nivesanāni māpetuṃ. Yāvatā, ānanda, ariyaṃ āyatanaṃ yāvatā vaṇippatho idaṃ agganagaraṃ bhavissati pāṭaliputtaṃ puṭabhedanaṃ . Pāṭaliputtassa kho, ānanda, tayo antarāyā bhavissanti – aggito vā udakato vā mithubhedā vā’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

華氏城的建築

  1. 當時,摩揭陀國大臣蘇尼大與作雨者為了抵抗跋耆人,在巴吒釐村建築城堡。當時,好幾千個天神在巴吒釐村佔取宅地:凡有大力量天神佔取宅地的地方,在那裡,祂們引導心有大力量的國王大臣令他們建築住處;凡有中等〔力量〕天神佔取宅地的地方,在那裡,祂們引導心有中等〔力量〕的國王大臣令他們建築住處;凡有低等〔力量〕天神佔取宅地的地方,在那裡,祂們引導心有低等〔力量〕的國王大臣令他們建築住處。世尊以清淨、超越人的天眼看見那〔幾〕千個天神在巴吒釐村佔取宅地,那時,世尊在破曉時起來後,召喚尊者阿難:

「阿難!誰在巴吒釐村建築城堡呢?」

「大德!摩揭陀國大臣蘇尼大與作雨者為了抵抗跋耆人在巴吒釐村建築城堡。」

「阿難!猶如與三十三天商量了,就這樣,摩揭陀國大臣蘇尼大與作雨者為了抵抗跋耆人在巴吒釐村建築城堡。阿難!這裡,我以清淨、超越人的天眼看見那〔幾〕千個天神在巴吒釐村佔取宅地:凡有大力量天神佔取宅地的地方,在那裡,祂們引導心有大力量的國王大臣令他們建築住處;凡有中等〔力量〕天神佔取宅地的地方,在那裡,祂們引導心有中等〔力量〕的國王大臣令他們建築住處;凡有低等〔力量〕天神佔取宅地的地方,在那裡,祂們引導心有低等〔力量〕的國王大臣令他們建築住處。阿難!所有亞利安人所及之處;所有〔其〕商人行徑之所及,這將是第一都市,華氏城將是財貨集散地,阿難!華氏城的三個障礙將是:火〔災〕、水〔災〕、敵人的破壞。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 26. 這時候,摩揭陀大臣須尼陀和雨行在波吒釐村興建一座都城,用來防禦跋祇。這時候,數以千計的天神居住在波吒釐村的土地上。那些大勢力天神所居住的土地,吸引大勢力大臣的心在那土地上興建居所;那些中勢力天神所居住的土地,吸引中勢力大臣的心在那土地上興建居所;那些小勢力天神所居住的土地,吸引小勢力大臣的心在那土地上興建居所。
  1. 世尊以清淨及超於常人的天眼,看見數以千計的天神居住在波吒釐村的土地上。他在清晨的時候起來,問阿難尊者: “阿難,誰在波吒釐村興建都城呢?”

“大德,摩揭陀大臣須尼陀和雨行在波吒釐村興建都城,用來防禦跋祇。”

  1. “阿難,須尼陀和雨行興建都城,就像曾討教三十三天[SFn02] 似的。阿難,我以清淨及超於常人的天眼,看見數以千計的天神居住在波吒釐村的土地上。那些大勢力天神所居住的土地,吸引大勢力大臣的心在那土地上興建居所;那些中勢力天神所居住的土地,吸引中勢力大臣的心在那土地上興建居所;那些小勢力天神所居住的土地,吸引小勢力大臣的心在那土地上興建居所。阿難,只要有賢士在這裏,只要有商旅的道路通達這裏,這裏便將成為一個大都城。這裏將會稱為波吒釐子城,是一個貨物集散地。阿難,將來只有三種東西能威脅波吒釐子城:大火、洪水或內部分裂。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 26 爾時摩竭陀大臣蘇尼陀與瓦沙卡羅為抵抗越祗人,在拔塔里村築城一座。同時有無數神祗,在拔塔里村劃封數以千計的宅地。凡宅地是屬於有大威力的神祗,彼等恿慫最有權威的國王大臣去該處建造居宅。凡宅地是屬於中等神祗,彼等恿慫中等的國王大臣去該處建造屋宇。凡宅地是屬於下等神祗,彼等亦慫恿下等的國王大臣去該處興建房舍。

27 爾時薄伽梵以其偉大超人的天眼望見數以千計的神祗在拔塔里村劃封宅地。彼於破曉時分起來語尊者阿難說:「阿難,誰在拔塔里村築城?」

「世尊,摩竭陀大臣蘇尼陀與瓦沙卡羅在該處築城,為抵禦越祗人。」

28 「阿難,摩竭陀大臣蘇尼陀與瓦沙卡羅為抵禦越祗人在拔塔里村築城,彼等曾與忉利天天神約定。我以我之偉大清明超人的天眼望見數以千計的神祗在拔塔里村劃封宅地。凡宅地是屬於有大威力的神祗,彼等慫恿最有權威的國王大臣去該處建造居宅。其中神下神亦復如此(其全文見本章第二十六節)。阿難,當阿利安人仍常往還及商賈雲集,此拔塔里子城將成為一大都巿與商業中心。但此拔塔里子城將有三種危險,一者從火,二者從水,三者從朋友失和。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[12: Building up Pāṭaligāma]

  1. Now at that time the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra[AFn047] were building up a city at Pāṭaligāma to ward off the Vajjians.[AFn048] Then at that time a great many Divinities, thousands upon thousands, were taking possession of grounds at Pāṭaligāma.

In that place where the great Divinities took possession of grounds, there the powerful rulers and great royal ministers' minds inclined to building up residences.

In that place where the middling Divinities took possession of grounds, there the middling rulers and middling royal ministers' minds inclined to building up residences.

In that place where the lower Divinities took possession of grounds, there the lower rulers and lower royal ministers' minds inclined to building up residences.

The Gracious One saw with his Divine-eye, which is purified, and surpasses that of (normal) men, that those Divinities, thousands upon thousands, were taking possession of grounds at Pāṭaligāma.

Then towards the time of dawn, having risen from his seat, the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Now who, Ānanda, is building a city at Pāṭaligāma?”

“The Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra, reverend Sir, are building up a city at Pāṭaligāma to ward off the Vajjians.”

“It is just as though, Ānanda, (they are building) after consulting with the Tāvatiṁsa Divinities, so, Ānanda, are the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra building up a city at Pāṭaligāma to ward off the Vajjians.

Here, Ānanda, I saw with my Divine-eye, which is purified, and surpasses that of (normal) men, that a great many Divinities, thousands upon thousands, were taking possession of grounds at Pāṭaligāma.

In that place where the great Divinities took possession of grounds, there the powerful rulers and great royal ministers' minds inclined to building up residences.

In that place where the middling Divinities took possession of grounds, there the middling rulers and middling royal ministers' minds inclined to building up residences.

In that place where the lower Divinities took possession of grounds, there the lower rulers and lower royal ministers' minds inclined to building up residences.

For as long, Ānanda, as there is an Ariyan sphere (of influence), for as long as there is trade, this basket-opening Pāṭaliputta will be the chief city. For Pāṭaliputta, Ānanda, there will be three dangers: from fire and from water and from the breaking of an alliance.”[AFn049]

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 26. At that time Sunidha and Vassakara, the chief ministers of Magadha, were building a fortress at Pataligama in defense against the Vajjis. And deities in large numbers, counted in thousands, had taken possession of sites at Pataligama. In the region where deities of great power prevailed, officials of great power were bent on constructing edifices; and where deities of medium power and lesser power prevailed, officials of medium and lesser power were bent on constructing edifices.
  1. And the Blessed One saw with the heavenly eye, pure and transcending the faculty of men, the deities, counted in thousands, where they had taken possession of sites in Pataligama. And rising before the night was spent, towards dawn, the Blessed One addressed the Venerable Ananda thus: "Who is it, Ananda, that is erecting a city at Pataligama?"

"Sunidha and Vassakara, Lord, the chief ministers of Magadha, are building a fortress at Pataligama, in defence against the Vajjis."

  1. "It is, Ananda, as if Sunidha and Vassakara had taken counsel with the gods of the Thirty-three. For I beheld, Ananda, with the heavenly eye, pure and transcending the faculty of men, a large number of deities, counted in thousands, that have taken possession of sites at Pataligama. In the region where deities of great power prevail, officials of great power are bent on constructing edifices; and where deities of medium and lesser power prevail, officials of medium and lesser power are bent on constructing edifices. Truly, Ananda, as far as the Aryan race extends and trade routes spread, this will be the foremost city Pataliputta, a trade-center.[VFn16] But Pataliputta, Ananda, will be assailed by three perils — fire, water, and dissension."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 153
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodiṃsu, sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhaṃsu, ekamantaṃ ṭhitā kho sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā bhagavantaṃ etadavocuṃ – ‘‘adhivāsetu no bhavaṃ gotamo ajjatanāya bhattaṃ saddhiṃ bhikkhusaṅghenā’’ti. Adhivāsesi bhagavā tuṇhībhāvena. Atha kho sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā bhagavato adhivāsanaṃ viditvā yena sako āvasatho tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā sake āvasathe paṇītaṃ khādanīyaṃ bhojanīyaṃ paṭiyādāpetvā bhagavato kālaṃ ārocāpesuṃ – ‘‘kālo, bho gotama, niṭṭhitaṃ bhatta’’nti.

Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya saddhiṃ bhikkhusaṅghena yena sunidhavassakārānaṃ magadhamahāmattānaṃ āvasatho tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Atha kho sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā buddhappamukhaṃ bhikkhusaṅghaṃ paṇītena khādanīyena bhojanīyena sahatthā santappesuṃ sampavāresuṃ. Atha kho sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā bhagavantaṃ bhuttāviṃ onītapattapāṇiṃ aññataraṃ nīcaṃ āsanaṃ gahetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu. Ekamantaṃ nisinne kho sunidhavassakāre magadhamahāmatte bhagavā imāhi gāthāhi anumodi –

‘‘Yasmiṃ padese kappeti, vāsaṃ paṇḍitajātiyo;
Sīlavantettha bhojetvā, saññate brahmacārayo brahmacārino (syā.).
‘‘Yā tattha devatā āsuṃ, tāsaṃ dakkhiṇamādise;
Tā pūjitā pūjayanti pūjitā pūjayanti naṃ (ka.), mānitā mānayanti naṃ.
‘‘Tato naṃ anukampanti, mātā puttaṃva orasaṃ;
Devatānukampito poso, sadā bhadrāni passatī’’ti.

Atha kho bhagavā sunidhavassakāre magadhamahāmatte imāhi gāthāhi anumoditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,摩揭陀國大臣蘇尼大與作雨者去見世尊。抵達後,與世尊相互歡迎。歡迎與寒暄後,在一旁站立。在一旁站好後,摩揭陀國大臣蘇尼大與作雨者對世尊這麼說:

「請喬達摩先生與比丘僧團一起同意我們今日的食事〔供養〕。」

世尊以沈默同意了。

那時,摩揭陀國大臣蘇尼大與作雨者知道世尊同意後,回自己的住處。抵達後,在自己的住處準備勝妙的硬食與軟食[CFn074] ,時候到時通知世尊:

「喬達摩先生!時候已到,飲食已〔準備〕完成。」

那時,世尊在午前時穿好衣服後,取鉢與僧衣,與比丘僧團一起去摩揭陀國大臣蘇尼大與作雨者的住處。抵達後,與比丘僧團一起在設置好的座位坐下。那時,摩揭陀國大臣蘇尼大與作雨者親手以勝妙的硬食與軟食款待與滿足以佛陀為上首的比丘僧團。

那時,世尊食用完畢手離鉢時,摩揭陀國大臣蘇尼大與作雨者取某個低矮坐具後,在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,世尊以這些偈頌感謝摩揭陀國大臣蘇尼大與作雨者:

 「在任何地方,賢智類者建造住所,
 在那裡他宴請持戒者,已抑制者、梵行者。
 在那裡,凡有天神們〔被〕告知他們的供養,
 祂們因供養而崇拜他,因服侍而尊敬他。
 祂們因此而憐憫他,如母親對自己的親生子,
 被天神憐憫的人,經常看見吉祥。」

那時,世尊以這些偈頌感謝摩揭陀國大臣蘇尼大與作雨者後,起座離開。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 29. 這時候,摩揭陀大臣須尼陀和雨行去到世尊那裏,和世尊互相問候,作了一番悅意的交談,然後站在一邊。摩揭陀大臣須尼陀和雨行對世尊說: “喬答摩賢者,願世尊和比丘僧團接受我們今天的食物。” 世尊保持沈默以表示接受供養。
  1. 摩揭陀大臣須尼陀和雨行知道世尊接受邀請後,回到自己的客堂,吩咐準備美味的硬食物和軟食物[SFn03] ,然後使人通知世尊: “喬答摩賢者,現在食物已經準備好了。”

於是,在上午,世尊穿好衣服,拿著大衣和缽,和比丘僧團一起前往摩揭陀大臣須尼陀和雨行的客堂。世尊到了客堂後,坐在為他預備好的座位上。於是,須尼陀和雨行親手將硬食物和軟食物遞送給以佛陀為首的比丘僧團,使比丘得到滿足,使比丘掩缽示意吃飽。當世尊吃完食物,手離開缽的時候,須尼陀和雨行各以低座坐在一邊。

  1. 當摩揭陀大臣須尼陀和雨行坐在一邊的時候,世尊對他們說以下偈頌表示謝意:
 “一位智慧人,  無論在何地,
 供養持淨戒、  修習梵行者,
 能向諸天神,  展示其功德。
 天神於此人,  尊重及恭敬,
 愛護布施者,  猶如母護子。
 受天神守護,  恆常得安樂。”

世尊對摩揭陀大臣須尼陀和雨行說偈表示謝意後,起座離去。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 29 爾時摩竭陀大臣蘇尼陀與瓦沙卡羅走向佛前互敘寒暄及問候起居,侍立其側以後白佛言:「唯願世尊慈允今日與大比丘僧眾赴舍間午餐。」佛陀默然許可。

30 摩竭陀大臣蘇尼陀與瓦沙卡羅知佛許可遂各還家。歸家後,備辦甜粥糕餅已訖,即來白佛言:「世尊,諸事已備,唯聖知時。」

爾時薄伽梵於清晨著衣持缽與大比丘僧眾走向摩竭陀大臣蘇尼陀與瓦沙卡羅的宅第。到已,坐於敷座。摩竭陀大臣蘇尼陀與瓦沙卡羅即親手奉獻甜粥糕餅,以佛為首,下至諸比丘僧。佛食既竟,置缽已,彼等取兩小凳,就座其側。

31 當彼等就座已,佛陀以偈讚曰:

 任何智者居住此地
 供養僧眾––能自調伏之善人,
 以此功德回向劃封宅地之神祗。
 互相敬禮,互相尊敬。
 彼等以仁慈待之
 如母親之對於獨子;
 人為神所眷顧者,
 彼等常有幸福。

佛陀以偈讚歎摩竭陀大臣蘇尼陀與瓦沙卡羅己。即從座起。離去。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra approached the Gracious One, and after approaching, they exchanged greetings with the Gracious One, and after exchanging courteous talk and greetings, they stood on one side.

While standing on one side the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra said this to the Gracious One: “May dear Gotama consent to us (offering him) a meal today, together with the Community of monks.” The Gracious One consented by maintaining silence.

Then the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra having understood the Gracious One's consent, approached their own dwelling, and after approaching, in their own dwellings, having had excellent foodstuffs made ready,[AFn050] had the time announced to the Gracious One, (saying): “It is time, dear Gotama, the meal is ready.”

Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the morning time, after picking up his bowl and robe, together with the Community of monks, approached the dwelling of the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra, and after approaching, he sat down on the prepared seat.

Then the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra with their own hands served and satisfied the Community of monks with the Buddha at its head with excellent foodstuffs. Then the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra, when the Gracious One had eaten and washed his hand and bowl, having taken a low seat, sat down on one side.

While sitting on one side the Gracious One rejoiced the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra with these verses:

“In that place where he makes his dwelling, having entertained
The wise and virtuous here, the restrained, who live the spiritual life,
He should dedicate a gift (of merit) to those Divinities who were in that place.
Honoured, they pay honour, revered, they revere him.
Thereafter they have compassion on him, as a mother on her own son,
A man whom the Divinities has compassion on always sees what is auspicious.”

Then the Gracious One after rejoicing the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra with these verses, after rising from his seat, went away.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 29. Then Sunidha and Vassakara went to the Blessed One, and after courteous greeting to the Blessed One, and exchanging many pleasant words, they stood at one side and addressed him thus: "May the Venerable Gotama please accept our invitation for tomorrow's meal, together with the community of bhikkhus." And the Blessed One consented by his silence.
  1. Knowing the Blessed One's consent, Sunidha and Vassakara departed for their own abodes, where they had choice food, hard and soft, prepared. And when it was time, they announced to the Blessed One: "It is time, Venerable Gotama; the meal is ready."

Thereupon the Blessed One got ready in the forenoon, and taking bowl and robe, he went together with the community of bhikkhus to the abode of Sunidha and Vassakara, where he took the seat prepared for him. And Sunidha and Vassakara themselves attended on the community of bhikkhus headed by the Buddha, and served them with choice food, hard and soft. When the Blessed One had finished his meal and had removed his hand from the bowl, they took low seats and sat down at one side.

  1. And the Blessed One thanked them with these stanzas:
Wherever he may dwell, the prudent man
Ministers to the chaste and virtuous;
And having to these worthy ones made gifts,
He shares his merits with the local devas.
And so revered, they honor him in turn,
Are gracious to him even as a mother
Is towards her own, her only son;
And he who thus enjoys the devas' grace,
And is by them beloved, good fortune sees.

After this, the Blessed One rose from his seat and departed.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 154
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Tena kho pana samayena sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā bhagavantaṃ piṭṭhito piṭṭhito anubandhā honti – ‘‘yenajja samaṇo gotamo dvārena nikkhamissati, taṃ gotamadvāraṃ nāma bhavissati. Yena titthena gaṅgaṃ nadiṃ tarissati, taṃ gotamatitthaṃ nāma bhavissatī’’ti. Atha kho bhagavā yena dvārena nikkhami , taṃ gotamadvāraṃ nāma ahosi. Atha kho bhagavā yena gaṅgā nadī tenupasaṅkami. Tena kho pana samayena gaṅgā nadī pūrā hoti samatittikā kākapeyyā. Appekacce manussā nāvaṃ pariyesanti, appekacce uḷumpaṃ pariyesanti, appekacce kullaṃ bandhanti apārā pārā (sī. syā. ka.), orā (vi. mahāvagga), pāraṃ gantukāmā. Atha kho bhagavā – seyyathāpi nāma balavā puriso samiñjitaṃ vā bāhaṃ pasāreyya, pasāritaṃ vā bāhaṃ samiñjeyya, evameva – gaṅgāya nadiyā orimatīre antarahito pārimatīre paccuṭṭhāsi saddhiṃ bhikkhusaṅghena. Addasā kho bhagavā te manusse appekacce nāvaṃ pariyesante appekacce uḷumpaṃ pariyesante appekacce kullaṃ bandhante apārā pāraṃ gantukāme. Atha kho bhagavā etamatthaṃ viditvā tāyaṃ velāyaṃ imaṃ udānaṃ udānesi –
‘‘Ye taranti aṇṇavaṃ saraṃ, setuṃ katvāna visajja pallalāni;
Kullañhi jano bandhati kullaṃ jano ca bandhati (syā.), kullaṃ hi jano pabandhati (sī. pī. ka.), tiṇṇā nitiṇṇā, na tiṇṇā (ka.) medhāvino janā’’ti.

Paṭhamabhāṇavāro.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 當時,摩揭陀國大臣蘇尼大與作雨者緊追在世尊之後〔,心想〕:

「現在,凡沙門喬達摩離開之門將名為喬達摩門;渡恒河之渡場將名為喬達摩渡場。」

那時,世尊離開之門名為喬達摩門。那時,世尊去恒河之渡場。當時,恒河充滿水,滿到河邊烏鴉能喝到的,一些人遍求船;一些人遍求筏;一些人在此岸綁桴想到對岸。那時,世尊猶如有力氣的男子能伸直彎曲的手臂,或彎曲伸直的手臂那樣〔快〕地在恒河此岸消失,與比丘僧團一起出現在恒河對岸。那時,世尊看見那些人:一些人遍求船;一些人遍求筏;一些人在此岸綁桴想到對岸,那時,世尊知道這件事後,那時候自說優陀那[CFn075]

 「凡越渡海洋、湖泊者,他們造橋離沼澤,
 人們綁桴,有智慧的人已橫渡。」

初誦品〔終了〕。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 32. 這時候,摩揭陀大臣須尼陀和雨行隨後跟著世尊,他們心想: “如果喬答摩沙門從哪一道城門出城,那一道城門便命名為喬答摩城門;如果他從哪一個渡口過河,那一個渡口便命名為喬答摩渡口。” 世尊從其中一道城門出了城,於是那道城門便命名為喬答摩城門。
  1. 世尊去到了恆河邊。這時候恆河的河水水漲,漲得烏鴉也可以從地上喝水。人們為了要到對岸,一些人在找尋渡船,一些人在找尋木筏,一些人在綁紮浮囊。這時候,像強壯的人在一伸臂或一屈臂的一瞬間,世尊和比丘僧團從恆河這邊岸隱沒,在恆河的對岸出現。
  2. 世尊看見人們為了要到對岸,一些人在找尋渡船,一些人在找尋木筏,一些人在綁紮浮囊,於是他有感而發,說出感興偈:
“眾人為渡河,  免受困於水,
築橋與造筏;  智者已渡河。”

第一誦完

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 32 爾時摩竭陀大臣蘇尼陀與瓦沙卡羅尾隨佛後說:「今天沙門喬達摩從某門出,該門將名為『喬達摩門』;從某渡頭渡河,該渡頭將名為『喬達摩渡』。」其後佛所從出之門是名為「喬達摩門」。

※ ※

33 爾時薄伽梵走向河邊。時恆河水漲泛,欲渡河者或求船,或求筏,或求桴。世尊此時如大力士一屈伸臂頃即不見於恆河此岸,與諸大比丘僧眾再出現於恆河彼岸。

34 爾時薄伽梵見人求船、求筏或求桴,欲用渡河,遂說偈曰:

幻世正縛紮筏桴,
已渡苦海者
造橋樑以渡池沼,
彼為知者,彼為得救者。

第一章竟

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Now at that time the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra were following close behind the Gracious One, (thinking): “That gate by which the ascetic Gotama leaves will get the name the Gotama Gate, and that ford by which he crosses the river Ganges will get the name the Gotama Ford.”

Then that gate by which the Gracious One left got the name the Gotama Gate. Then the Gracious One approached the river Ganges. Now at that time the river Ganges was full to the brim, and could be drunk from by crows (perched on the bank). Some of the people were seeking boats, some were seeking floats, and some were binding rafts, desiring to go from this shore to the shore beyond.

Then the Gracious One, just as a strong man might stretch out a bent arm, or bend in an outstretched arm, so did he vanish from the near bank of the river Ganges, and reappeared on the far bank,[AFn051] together with the Community of monks.

The Gracious One saw those people, some seeking boats, some seeking floats, and some binding rafts, desiring to go from this shore to the shore beyond.

Then the Gracious One, having understood the significance of it, on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance:

“Those who cross over a sea or a river,[AFn052]
(Do so) after making a bridge, and leaving the marshes behind.
(While) people are still binding together a raft,
Intelligent people have crossed over.”

The First Chapter for Recital (is Finished)

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Crossing the Ganges

  1. 32. Then Sunidha and Vassakara followed behind the Blessed One, step by step, saying: "Through whichever gate the recluse Gotama will depart today, that we will name the Gotama-gate; and the ford by which he will cross the river Ganges shall be named the Gotama-ford." And so it came to pass, where the gate was concerned.
  1. But when the Blessed One came to the river Ganges, it was full to the brim, so that crows could drink from it. And some people went in search of a boat or float, while others tied up a raft, because they desired to get across. But the Blessed One, as quickly as a strong man might stretch out his bent arm or draw in his outstretched arm, vanished from this side of the river Ganges, and came to stand on the yonder side.
  2. And the Blessed One saw the people who desired to cross searching for a boat or float, while others were binding rafts. And then the Blessed One, seeing them thus, gave forth the solemn utterance:
They who have bridged the ocean vast,
Leaving the lowlands far behind,
While others still their frail rafts bind,
Are saved by wisdom unsurpassed.

  • 第二頌(第二章)
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 155-1
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Ariyasaccakathā

  1. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘āyāmānanda, yena koṭigāmo tenupasaṅkamissāmā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ yena koṭigāmo tadavasari. Tatra sudaṃ bhagavā koṭigāme viharati. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi –

‘‘Catunnaṃ , bhikkhave, ariyasaccānaṃ ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamañceva tumhākañca. Katamesaṃ catunnaṃ? Dukkhassa, bhikkhave, ariyasaccassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamañceva tumhākañca. Dukkhasamudayassa, bhikkhave, ariyasaccassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamañceva tumhākañca. Dukkhanirodhassa, bhikkhave, ariyasaccassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamañceva tumhākañca. Dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya, bhikkhave, ariyasaccassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamañceva tumhākañca. Tayidaṃ, bhikkhave, dukkhaṃ ariyasaccaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ, dukkhasamudayaṃ dukkhasamudayo (syā.) ariyasaccaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ, dukkhanirodhaṃ dukkhanirodho (syā.) ariyasaccaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ, dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ, ucchinnā bhavataṇhā, khīṇā bhavanetti, natthidāni punabbhavo’’ti. Idamavoca bhagavā. Idaṃ vatvāna sugato athāparaṃ etadavoca satthā –

‘‘Catunnaṃ ariyasaccānaṃ, yathābhūtaṃ adassanā;
Saṃsitaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ, tāsu tāsveva jātisu.
Tāni etāni diṭṭhāni, bhavanetti samūhatā;
Ucchinnaṃ mūlaṃ dukkhassa, natthi dāni punabbhavo’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

聖諦的談說

  1. 那時,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!我們去拘利村。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。

那時,世尊與大比丘僧團一起抵達拘利村。在那裡,世尊住在拘利村。在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:

「比丘們!因為對四聖諦的不隨覺[CFn076] 、不通達,這樣,我與你們就流轉過這長途的輪迴,哪四個呢?比丘們!因為對苦聖諦的不隨覺、不通達,這樣,我與你們就流轉過這長途的輪迴;因為對苦集[CFn077] 聖諦的不隨覺、不通達,這樣,我與你們就流轉過這長途的輪迴;因為對苦滅[CFn078] 聖諦的不隨覺、不通達,這樣,我與你們就流轉過這長途的輪迴;因為對導向苦滅道跡[CFn079] 聖諦的不隨覺、不通達,這樣,我與你們就流轉過這長途的輪迴。

比丘們!這苦聖諦已隨覺、已通達,苦集聖諦已隨覺、已通達,苦滅聖諦已隨覺、已通達,導向苦滅道跡聖諦已隨覺、已通達,有的渴愛[CFn080] 已被切斷,有之管道[CFn081] 已盡,現在不再有再生。」

這就是世尊所說,說了這個後,善逝[CFn082] 、大師[CFn083] 又更進一步這麼說:

 「由於不如實見四聖諦,
 就在種種出生中長途輪迴。
 那些〔真理〕已被看見,有之管道已被根絕,
 苦的根已被切斷,現在不再有再生。」
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 1. 這時候,世尊對阿難尊者說: “阿難,來吧,我們一起去拘胝村。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 於是世尊便和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起前往拘胝村。世尊住在拘胝村。

  1. 在那裏,世尊對比丘說:

“比丘們,因為不覺悟、不洞悉四聖諦,所以我和你們長期輪迴生死。四聖諦是什麼呢?

“比丘們,因為不覺悟、不洞悉苦聖諦,所以我和你們長期輪迴生死。

“比丘們,因為不覺悟、不洞悉苦集聖諦,所以我和你們長期輪迴生死。

“比丘們,因為不覺悟、不洞悉苦滅聖諦,所以我和你們長期輪迴生死。

“比丘們,因為不覺悟、不洞悉苦滅之道聖諦,所以我和你們長期輪迴生死。

“比丘們,因為現在我覺悟、洞悉苦聖諦,覺悟、洞悉苦集聖諦,覺悟、洞悉苦滅聖諦,覺悟、洞悉苦滅之道聖諦,所以我截斷了有愛,盡除了有因,從此不再受後有。”

  1. 世尊.善逝.導師說了以上的話後,再說以下偈頌:
 “因不如實知,
 四聖諦之法;
 一生又一生,
 長期在漂泊。
 今已得見諦,
 有因已拔除,
 苦根已截斷,
 從此無後有。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

第 二 章

  1. 01 爾時世尊語尊者阿難說:「來,阿難,我等去柯提村。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。於是佛與大比丘僧眾向柯提村進行。到已,佛陀即在村上住。

02 爾時佛告諸比丘說:「諸比丘,因未能瞭解四種聖諦,我等長期輪轉生死之途。何者為四?諸比丘,是苦諦、苦因諦、苦滅諦、和引苦入於毀滅之途的道諦。諸比丘,若能瞭解此四聖諦,則取欲已盡,有因已滅,從此不再受生」。

03 薄伽梵說是語已,復以偈頌曰:

 因不瞭解四聖諦之真實性
 所以流傳於生死長途。
 既已了悟,則生因已絕,
 苦根已斷,從此不再受生。
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[The Second Chapter for Recitation]

[13: The Four Noble Truths]

  1. Then the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come Ānanda let us approach Koṭigāma.”[AFn053] “Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Koṭigāma. There the Gracious One lived near Koṭigāma.

There the Gracious One addressed the monks, (saying):

“Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration, monks, of Four Noble Truths[AFn054] both you and I have been wandering and running along (in Saṁsāra) for a long time.

Which four?

1) Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration, monks, of the Noble Truth of Suffering both you and I have been wandering and running along (in Saṁsāra) for a long time.

2) Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration, monks, of the Noble Truth of the Arising of Suffering both you and I have been wandering and running along (in Saṁsāra) for a long time.

3) Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration, monks, of the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering both you and I have been wandering and running along (in Saṁsāra) for a long time.

4) Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration, monks, of the Noble Truth of the Practice going to the Cessation of Suffering both you and I have been wandering and running along (in Saṁsāra) for a long time.

(But now) the Noble Truth of Suffering has been understood and penetrated, the Noble Truth of the Arising of Suffering has been understood and penetrated, the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering has been understood and penetrated, the Noble Truth of the Practice going to the Cessation of Suffering has been understood and penetrated. Craving for continued existence has been cut off, what leads to rebirth has been exhausted, there is no continuation in existence.”

The Gracious One said this, and after saying this, the Fortunate One, the Teacher, said something more:[AFn055]

“Because of not seeing as it really is the Four Noble Truths
we have run along for a long time through various births.
(Now) these have been seen, what leads to rebirth is uprooted,
the root of suffering has been cut off, there is no continuation in existence.”
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Part Two: The Journey to Vesali

The Four Noble Truths

  1. 1. Now the Blessed One spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "Come, Ananda, let us go to Kotigama."

"So be it, Lord." And the Blessed One took up his abode at Kotigama together with a large community of bhikkhus.

  1. And the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus, saying:

"Bhikkhus, it is through not realizing, through not penetrating the Four Noble Truths that this long course of birth and death has been passed through and undergone by me as well as by you. What are these four? They are the noble truth of suffering; the noble truth of the origin of suffering; the noble truth of the cessation of suffering; and the noble truth of the way to the cessation of suffering. But now, bhikkhus, that these have been realized and penetrated, cut off is the craving for existence, destroyed is that which leads to renewed becoming, and there is no fresh becoming."

  1. Thus it was said by the Blessed One. And the Happy One, the Master, further said:
Through not seeing the Four Noble Truths,
Long was the weary path from birth to birth.
When these are known, removed is rebirth's cause,
The root of sorrow plucked; then ends rebirth.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 155-2
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1] Tatrapi sudaṃ bhagavā koṭigāme viharanto etadeva bahulaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ dhammiṃ kathaṃ karoti – ‘‘iti sīlaṃ, iti samādhi, iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṃso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṃsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṃ cittaṃ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṃ – kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

在那裡,當世尊住在拘利村時,他也對比丘們多作這法說:

「像這樣是戒;像這樣是定;像這樣是慧,當已遍修習戒時,定有大果、大效益;當已遍修習定時,慧有大果、大效益;已遍修習慧的心就完全地解脫煩惱,即:欲的煩惱、有的煩惱、無明的煩惱。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3] 4. 世尊住在拘胝村的時候,常對比丘說的,是有關戒、有關定、有關慧的教法──戒成熟時便得定,是大果報、大利益;定成熟時便得慧,是大果報、大利益;慧成熟時心便能徹底解脫欲漏、有漏、見漏、無明漏。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4] 04 薄伽梵在柯提村住時亦向諸比丘如是宣說關於戒定慧的法要。彼謂:「修戒則定有很大利益與果報;修定則慧有很大利益與果報;修慧則心從漏得解脫--欲漏、有漏、見漏及無明漏。」
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

There also the Gracious One, while living in Koṭigāma, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, (saying):

“Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of (craving for) continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6] 4. And also at Kotigama the Blessed One often gave counsel to the bhikkhus thus: "Such and such is virtue; such and such is concentration; and such and such is wisdom. Great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of concentration when it is fully developed by virtuous conduct; great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of wisdom when it is fully developed by concentration; utterly freed from the taints of lust, becoming, and ignorance is the mind that is fully developed in wisdom."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 156
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Anāvattidhammasambodhiparāyaṇā

  1. Atha kho bhagavā koṭigāme yathābhirantaṃ viharitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘āyāmānanda, yena nātikā nādikā (syā. pī.) tenupaṅkamissāmā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ yena nātikā tadavasari. Tatrapi sudaṃ bhagavā nātike viharati giñjakāvasathe. Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘sāḷho nāma, bhante, bhikkhu nātike kālaṅkato, tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo? Nandā nāma, bhante, bhikkhunī nātike kālaṅkatā, tassā kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo? Sudatto nāma, bhante, upāsako nātike kālaṅkato, tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo? Sujātā nāma, bhante, upāsikā nātike kālaṅkatā, tassā kā gati , ko abhisamparāyo? Kukkuṭo kakudho (syā.) nāma, bhante, upāsako nātike kālaṅkato, tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo? Kāḷimbo kāliṅgo (pī.), kāraḷimbo (syā.) nāma, bhante, upāsako…pe… nikaṭo nāma, bhante, upāsako… kaṭissaho kaṭissabho (sī. pī.) nāma, bhante, upāsako… tuṭṭho nāma, bhante, upāsako… santuṭṭho nāma, bhante, upāsako… bhaddo bhaṭo (syā.) nāma, bhante, upāsako… subhaddo subhaṭo (syā.) nāma, bhante, upāsako nātike kālaṅkato, tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo’’ti?
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

不還者與以正覺為彼岸

  1. 那時,世尊如其意住在拘利村後,召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!我們去親戚村。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。

那時,世尊與大比丘僧團一起抵達親戚村[CFn084] ,在那裡,世尊住在親戚村的磚屋中。

那時,尊者阿難去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:

「大德!名叫薩哈的比丘在親戚村死了,他的去處是什麼?來世是什麼?大德!名叫難陀的比丘尼在親戚村死了,她的去處是什麼?來世是什麼?大德!名叫善施的優婆塞在親戚村死了,他的去處是什麼?來世是什麼?大德!名叫善生的優婆夷[CFn085] 在親戚村死了,她的去處是什麼?來世是什麼?大德!名叫公雞的優婆塞在親戚村死了,他的去處是什麼?來世是什麼?大德!名叫迦哩巴的優婆塞……(中略)大德!名叫尼迦達的優婆塞……(中略)大德!名叫迦低沙哈的優婆塞……(中略)大德!名叫滿足的優婆塞……(中略)大德!名叫善滿足的優婆塞……(中略)大德!名叫吉祥的優婆塞……(中略)大德!名叫善吉祥的優婆塞在親戚村死了,他的去處是什麼?來世是什麼?」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 5. 世尊在拘胝村住了一段時間後,便對阿難尊者說: “阿難,來吧,我們一起去那提迦。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 於是世尊便和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起前往那提迦。世尊住在那提迦的磚屋。

  1. 這時候,阿難尊者去到世尊那裏,對世尊作禮,然後坐在一邊。阿難尊者對世尊說: “大德,在那提迦有一位名叫沙蘭的比丘命終,他的去向怎麼樣?他的下一生怎麼樣呢?

“大德,在那提迦有一位名叫難陀的比丘尼命終,她的去向怎麼樣?她的下一生怎麼樣呢?

“大德,在那提迦有一位名叫須達多的優婆塞命終,他的去向怎麼樣?他的下一生怎麼樣呢?

“大德,在那提迦有一位名叫須闍多的優婆夷命終,她的去向怎麼樣?她的下一生怎麼樣呢?

“大德,在那提迦有一位名叫迦拘陀的優婆塞命終,他的去向怎麼樣?他的下一生怎麼樣呢?

“大德,在那提迦有一位名叫迦楞伽的優婆塞……名叫尼迦多的優婆塞……名叫迦胝沙婆的優婆塞……名叫兜哆的優婆塞……名叫散兜哆的優婆塞……名叫跋陀的優婆塞……名叫須跋陀的優婆塞命終,他的去向怎麼樣?他的下一生怎麼樣呢?”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 05 爾時薄伽梵在柯提村隨宜住已,語尊者阿難說:「來,阿難,我等去那低卡。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。於是佛與大比丘僧眾向那低卡進行。到已,佛陀住在磚屋。

06 爾時尊者阿難走向佛前向佛作禮,就座其側以後,白佛言:「世尊,有名沙爾哈比丘者死在那低卡,彼轉生何處?命運如何?世尊,有名難陀比丘尼者死在那低卡,伊轉生何處,命運如何?」同時並問及優婆塞蘇達塔,優婆夷蘇伽塔,優婆塞卡苦陀,羯𩜁伽,尼卡達,卡提沙跋,兔他,山兔他,蘇跋陀等,彼等轉生何處及命運如何。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[14: The Mirror of (the True Nature of) Things]

  1. Then the Gracious One, after living near Koṭigāma for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come Ānanda let us approach the Nādikas.”[AFn056]

“Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at the Nādikas. There the Gracious One lived near (one of) the Nādikas in the Brick House.

Then venerable Ānanda approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side. While sitting on one side venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One:

“The monk named Sāḷha, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was his destination? What was his future state?

The nun named Nandā, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was her destination? What was her future state?

The layman named Sudatta, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was his destination? What was his future state?

The laywoman named Sujātā, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was her destination? What was her future state?

The layman named Kakudha, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was his destination? What was his future state?

The layman named Kāliṅga, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was his destination? What was his future state?

The layman named Nikaṭa, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was his destination? What was his future state?

The layman named Kaṭissaha, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was his destination? What was his future state?

The layman named Tuṭṭha, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was his destination? What was his future state?

The layman named Santuṭṭha, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was his destination? What was his future state?

The layman named Bhadda, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was his destination? What was his future state?

The layman named Subhadda, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was his destination? What was his future state?”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 5. When the Blessed One had stayed at Kotigama as long as he pleased, he spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "Come, Ananda, let us go to Nadika."

"So be it, Lord." And the Blessed One took up his abode in Nadika together with a large community of bhikkhus, staying in the Brick House.

The Four Specific Attainments

  1. Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Blessed One and, after greeting him respectfully, sat down at one side. And he said to the Blessed One: "Here in Nadika, Lord, there have passed away the bhikkhu Salha and the bhikkhuni Nanda. Likewise there have passed away the layman Sudatta and the laywoman Sujata; likewise the layman Kakudha, Kalinga, Nikata, Katissabha, Tuttha, Santuttha, Bhadda, and Subhadda. What is their destiny, Lord? What is their future state?"
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 157
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Sāḷho, ānanda, bhikkhu āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi. Nandā, ānanda, bhikkhunī pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā opapātikā tattha parinibbāyinī anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā. Sudatto, ānanda, upāsako tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā rāgadosamohānaṃ tanuttā sakadāgāmī sakideva imaṃ lokaṃ āgantvā dukkhassantaṃ karissati. Sujātā, ānanda, upāsikā tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā sambodhiparāyaṇā parāyanā (sī. syā. pī. ka.). Kukkuṭo, ānanda, upāsako pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā opapātiko tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā. Kāḷimbo, ānanda, upāsako…pe… nikaṭo, ānanda, upāsako… kaṭissaho , ānanda, upāsako… tuṭṭho, ānanda, upāsako … santuṭṭho, ānanda, upāsako… bhaddo, ānanda, upāsako… subhaddo, ānanda, upāsako pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā opapātiko tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā . Paropaññāsaṃ, ānanda, nātike upāsakā kālaṅkatā, pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā opapātikā tattha parinibbāyino anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā. Sādhikā navuti chādhikā navuti (syā.), ānanda, nātike upāsakā kālaṅkatā tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā rāgadosamohānaṃ tanuttā sakadāgāmino sakideva imaṃ lokaṃ āgantvā dukkhassantaṃ karissanti. Sātirekāni dasātirekāni (syā.), ānanda, pañcasatāni nātike upāsakā kālaṅkatā, tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā sambodhiparāyaṇā.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 「阿難!薩哈比丘以諸煩惱的滅盡,以證智[CFn086] 自作證後,在當生中進入後住於[CFn087] 無煩惱的心解脫[CFn088] 、慧解脫[CFn089] 。阿難!難陀比丘尼以五下分結[CFn090] 的滅盡而為化生[CFn091] 者,在那裡入了究竟涅槃,為不從彼世轉回者。阿難!善施優婆塞以三結的滅盡,以貪、瞋、癡薄,為一來[CFn092] 者,只來此世一回後,將得到苦的結束[CFn093] 。阿難!善生優婆夷以三結的滅盡,為入流者[CFn094] ,不墮惡趣法、決定[CFn095] 、以正覺為彼岸[CFn096] 。阿難!公雞優婆塞以五下分結的滅盡而為化生者,在那裡入了究竟涅槃,為不從彼世轉回者。阿難!迦哩巴優婆塞……(中略)阿難!尼迦達優婆塞……(中略)阿難!迦低沙哈優婆塞……(中略)阿難!滿足優婆塞……(中略)阿難!善滿足優婆塞……(中略)阿難!吉祥優婆塞……(中略)阿難!善吉祥優婆塞以五下分結的滅盡而為化生者,在那裡入了究竟涅槃,為不從彼世轉回者。阿難!超過五十位在親戚村死去的優婆塞以五下分結的滅盡而為化生者,在那裡入了究竟涅槃,為不從彼世轉回者。阿難!九十多位在親戚村死去的優婆塞以三結的滅盡,以貪、瞋、癡薄,為一來者,只來此世一回後,將得到苦的結束。阿難!超過五百位在親戚村死去的優婆塞以三結的滅盡,為入流者,不墮惡趣法、決定、以正覺為彼岸。
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 7. “阿難,沙蘭比丘清除了各種漏,現生以無比智來體證無漏、心解脫、慧解脫。

“阿難,難陀比丘尼斷除了五下分結,在上界化生,在那裏入滅,不會從那世間回來。

“阿難,須達多優婆塞斷除了三結,貪欲、瞋恚、愚癡薄,是斯陀含,返回這個世間一次之後苦便會終結。

“阿難,須闍多優婆夷斷除了三結,是須陀洹,不會墮落惡道,肯定會得到覺悟。

“阿難,迦拘陀優婆塞斷除了五下分結,在上界化生,在那裏入滅,不會從那世間回來。

“阿難,迦楞伽優婆塞……阿難,尼迦多優婆塞……阿難,迦胝沙婆優婆塞……阿難,兜哆優婆塞……阿難,散兜哆優婆塞……阿難,跋陀優婆塞……阿難,須跋陀優婆塞斷除了五下分結,在上界化生,在那裏入滅,不會從那世間回來。

“阿難,在那提迦有五十多位命終的優婆塞斷除了五下分結,在上界化生,在那裏入滅,不會從那世間回來。

“阿難,在那提迦有九十多位命終的優婆塞斷除了三結,貪欲、瞋恚、愚癡薄,是斯陀含,返回這個世間一次之後苦便會終結。

“阿難,在那提迦有五百多位命終的優婆塞斷除了三結,是須陀洹,不會墮落惡道,肯定會得到覺悟。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 07 「阿難,沙爾哈比丘,彼於此世之身漏己盡,已證悟心解脫、慧解脫及獲得阿𩜁漢果。阿難,難陀比丘尼已斷除束縛人群於此欲界的五縛,已投生天界,於彼處寂滅後,即不復再來此世。阿難,優婆塞蘇達塔已斷除三結,並減削淫、怒、癡,已證斯陀含果,只轉世一次,即得苦竟。阿難,優婆夷蘇伽塔已斷除三結,已獲取不墮惡趣的須陀洹果,必證佛果。阿難,優婆塞卡苦陀已斷除束縛人群於此欲界的五縛,已投生天界,於彼寂滅後,即不再來此世。阿難,優婆塞羯𩜁伽,尼卡達、卡提沙跋、兔他、山兔他、跋陀、蘇跋陀等已斷除束縛人群於此欲界的五縛,已投生天界,於彼寂滅後,即不再來此世。阿難,復有五十餘位優婆塞死在那低卡者,亦復如是。阿難,更有九十餘位優婆塞死在那低卡者,已斷除三結,並減削淫怒癡,已證得斯陀含果,只轉世一次,即得苦竟。阿難,復有五百餘位優婆塞死在那低卡者,已斷除三結,已獲取不墮惡趣的須陀洹果,必證佛果。
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. “The monk Sāḷha, Ānanda, through the destruction of the pollutants, without pollutants, freed in mind, freed through wisdom, dwelt having known, having directly experienced, and having attained (Nibbāna) himself in this very life.[AFn057]

The nun Nandā, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.[AFn058]

The layman Sudatta, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of three fetters, and the diminuation of passion, hatred, and delusion, is a Once-Returner, and will return only once more to this world, and (then) will make an end to suffering.

The laywoman Sujātā, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of three fetters, is a Stream-Enterer, is no longer subject to falling (into the lower realms), and has a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening.

The layman Kakudha, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

The layman Kāliṅga, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

The layman Nikaṭa, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

The layman Kaṭissaha, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

The layman Tuṭṭha, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

The layman Santuṭṭha, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

The layman Bhadda, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

The layman Subhadda, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

More than fifty laymen, Ānanda, have died in Nādika who, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters have arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world. In excess of ninety laymen, Ānanda, have died in Nādika who, through the complete destruction of three fetters, and the diminuation of passion, hatred, and delusion are Once-Returners, and will return only once more to this world, and (then) will make an end to suffering.

In excess of five-hundred laymen, Ānanda, have died in Nādika who, through the complete destruction of three fetters, are Stream-Enterers, no longer subject to falling (into the lower realms), and have a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 7. "The bhikkhu Salha, Ananda, through the destruction of the taints in this very lifetime has attained to the taint-free deliverance of mind and deliverance through wisdom, having directly known and realized it by himself.[VFn17]

"The bhikkhuni Nanda, Ananda, through the destruction of the five lower fetters (that bind beings to the world of the senses), has arisen spontaneously (among the Suddhavasa deities) and will come to final cessation in that very place, not liable to return from that world.

"The layman Sudatta, Ananda, through the destruction of the three fetters (self-belief, doubt, and faith in the efficacy of rituals and observances), and the lessening of lust, hatred, and delusion, has become a once-returner and is bound to make an end of suffering after having returned but once more to this world.

"The laywoman Sujata, Ananda, through the destruction of the three fetters has become a stream-enterer, and is safe from falling into the states of misery, assured, and bound for Enlightenment.

"The layman Kakudha, Ananda, through the destruction of the five lower fetters (that bind beings to the world of the senses), has arisen spontaneously (among the Suddhavasa deities), and will come to final cessation in that very place, not liable to return from that world.

"So it is with Kalinga, Nikata, Katissabha, Tuttha, Santuttha, Bhadda, and Subhadda, and with more than fifty laymen in Nadika. More than ninety laymen who have passed away in Nadika, Ananda, through the destruction of the three fetters, and the lessening of lust, hatred, and delusion, have become once-returners and are bound to make an end of suffering after having returned but once more to this world.

"More than five hundred laymen who have passed away in Nadika, Ananda, through the complete destruction of the three fetters have become stream-enterers, and are safe from falling into the states of misery, assured, and bound for Enlightenment.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 158
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Dhammādāsadhammapariyāyā

  1. ‘‘Anacchariyaṃ kho panetaṃ, ānanda, yaṃ manussabhūto kālaṅkareyya. Tasmiṃyeva tasmiṃ tasmiṃ ce (sī. pī.), tasmiṃ tasmiṃ kho (syā.) kālaṅkate tathāgataṃ upasaṅkamitvā etamatthaṃ pucchissatha, vihesā hesā, ānanda, tathāgatassa. Tasmātihānanda, dhammādāsaṃ nāma dhammapariyāyaṃ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byākareyya – ‘khīṇanirayomhi khīṇatiracchānayoni khīṇapettivisayo khīṇāpāyaduggativinipāto, sotāpannohamasmi avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

法鏡法門

  1. 阿難!生為人會死去並非不可思議,如果當每一個死了,你們都來問如來這些事,阿難!這對如來也會是個麻煩。阿難!因此,在這裡,我將教導名叫法鏡法門[CFn097] ,已具備此的聖弟子[CFn098] ,當他願意時,他就能由自己記說自己:『於地獄已盡,畜生界已盡,餓鬼界[CFn099] 已盡,苦界[CFn069] 、惡趣、下界[CFn071] 已盡,我是入流者,不墮惡趣法、決定、以正覺為彼岸。』
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 8. “阿難,人的命終並不是稀奇的事情,如果人人命終後你都找如來問這些問題,可真是煩擾如來。因此,我要說一個稱為 ‘法鏡’ 的法義。聖弟子如果具有這面法鏡,可以為自己授記: ‘我已盡除地獄、畜生、餓鬼等惡道;我是須陀洹,不會墮落惡道,肯定會得到覺悟。’
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 08 「阿難,人生有死,何足為奇。若每死一人,皆來問我,使我疲乏之至。因此,阿難,我將為汝宣說法鏡。若聖弟子有此,即能預知其未來:地獄已毀,我不墮於畜生、餓鬼及其他苦趣。我已獲取不墮惡趣的須陀洹果,必證佛果。
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. But it is not such a wonder, Ānanda, that those who have become human should die, but if (every time) there is a death in this place, after approaching the Realised One, you were to ask about it, Ānanda, that would be troublesome[AFn059] to the Realised One.

Therefore, Ānanda, I will teach (this) presentation of the Teaching called the Mirror of (the True Nature of) Things, endowed with which a Noble Disciple desiring to do so may declare about himself: ‘Exhausted is (birth in) Hell, exhausted is (birth in) an animal's womb, exhausted is (birth in) the realm of the Fallen Spirits, exhausted is falling into an unfortunate destiny in the lower realms, I am a Stream-Enterer, no longer subject to falling (into the lower realms), and have a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening.’

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

The Mirror of the Dhamma

  1. 8. "But truly, Ananda, it is nothing strange that human beings should die. But if each time it happens you should come to the Tathagata and ask about them in this manner, indeed it would be troublesome to him. Therefore, Ananda, I will give you the teaching called the Mirror of the Dhamma, possessing which the noble disciple, should he so desire, can declare of himself: 'There is no more rebirth for me in hell, nor as an animal or ghost, nor in any realm of woe. A stream-enterer am I, safe from falling into the states of misery, assured am I and bound for Enlightenment.'"
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 159-1
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Katamo ca so, ānanda, dhammādāso dhammapariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byākareyya – ‘khīṇanirayomhi khīṇatiracchānayoni khīṇapettivisayo khīṇāpāyaduggativinipāto, sotāpannohamasmi avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo’ti?
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 而,阿難!什麼是法鏡法門,已具備此的聖弟子,當他願意時,他就能由自己記說自己:『於地獄已盡,畜生界已盡,餓鬼界已盡,苦界、惡趣、下界已盡,我是入流者,不墮惡趣法、決定、以正覺為彼岸。』呢?
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 9. “阿難,什麼是法鏡的法義呢?
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 09 「阿難,何名法鏡?若聖弟子有此,即能預知其未來:地獄已毀,我不墮於畜生、餓鬼及其他苦趣?
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. And what, Ānanda, is (this) presentation of the Teaching called the Mirror of (the True Nature of) Things, endowed with which a Noble Disciple desiring to do so may declare about himself: ‘Exhausted is (birth in) Hell, exhausted is (birth in) an animal's womb, exhausted is (birth in) the realm of the Fallen Spirits, exhausted is falling into an unfortunate destiny in the lower realms, I am a Stream-Enterer, no longer subject to falling (into the lower realms), and have a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening’?
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 9. "And what, Ananda, is that teaching called the Mirror of Dhamma, possessing which the noble disciple may thus declare of himself?
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 159-2
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

‘‘Idhānanda , ariyasāvako buddhe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti – ‘itipi so bhagavā arahaṃ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṃ buddho bhagavā’ti.

‘‘Dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti – ‘svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ti.

‘‘Saṅghe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti – ‘suppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṃ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassā’ti.

‘‘Ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṃvattanikehi.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

阿難!這裡,聖弟子對佛具備不壞淨[CFn100] :『像這樣,那世尊是阿羅漢[CFn015] 、遍正覺者[CFn057] 、明與行具足者[CFn101] 、善逝[CFn102] 、世間知者[CFn103] 、被調伏人的無上調御者[CFn104] 、人天之師[CFn105] 、佛陀[CFn106] 、世尊[CFn107] 。』

聖弟子對法具備不壞淨:『法是被世尊善說的、直接可見的、即時的、請你來見的、能引導的、智者應該自己經驗的。』

對僧團[CFn023] 具備不壞淨:『世尊的弟子僧團是依善而行者[CFn108] ,世尊的弟子僧團是依正直而行者,世尊的弟子僧團是依真理而行者,世尊的弟子僧團是如法而行者,即:四雙之人、八輩之士[CFn109] ,這世尊的弟子僧團應該被奉獻、應該被供奉、應該被供養、應該被合掌[CFn110] ,為世間的無上福田[CFn111] 。』

具備聖者所愛戒:『無毀壞的、無瑕疵的、無污點的、無雜色的、自由的、智者所稱讚的、不取著的、導向定的。』

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]

“阿難,聖弟子對佛具有一種不會壞失的淨信,他明白: ‘這位世尊是阿羅漢.等正覺.明行具足.善逝.世間解.無上士.調御者.天人師.佛.世尊[SFn04] 。’

“聖弟子對法具有一種不會壞失的淨信,他明白: ‘法是由世尊開示出來的,是現生體證的,不會過時的,公開給所有人的,導向覺悟的,智者能在其中親身體驗的。’

“聖弟子對僧具有一種不會壞失的淨信,他明白: ‘世尊的弟子僧善巧地進入正道,正直地進入正道,方法正確地進入正道,方向正確地進入正道,是四雙八輩的聖者;世尊的弟子僧值得受人供養,值得受人合掌,是世間無上的福田。’

“聖弟子具有聖者所推崇的戒,不破、不穿、沒有污垢、沒有污點、清淨、受智者稱讚、不取著、帶來定。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4] 阿難,謂聖弟子於世信佛--相信佛陀是:如來、應供、正徧知、明行足、善逝、世間解、無上士、調禦丈夫、天人師、佛世尊。信法--相信佛所說法利益世間、永恆、歡迎群眾、示解脫道、使智者各自證悟。信僧--相信僧是佛之弟子,修持八正道之四階段、正直、奉法、具足淨戒。彼等是值得敬禮,為世間無上福田,為善人所喜;其戒行是不犯不缺,不染不沾,使人解脫,為智者所稱讚,不為有欲,或相信外在作為之效力所玷污,及助長禪定。
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

Here, Ānanda, a Noble Disciple is endowed with perfect confidence in the Buddha (thinking):

‘Such is he, the Gracious One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha, the one endowed with understanding and good conduct, the Fortunate One, the One who understands the worlds, the unsurpassed guide for those people who need taming, the Teacher of Divinities and men, the Buddha, the Gracious One.’

He is endowed with perfect confidence in the Teaching (thinking):
‘The Teaching has been well-proclaimed by the Gracious One, it is visible, not subject to time, inviting inspection, onward leading, and can be understood by the wise for themselves.’

He is endowed with perfect confidence in the Community (thinking):
‘The Gracious One's Community of disciples are good in their practice, the Gracious One's Community of disciples are straight in their practice, the Gracious One's Community of disciples are systematic in their practice, the Gracious One's Community of disciples are correct in their practice, that is to say, the four pairs of persons, the eight individual persons, this is the Gracious One's Community of disciples, they are worthy of offerings, of hospitality, of gifts, and of reverential salutation, they are an unsurpassed field of merit for the world.’

He is endowed with the lovely Ariyan virtue,[AFn060] unbroken, faultless, unspotted, unblemished, productive of freedom, praised by the wise, not adhered to, leading to concentration.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

"In this case, Ananda, the noble disciple possesses unwavering faith in the Buddha thus: 'The Blessed One is an Arahant, the Fully Enlightened One, perfect in knowledge and conduct, the Happy One, the knower of the world, the paramount trainer of beings, the teacher of gods and men, the Enlightened One, the Blessed One.'

"He possesses unwavering faith in the Dhamma thus: 'Well propounded by the Blessed One is the Dhamma, evident, timeless,[VFn18] inviting investigation, leading to emancipation, to be comprehended by the wise, each for himself.'

"He possesses unwavering faith in the Blessed One's Order of Disciples thus: 'Well faring is the Blessed One's Order of Disciples, righteously, wisely, and dutifully: that is to say, the four pairs of men, the eight classes of persons. The Blessed One's Order of Disciples is worthy of honor, of hospitality, of offerings, of veneration — the supreme field for meritorious deeds in the world.'

"And he possesses virtues that are dear to the Noble Ones, complete and perfect, spotless and pure, which are liberating, praised by the wise, uninfluenced (by worldly concerns), and favorable to concentration of mind.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 159-3
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

‘‘Ayaṃ kho so, ānanda, dhammādāso dhammapariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṃ byākareyya – ‘khīṇanirayomhi khīṇatiracchānayoni khīṇapettivisayo khīṇāpāyaduggativinipāto, sotāpannohamasmi avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo’’’ti.

Tatrapi sudaṃ bhagavā nātike viharanto giñjakāvasathe etadeva bahulaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ dhammiṃ kathaṃ karoti –

‘‘Iti sīlaṃ iti samādhi iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṃso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṃsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṃ cittaṃ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṃ – kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā’’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

阿難!這是那法鏡法門,已具備此的聖弟子,當他願意時,他就能由自己記說自己:『於地獄已盡,畜生界已盡,餓鬼界已盡,苦界、惡趣、下界已盡,我是入流者,不墮惡趣法、決定、以正覺為彼岸。』」

在那裡,當世尊住在親戚村的磚屋時,他也對比丘們多作這法說:

「像這樣是戒;像這樣是定;像這樣是慧,當已遍修習戒時,定有大果、大效益;當已遍修習定時,慧有大果、大效益;已遍修習慧的心就完全地解脫煩惱,即:欲的煩惱、有的煩惱、無明的煩惱。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]

“阿難,這就是法鏡的法義。聖弟子如果具有這面法鏡,可以為自己授記: ‘我已盡除地獄、畜生、餓鬼等惡道;我是須陀洹,不會墮落惡道,肯定會得到覺悟。’ ”

  1. 世尊住在那提迦磚屋的時候,常對比丘說的,是有關戒、有關定、有關慧的教法──戒成熟時便得定,是大果報、大利益;定成熟時便得慧,是大果報、大利益;慧成熟時心便能徹底解脫欲漏、有漏、見漏、無明漏。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

「阿難,此是法鏡。若聖弟子有此,即能預知其未來:地獄已毀,我不墮於畜生、餓鬼及其他苦趣。我已獲取不墮惡趣的須陀洹果,必證佛果。」

10 佛陀在那低卡磚屋住時亦與諸比丘如是宣說關於戒定慧的法要。彼謂:「修戒則定有很大利益與果報;修定則慧有很大利益與果報;修慧則心從漏解脫----欲漏、有漏、見漏及無明漏。」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

This is the presentation of the Teaching, Ānanda, called the Mirror of (the True Nature of) Things endowed with which a Noble Disciple desiring to do so may declare about himself: ‘Exhausted is (birth in) Hell, exhausted is (birth in) an animal's womb, exhausted is (birth in) the realm of the Fallen Spirits, exhausted is falling into an unfortunate destiny in the lower realms, I am a Stream-Enterer, no longer subject to falling (into the lower realms), and have a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening.’ ”

There also the Gracious One, while living near Nādika in the Brick House, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, (saying):

“Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of (craving for) continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. "This, Ananda, is the teaching called the Mirror of the Dhamma, whereby the noble disciple may thus know of himself: 'There is no more rebirth for me in hell, nor as an animal or ghost, nor in any realm of woe. A stream-enterer am I, safe from falling into the states of misery, assured am I and bound for Enlightenment.'"
  2. And also in Nadika, in the Brick House, the Blessed One often gave counsel to the bhikkhus thus: "Such and such is virtue; such and such is concentration; and such and such is wisdom. Great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of concentration when it is fully developed by virtuous conduct; great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of wisdom when it is fully developed by concentration; utterly freed from the taints of lust, becoming, and ignorance is the mind that is fully developed in wisdom."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 160-1
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavā nātike yathābhirantaṃ viharitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘āyāmānanda, yena vesālī tenupasaṅkamissāmā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ yena vesālī tadavasari. Tatra sudaṃ bhagavā vesāliyaṃ viharati ambapālivane. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi –
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊如其意住在親戚村後,召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!我們去毘舍離。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。

那時,世尊與大比丘僧團一起抵達毘舍離。那時,世尊住在蓭婆巴利園。在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 11. 世尊在那提迦住了一段時間後,便對阿難尊者說: “阿難,來吧,我們一起去毗舍離。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

於是世尊便和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起前往毗舍離。世尊住在毗舍離的菴婆巴利園。

  1. 在那裏,世尊對比丘說:
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 11 爾時薄伽梵在那低卡隨宜住已,語尊者阿難說:「來,阿難,我等去毘舍離。」

「是,世尊,」尊者阿難回答說。於是佛與大比丘僧眾向毘舍離進行。到已,佛住於菴婆婆梨園。

12 佛告諸比丘說:

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[15: The Courtesan Ambapālī]

  1. Then the Gracious One, after living near Nādika for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come Ānanda let us approach Vesālī.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Vesālī. There the Gracious One lived near Vesālī in Ambapālī's Wood. There the Gracious One addressed the monks, (saying):

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 12. When the Blessed One had stayed in Nadika as long as he pleased, he spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "Come, Ananda, let us go to Vesali."

"So be it, O Lord." And the Blessed One took up his abode in Vesali together with a large community of bhikkhus, and stayed in Ambapali's grove.

Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension

  1. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus, saying:
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 160-2
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

‘‘Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno, ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī. Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī…pe… citte cittānupassī…pe… dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti.

‘‘Kathañca , bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti. Evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti. Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno, ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī’’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

「比丘們!比丘應該住於正念、正知,這是我們對你們的教誡。

比丘們!比丘如何有正念呢?比丘們!這裡,比丘住於在身上隨觀身[CFn112] ,熱心、正知、有念,能調伏對於世間的貪與憂;在受上隨觀受……(中略)在心上隨觀心……(中略)住於在法上隨觀法,熱心、正知、有念,能調伏對於世間的貪與憂。比丘們!這樣,比丘有正念。

比丘們!比丘如何有正知呢?比丘們!這裡,比丘在前進、後退時是正知於行為者[CFn113] ;在前視、後視時是正知於行為者;在〔肢體〕曲伸時是正知於行為者;在〔穿〕衣、持鉢與大衣[CFn114] 時是正知於行為者;在飲、食、嚼、嚐時是正知於行為者;在大小便動作時是正知於行為者;在行、住、坐、臥、清醒、語、默時是正知於行為者。比丘們!這樣,比丘有正知。

比丘們!比丘應該住於正念、正知,這是我們對你們的教誡。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]

“比丘們,比丘應該保持念和覺知,這是我給你們的教法。

“比丘們,什麼是一位有念的比丘呢?比丘如實觀察身,勤奮、有覺知、有念,以此來清除世上的貪著和苦惱;如實觀察受,勤奮、有覺知、有念,以此來清除世上的貪著和苦惱;如實觀察心,勤奮、有覺知、有念,以此來清除世上的貪著和苦惱;如實觀察法,勤奮、有覺知、有念,以此來清除世上的貪著和苦惱。比丘們,這就是一位有念的比丘了。

  1. “比丘們,什麼是一位有覺知的比丘呢?比丘在往還的時候,對往還有覺知;在向前觀望、向周圍觀望的時候,對向前觀望、向周圍觀望有覺知;在屈伸身體的時候,對屈伸身體有覺知;在穿衣持缽的時候,對穿衣持缽有覺知;在飲食、咀嚼、感受味覺的時候,對飲食、咀嚼、感受味覺有覺知;在大便、小便的時候,對大便、小便有覺知;在行走、站立、坐著、睡覺、睡醒、說話、靜默的時候,對行走、站立、坐著、睡覺、睡醒、說話、靜默有覺知。比丘們,這就是一位有覺知的比丘了。比丘們,比丘應該保持念和覺知,這是我給你們的教法。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

「諸比丘,比丘當攝心住念。此為我等之教言。」

13 「諸比丘,云何名比丘攝心住念?比丘因有身當觀身,精勤不懈,攝心住念,捨棄世間渴望與失意。其觀感覺、觀意與觀法亦復如是:精勤不懈,攝心住念,捨棄世間渴望與失意。」

「諸比丘,云何名比丘自攝?當比丘履進履退、前瞻後顧、屈臂伸臂、著衣持缽、飲食吞嚼、行大小便、行立坐、睡眠、醒悟、言談及靜默、皆攝心住念。諸比丘當攝心住念,此為我等之教言。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

“Mindfully and with full awareness, monks, a monk should live, this is our advice to you.[AFn061]

And how, monks, is a monk mindful?[AFn062]

Here, monks, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world; he dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world; he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world; he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

Thus, monks, a monk is mindful.

And how, monks, does a monk have full awareness?[AFn063] Here, monks, a monk in going forwards, in going back, is one who practises with full awareness, in looking ahead, or in looking around, he is one who practises with full awareness, in bending or in stretching, he is one who practises with full awareness, in bearing his double-robe, bowl, and (other) robes, he is one who practises with full awareness, in eating, in drinking, in chewing, in tasting, he is one who practises with full awareness, in passing stool and urine, he is one who practises with full awareness, in going, in standing, in sitting, in sleeping, in waking, in talking, and in maintaining silence, he is one who practises with full awareness. Thus, monks, a monk has full awareness. Mindfully and with full awareness, monks, a monk should live, this is our advice to you.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

"Mindful should you dwell, bhikkhus, clearly comprehending; thus I exhort you.

  1. "And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu mindful? When he dwells contemplating the body in the body, earnestly, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, after having overcome desire and sorrow in regard to the world; and when he dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, the mind in the mind, and mental objects in mental objects, earnestly, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, after having overcome desire and sorrow in regard to the world, then is he said to be mindful.
  2. "And how, bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu have clear comprehension? When he remains fully aware of his coming and going, his looking forward and his looking away, his bending and stretching, his wearing of his robe and carrying of his bowl, his eating and drinking, masticating and savoring, his defecating and urinating, his walking, standing, sitting, lying down, going to sleep or keeping awake, his speaking or being silent, then is he said to have clear comprehension.

"Mindful should you dwell, bhikkhus, clearly comprehending; thus I exhort you."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 161-1
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Ambapālīgaṇikā

  1. Assosi kho ambapālī gaṇikā – ‘‘bhagavā kira vesāliṃ anuppatto vesāliyaṃ viharati mayhaṃ ambavane’’ti. Atha kho ambapālī gaṇikā bhaddāni bhaddāni yānāni yojāpetvā bhaddaṃ bhaddaṃ yānaṃ abhiruhitvā bhaddehi bhaddehi yānehi vesāliyā niyyāsi. Yena sako ārāmo tena pāyāsi. Yāvatikā yānassa bhūmi, yānena gantvā, yānā paccorohitvā pattikāva yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho ambapāliṃ gaṇikaṃ bhagavā dhammiyā kathāya sandassesi samādapesi samuttejesi sampahaṃsesi. Atha kho ambapālī gaṇikā bhagavatā dhammiyā kathāya sandassitā samādapitā samuttejitā sampahaṃsitā bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘adhivāsetu me, bhante, bhagavā svātanāya bhattaṃ saddhiṃ bhikkhusaṅghenā’’ti. Adhivāsesi bhagavā tuṇhībhāvena. Atha kho ambapālī gaṇikā bhagavato adhivāsanaṃ viditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā pakkāmi.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

藝妓蓭婆巴利

  1. 那時,藝妓蓭婆巴利聽聞:

「聽說世尊已到達毘舍離,住在毘舍離我的芒果園中。」

那時,藝妓蓭婆巴利令一輛輛吉祥車上軛後,登上一輛輛吉祥車,然後一輛輛吉祥車從毘舍離出發,前往自己的芒果園,以車輛一直到車輛能通行之處,然後下車步行,去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,世尊以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵藝妓蓭婆巴利,使之歡喜。

那時,藝妓蓭婆巴利被世尊以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵,使之歡喜後對世尊這麼說:

「大德!請世尊與比丘僧團一起同意明天我的飲食〔供養〕。」

世尊以沈默同意了。

那時,藝妓蓭婆巴利知道世尊同意後,起座向世尊問訊,然後作右繞,接著離開。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 14. 妓女菴婆巴利聽到世尊到來毗舍離自己的芒果園的消息。她吩咐安排多部車輛,然後登上其中一部,和其他車輛一起從毗舍離出發,前往她自己的園林。車輛到了車路的盡頭時,她下車徒步走到世尊那裏,對世尊作禮,然後坐在一邊。世尊為妓女菴婆巴利說法,對她開示,對她教導,使她景仰,使她歡喜。

妓女菴婆巴利因世尊的說法而得到開示,得到教導,感到景仰,感到歡喜。她對世尊說:

“大德,願世尊和比丘僧團明天接受我的食物。”

世尊保持沈默以表示接受供養。妓女菴婆巴利知道世尊接受邀請後,便起座,向世尊作禮,右繞世尊,然後離去。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 14 爾時歌女菴婆婆梨聞佛已到毘舍離,住於伊之杧菓林。伊下令準備好許多輛精美車乘,自己坐上一輛車,與其侍從離開毘舍離進向伊之園林。凡可通車的地方皆以車行,後乃下車步行去到佛之住處。到已,向佛作禮,就座其側以後,薄伽梵向伊宣示法要,使伊歡喜愉快。

歌女菴婆婆梨對佛所示法要甚為喜悅,伊白佛言:「唯願世尊慈允於明日與大比丘僧眾赴舍間午餐。」

佛陀默然受請。伊知佛已許可,即從座起,向佛作禮,右遶而去。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. The courtesan Ambapālī heard: “The Gracious One, it seems, has reached Vesālī and is living near Vesālī in my Mango Wood.”[AFn064]

Then the courtesan Ambapālī, after having (many) great and august vehicles prepared, and mounting (those) great and august vehicles, departed with those great and august vehicles from Vesālī, and after approaching by vehicle to her pleasure garden as far as the ground for vehicles (would allow), and descending from the vehicles, she approached the Gracious One by foot, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, she sat down on one side. While the courtesan Ambapālī was sitting on one side the Gracious One instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered her with a talk about the Teaching.

Then the courtesan Ambapālī, having been instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered by the Gracious One with a talk about the Teaching, said to the Gracious One: “May the Gracious One consent, reverend Sir, to me (offering him) a meal on the morrow, together with the Community of monks.”

The Gracious One consented by maintaining silence. Then the courtesan Ambapālī, having understood the Gracious One's consent, after rising from her seat, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, went away.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Ambapali and the Licchavis

  1. 16. Then Ambapali the courtesan came to know: "The Blessed One, they say, has arrived at Vesali and is now staying in my Mango Grove." And she ordered a large number of magnificent carriages to be made ready, mounted one of them herself, and accompanied by the rest, drove out from Vesali towards her park. She went by carriage as far as the carriage could go, then alighted; and approaching the Blessed One on foot, she respectfully greeted him and sat down at one side. And the Blessed One instructed Ambapali the courtesan in the Dhamma and roused, edified, and gladdened her.
  1. Thereafter Ambapali the courtesan spoke to the Blessed One, saying: "May the Blessed One, O Lord, please accept my invitation for tomorrow's meal, together with the community of bhikkhus." And by his silence the Blessed One consented.

Sure, then, of the Blessed One's consent, Ambapali the courtesan rose from her seat, respectfully saluted him, and keeping her right side towards him, took her departure.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 161-2
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1] Assosuṃ kho vesālikā licchavī – ‘‘bhagavā kira vesāliṃ anuppatto vesāliyaṃ viharati ambapālivane’’ti. Atha kho te licchavī bhaddāni bhaddāni yānāni yojāpetvā bhaddaṃ bhaddaṃ yānaṃ abhiruhitvā bhaddehi bhaddehi yānehi vesāliyā niyyiṃsu. Tatra ekacce licchavī nīlā honti nīlavaṇṇā nīlavatthā nīlālaṅkārā, ekacce licchavī pītā honti pītavaṇṇā pītavatthā pītālaṅkārā, ekacce licchavī lohitā honti lohitavaṇṇā lohitavatthā lohitālaṅkārā, ekacce licchavī odātā honti odātavaṇṇā odātavatthā odātālaṅkārā. Atha kho ambapālī gaṇikā daharānaṃ daharānaṃ licchavīnaṃ akkhena akkhaṃ cakkena cakkaṃ yugena yugaṃ paṭivaṭṭesi parivattesi (vi. mahāvagga). Atha kho te licchavī ambapāliṃ gaṇikaṃ etadavocuṃ – ‘‘kiṃ, je ambapāli , daharānaṃ daharānaṃ licchavīnaṃ akkhena akkhaṃ cakkena cakkaṃ yugena yugaṃ paṭivaṭṭesī’’ti? ‘‘Tathā hi pana me, ayyaputtā, bhagavā nimantito svātanāya bhattaṃ saddhiṃ bhikkhusaṅghenā’’ti. ‘‘Dehi, je ambapāli, etaṃ ekaṃ (ka.) bhattaṃ satasahassenā’’ti. ‘‘Sacepi me, ayyaputtā, vesāliṃ sāhāraṃ dassatha dajjeyyātha (vi. mahāvagga), evamahaṃ taṃ evampi mahantaṃ (syā.), evaṃ mahantaṃ (sī. pī.) bhattaṃ na dassāmī’’ti neva dajjāhaṃ taṃ bhattanti (vi. mahāvagga). Atha kho te licchavī aṅguliṃ phoṭesuṃ – ‘‘jitamha jitamhā (bahūsu) vata bho ambakāya, jitamha vata bho ambakāyā’’ti ‘‘jitamhā vata bho ambapālikāya vañcitamhā vata bho ambapālikāyā’’ti (syā.).
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

那時,毘舍離的離車族人聽聞:

「聽說世尊已到達毘舍離,住在毘舍離蓭婆巴利的園林中。」

那時,那些離車族人令一輛輛吉祥車上軛後,登上一輛輛吉祥車,然後一輛輛吉祥車從毘舍離出發。在那裡,某些離車族人全是青色的:青色的容色、青色的衣服、青色的裝飾;某些離車族人全是黃色的:黃色的容色、黃色的衣服、黃色的裝飾;某些離車族人全是紅色的:紅色的容色、紅色的衣服、紅色的裝飾;某些離車族人全是白色的:白色的容色、白色的衣服、白色的裝飾。

那時,藝妓蓭婆巴利與一個個年輕的離車族人車軸與車軸、車輪與車輪、軛與軛地交錯〔而過〕[CFn115] 。那時,那些離車族人對藝妓蓭婆巴利這麼說:

「喂!蓭婆巴利!為何與一個個年輕的離車族人車軸與車軸、車輪與車輪、軛與軛地交錯〔而過〕?」

「貴族之子!因為,像這樣,世尊與比丘僧團一起被我邀請明天的飲食〔供養〕。」

「喂!蓭婆巴利!以(出)十萬,請你讓與那飲食〔供養〕。」

「貴族之子!即使你們給我毘舍離及其領地,我也不讓與那飲食〔供養〕。」

那時,那些離車族人彈指〔懊惱地說〕:

「先生!我們確實被蓭婆女打敗了,先生!我們確實被蓭婆女打敗了。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 在毗舍離的離車人聽到世尊到來毗舍離菴婆巴利園的消息。他們吩咐安排多部車輛,登上車輛後便從毗舍離出發。一些離車人藍色裝束,穿上藍色衣服和戴上藍色飾物;一些離車人黃色裝束,穿上黃色衣服和戴上黃色飾物;一些離車人紅色裝束,穿上紅色衣服和戴上紅色飾物;一些離車人白色裝束,穿上白色衣服和戴上白色飾物。
  2. 這時候,妓女菴婆巴利以她的車軸碰撞離車少年的車軸,以她的車輪碰撞離車少年的車輪,以她的車軛碰撞離車少年的車軛。[SFn05]

“唏,菴婆巴利,為什麼用車軸碰撞我們的車軸,用車輪碰撞我們的車輪,用車軛碰撞我們的車軛?”

“公子們,因為世尊和比丘僧團明天接受我的食物。”

“唏,菴婆巴利,給你十萬,把你的供養轉讓給我們!”

“即使給我整個毗舍離的財物,我也不會將這個大供養轉讓給你們。”

離車人甩手指[SFn06] 嘆息: “我們輸了給菴婆女,我們敗了給菴婆女!”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

15 爾時毘舍離的隸車聞佛已到毘舍離住於菴婆婆梨園,彼等下令準備好許多輛精美車乘,各坐上一輛車,與其侍從離開毘舍離。彼等或現黯色,著青色,青衣及青色飾品;或現黃色,著黃色,黃衣及黃色飾品;或現紅色,著紅色,紅衣及紅色飾品;或現白色,著白色,白衣及白色飾品。

16 爾時歌女菴婆婆梨與諸隸車少年車軸相接,車輪相撞及車軛相觸。諸隸車告伊說:「菴婆婆梨,為何你與諸隸車少年車軸相接,車輪相撞及車軛相觸?」

「因我已請佛及比丘僧眾明天到捨下午餐。」

「菴婆婆梨給你十萬,讓此齋與我們。」

「你若給我全毘舍離及所屬土地,我猶不捨此盛供。」

於是諸隸車振手說:「此杧菓女獲勝,我等被此杧菓女佔優勝。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

The Licchavīs from Vesālī heard: “The Gracious One, it seems, had reached Vesālī and is living near Vesālī in Ambapālī's Wood.”

Then those Licchavīs, after having (many) great and august vehicles prepared, and mounting (those) great and august vehicles, departed with those great and august vehicles from Vesālī. There some of the Licchavīs were blue, having a blue appearance, with blue clothes and blue decorations; some of the Licchavīs were yellow, having a yellow appearance, with yellow clothes and yellow decorations; some of the Licchavīs were red, having a red appearance, with red clothes and red decorations; some of the Licchavīs were white, having a white appearance, with white clothes and white decorations.

Then the courtesan Ambapālī rolled alongside the Licchavī youths axle by axle, wheel by wheel, and yoke by yoke. Then those Licchavīs said this to the courtesan Ambapālī: “Why do you, Ambapālī, roll alongside the Licchavī youths axle by axle, wheel by wheel, and yoke by yoke?”

“Because I have invited the Gracious One, noble sirs, for a meal on the morrow, together with the Community of monks.”

“Give (us) this meal, Ambapālī, for a hundred thousand (kahapanas).”

“If, noble sirs, you would give Vesālī and its revenues[AFn065] still I would not give this meal (to you).”

Then the Licchavīs snapped their fingers, (thinking): “We have surely been defeated by a woman, we have surely been defeated by a woman.”[AFn066]

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. Then the Licchavi of Vesali came to know: "The Blessed One, they say, has arrived at Vesali and is now staying in Ambapali's grove." And they ordered a large number of magnificent carriages to be made ready, each mounted one, and accompanied by the rest, drove out from Vesali. Now, of these Licchavis, some were in blue, with clothing and ornaments all of blue, while others were in yellow, red, and white.
  2. And it so happened that Ambapali the courtesan drove up against the young Licchavis, axle by axle, wheel by wheel, and yoke by yoke. Thereupon the Licchavis exclaimed: "Why do you drive up against us in this fashion, Ambapali?"

"Thus it is, indeed, my princes, and not otherwise! For the Blessed One is invited by me for tomorrow's meal, together with the community of bhikkhus!"

"Give up the meal, Ambapali, for a hundred thousand!"

But she replied: "Even if you were to give me Vesali, sirs, together with its tributary lands, I would not give up a meal of such importance."

Then the Licchavis snapped their fingers in annoyance: "See, friends! We are defeated by this mango lass! We are utterly outdone by this mango lass!"

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 161-3
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1] Atha kho te licchavī yena ambapālivanaṃ tena pāyiṃsu. Addasā kho bhagavā te licchavī dūratova āgacchante. Disvāna bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘yesaṃ yehi (vi. mahāvagga), bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṃ devā tāvatiṃsā adiṭṭhapubbā, oloketha, bhikkhave, licchaviparisaṃ; apaloketha, bhikkhave , licchaviparisaṃ; upasaṃharatha, bhikkhave, licchaviparisaṃ – tāvatiṃsasadisa’’nti. Atha kho te licchavī yāvatikā yānassa bhūmi, yānena gantvā, yānā paccorohitvā pattikāva yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdiṃsu. Ekamantaṃ nisinne kho te licchavī bhagavā dhammiyā kathāya sandassesi samādapesi samuttejesi sampahaṃsesi. Atha kho te licchavī bhagavatā dhammiyā kathāya sandassitā samādapitā samuttejitā sampahaṃsitā bhagavantaṃ etadavocuṃ – ‘‘adhivāsetu no, bhante, bhagavā svātanāya bhattaṃ saddhiṃ bhikkhusaṅghenā’’ti. Atha kho bhagavā te licchavī etadavoca – ‘‘adhivutthaṃ adhivāsitaṃ (syā.) kho me, licchavī, svātanāya ambapāliyā gaṇikāya bhatta’’nti. Atha kho te licchavī aṅguliṃ phoṭesuṃ – ‘‘jitamha vata bho ambakāya, jitamha vata bho ambakāyā’’ti. Atha kho te licchavī bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinanditvā anumoditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā pakkamiṃsu.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

那時,那些離車族人往蓭婆巴利的園林前進,世尊看見那些離車族人遠遠地走來。看見後,召喚比丘們:

「比丘們!凡以前沒見過三十三天的比丘們,比丘們!請你們看著〔這〕群離車族人,比丘們!請你們注視〔這〕群離車族人,比丘們!請你們把〔這〕群離車族人等同三十三天聯想在一起。」

那時,那些離車族人以車輛一直到車輛能通行之處,然後下車步行,去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,世尊以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵那些離車族人,使之歡喜。

那時,那些離車族人被世尊以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵,使之歡喜後對世尊這麼說:

「大德!請世尊與比丘僧團一起同意明天我們的飲食〔供養〕。」

那時,世尊對那些離車族人這麼說:

「離車族人!我已同意明天藝妓蓭婆巴利的飲食〔供養〕。」

那時,那些離車族人彈指〔懊惱地說〕:

「先生!我們確實被蓭婆女打敗了,先生!我們確實被蓭婆女打敗了。」

那時,那些離車族人歡喜、隨喜世尊所說後,起座向世尊問訊,然後作右繞,接著離開。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]

跟著,離車人前往菴婆巴利園。

  1. 世尊從遠處看見離車人前來,便對比丘說:

“比丘們,你們當中誰沒有看過三十三天的,來看看離車眾吧,仔細看看離車眾吧!比丘們,離車眾就像三十三天眾。”

  1. 離車人的車輛到了車路的盡頭時,他們下車徒步走到世尊那裏,對世尊作禮,然後坐在一邊。世尊為離車人說法,對他們開示,對他們教導,使他們景仰,使他們歡喜。

離車人因世尊的說法而得到開示,得到教導,感到景仰,感到歡喜。他們對世尊說:

“大德,願世尊和比丘僧團明天接受我們的食物。”

“離車人,我已經接受了明天妓女菴婆巴利的食物了。”

離車人甩手指嘆息: “我們輸了給菴婆女,我們敗了給菴婆女!”

跟著,離車人聽了世尊的說話後感到歡喜,感到愉快,他們起座,向世尊作禮,右繞世尊,然後離去。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

彼等遂進行到菴婆婆利園。

17 薄伽梵見諸隸車自遠而至,告諸比丘說:「諸比丘,凡未曾見過忉利天天神的比丘,且觀看此群隸車,注視此群隸車及比較此群隸車,因其與忉利天天神無異。」

18 諸隸車凡可通車的地方皆以車行,後乃下車步行去到佛陀的住處。到已,向佛作禮,就座其側以後,薄伽梵向彼等宣示法要,使其發心喜悅。諸隸車對佛陀所示法要殊為欣悅,遂白佛言:「誰願世尊慈允於明日與大比丘僧眾赴舍間午餐。」

「諸隸車,我已首肯明日赴歌女菴婆婆梨處午餐。」

於是諸隸車振手說:「此杧菓女獲勝。我等被此杧菓女佔優勝。」

諸隸車對佛陀的教言表示感謝與同意,即從座起,向佛作禮,右遶而去。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

Then the Licchavīs entered Ambapālī's Wood. The Gracious One saw those Licchavīs coming from afar, and having seen (them), he addressed the monks, (saying): “Let those monks who have not seen the Tāvatiṁsa Divinities, monks, look at the Licchavī troupe, monks, look upon the Licchavī troupe, monks, contemplate the Licchavī troupe, monks, who are like the Tāvatiṁsa (Divinities).”[AFn067]

Then after the Licchavīs had gone as far as the ground for vehicles (would allow), and had descended from the vehicles, they approached the Gracious One by foot, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, they sat down at one side.

While the Licchavīs were sitting on one side the Gracious One instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching. Then the Licchavīs, having been instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered by the Gracious One with a talk about the Teaching, said to the Gracious One: “Please consent to us (offering) a meal on the morrow, together with the Community of monks.”

“I have (already) consented to the courtesan Ambapālī's meal on the morrow.” Then the Licchavīs snapped their fingers, (thinking): “We have surely been defeated by a woman, we have surely been defeated by a woman.”

Then the Licchavīs, after greatly rejoicing and gladly receiving this word of the Gracious One,[AFn068] rising from their seats, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, went away.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

But they continued on their way to Ambapali's grove.

  1. And the Blessed One beheld the Licchavis from afar, as they drove up. Then he spoke to the bhikkhus, saying: "Those of you, bhikkhus, who have not yet seen the Thirty-three gods, may behold the assembly of the Licchavis, and may gaze on them, for they are comparable to the assembly of the Thirty-three gods."
  2. Then the Licchavis drove their carriages as far as the carriages could go, then alighted; and approaching the Blessed One on foot, they respectfully greeted him and sat down at one side. The Blessed One instructed the Licchavis in the Dhamma, and roused, edified, and gladdened them.
  3. Thereafter the Licchavis spoke to the Blessed One, saying: "May the Blessed One, O Lord, please accept our invitation for tomorrow's meal, together with the community of bhikkhus."

"The invitation for tomorrow's meal, Licchavis, has been accepted by me from Ambapali the courtesan."

Then the Licchavis snapped their fingers in annoyance: "See, friends! We are defeated by this mango lass! We are utterly outdone by this mango lass!" And then the Licchavis, approving of the Blessed One's words and delighted with them, rose from their seats, respectfully saluted him, and keeping their right sides towards him, took their departure.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 162
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho ambapālī gaṇikā tassā rattiyā accayena sake ārāme paṇītaṃ khādanīyaṃ bhojanīyaṃ paṭiyādāpetvā bhagavato kālaṃ ārocāpesi – ‘‘kālo, bhante, niṭṭhitaṃ bhatta’’nti. Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya saddhiṃ bhikkhusaṅghena yena ambapāliyā gaṇikāya nivesanaṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Atha kho ambapālī gaṇikā buddhappamukhaṃ bhikkhusaṅghaṃ paṇītena khādanīyena bhojanīyena sahatthā santappesi sampavāresi. Atha kho ambapālī gaṇikā bhagavantaṃ bhuttāviṃ onītapattapāṇiṃ aññataraṃ nīcaṃ āsanaṃ gahetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnā kho ambapālī gaṇikā bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘imāhaṃ, bhante, ārāmaṃ buddhappamukhassa bhikkhusaṅghassa dammī’’ti. Paṭiggahesi bhagavā ārāmaṃ. Atha kho bhagavā ambapāliṃ gaṇikaṃ dhammiyā kathāya sandassetvā samādapetvā samuttejetvā sampahaṃsetvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi. Tatrapi sudaṃ bhagavā vesāliyaṃ viharanto ambapālivane etadeva bahulaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ dhammiṃ kathaṃ karoti – ‘‘iti sīlaṃ, iti samādhi, iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṃso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṃsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṃ cittaṃ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṃ – kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,那夜過後,藝妓蓭婆巴利在自己的園林裡準備勝妙的硬食與軟食後,時候到時通知世尊:

「大德!時候已到,飲食已〔準備〕完成。」

那時,世尊在午前時穿好衣服後,取鉢與僧衣,去藝妓蓭婆巴利的園林。抵達後,與比丘僧團一起在設置好的座位坐下。

那時,藝妓蓭婆巴利親手以勝妙的硬食與軟食款待與滿足以佛陀為上首的比丘僧團。

那時,世尊食用完畢手離鉢時,藝妓蓭婆巴利取某個低矮坐具後,在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,藝妓蓭婆巴利對世尊這麼說:

「大德!這園林我將施與以佛陀為上首的比丘僧團。」

世尊領受了園林。

那時,藝妓蓭婆巴利被世尊以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵,使之歡喜後,起座離開。

在那裡,當世尊住在毘舍離蓭婆巴利的園林中時,他就對比丘們多作這法說:

「像這樣是戒;像這樣是定;像這樣是慧,當已遍修習戒時,定有大果、大效益;當已遍修習定時,慧有大果、大效益;已遍修習慧的心就完全地解脫煩惱,即:欲的煩惱、有的煩惱、無明的煩惱。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 19. 妓女菴婆巴利在黎明的時候,吩咐在自己的園林準備美味的硬食物和軟食物,然後使人通知世尊: “大德,現在食物已經準備好了。” 於是,在上午,世尊穿好衣服,拿著大衣和缽,和比丘僧團一起前往妓女菴婆巴利那裏受供養。世尊去到後,坐在為他預備好的座位上。於是,妓女菴婆巴利親手將硬食物和軟食物遞送給以佛陀為首的比丘僧團,使比丘得到滿足,使比丘掩缽示意吃飽。

當世尊吃完食物,手離開缽的時候,妓女菴婆巴利以一低座坐在一邊。她對世尊說: “大德,我把這個園林布施給以佛陀為首的比丘僧團。”

世尊接受這個園林。之後世尊為妓女菴婆巴利說法,使她得到開示,得到教導,感到景仰,感到歡喜,然後起座離去。

  1. 世尊住在毗舍離菴婆巴利園的時候,常對比丘說的,是有關戒、有關定、有關慧的教法──戒成熟時便得定,是大果報、大利益;定成熟時便得慧,是大果報、大利益;慧成熟時心便能徹底解脫欲漏、有漏、見漏、無明漏。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 19 爾時歌女菴婆婆梨於其夜清旦在自己家裹備辦甜粥糕餅,即白佛言:「世尊,諸事已備,唯聖知時。」

爾時薄伽梵於清晨著衣持缽,與大比丘僧眾走向歌女菴婆婆梨的宅第。到已,坐於敷座。歌女菴婆婆梨即親手奉獻甜粥糕餅,以佛為首下至諸比丘僧。

佛食既竟,浣手洗缽已,歌女菴婆婆梨取一小凳,就座其側以後,伊白佛言:「世尊,我以此園奉獻以佛為首的比丘僧眾。」

薄伽梵既接受此禮品,向伊宣示法要,使之發心喜悅後即從座起而去。

20 薄伽梵在毘舍離菴婆婆梨園住時亦向諸比丘如是宣說關於戒定慧的法要。彼謂:「修戒則定有很大利益與果報;修慧則定有很大利益與果報;修慧則心從漏得解脫--欲漏、有漏、見漏及無明漏。」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
    1. Then the courtesan Ambapālī after the night had passed, having had excellent foodstuffs made ready in her own pleasure park, had the time announced to the Gracious One, (saying): “It is time, reverend Sir, the meal is ready.”

Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the morning time, after picking up his bowl and robe, together with the Community of monks, approached the courtesan Ambapālī's residence, and after approaching he sat down on the prepared seat. Then the courtesan Ambapālī with her own hand served and satisfied the Community of monks with the Buddha at its head with excellent foodstuffs.

Then the courtesan Ambapālī, when the Gracious One had eaten and washed his hand and bowl, having taken a certain low seat, sat down on one side. While sitting on one side the courtesan Ambapālī said this to the Gracious One: “I donate this pleasure park, reverend Sir, to the Community of monks with the Buddha at its head.”[AFn069]

The Gracious One accepted the pleasure park. Then the Gracious One, after instructing, rousing, enthusing, and cheering the courtesan Ambapālī with a talk about the Teaching, having risen from the seat, went away.[AFn070]

There also the Gracious One, while living in Vesālī in Ambapālī's Wood, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, (saying):

“Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of (craving for) continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 23. Then, after the night had passed, Ambapali the courtesan had choice food, hard and soft, prepared in her park, and announced it to the Blessed One: "It is time, O Lord; the meal is ready." Thereupon the Blessed One got ready in the forenoon, and taking bowl and robe, he went together with the community of bhikkhus to Ambapali's dwelling, and there he took the seat prepared for him. And Ambapali herself attended on the community of bhikkhus headed by the Buddha, and served them with choice food, hard and soft.
  1. And when the Blessed One had finished his meal and had removed his hand from his bowl, Ambapali the courtesan took a low seat, and placing herself at one side, spoke to the Blessed One, saying: "This park, O Lord, I offer to the community of bhikkhus headed by the Buddha." And the Blessed One accepted the park. He then instructed Ambapali in the Dhamma, and having roused, edified, and gladdened her, he rose from his seat and departed.
  2. And also at Vesali, in Ambapali's grove, the Blessed One often gave counsel to the bhikkhus thus: "Such and such is virtue; such and such is concentration; and such and such is wisdom. Great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of concentration when it is fully developed by virtuous conduct; great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of wisdom when it is fully developed by concentration; utterly freed from the taints of lust, becoming, and ignorance is the mind that is fully developed in wisdom."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 163
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Veḷuvagāmavassūpagamanaṃ

  1. Atha kho bhagavā ambapālivane yathābhirantaṃ viharitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘āyāmānanda, yena veḷuvagāmako beḷuvagāmako (sī. pī.) tenupasaṅkamissāmā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ yena veḷuvagāmako tadavasari. Tatra sudaṃ bhagavā veḷuvagāmake viharati. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘etha tumhe, bhikkhave, samantā vesāliṃ yathāmittaṃ yathāsandiṭṭhaṃ yathāsambhattaṃ vassaṃ upetha upagacchatha (syā.). Ahaṃ pana idheva veḷuvagāmake vassaṃ upagacchāmī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paṭissutvā samantā vesāliṃ yathāmittaṃ yathāsandiṭṭhaṃ yathāsambhattaṃ vassaṃ upagacchiṃsu. Bhagavā pana tattheva veḷuvagāmake vassaṃ upagacchi.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

在木瓜樹村進入雨季安居

  1. 那時,世尊如其意住在蓭婆巴利的園林後,召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!我們去木瓜樹小村。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。

那時,世尊與大比丘僧團一起抵達木瓜樹小村,在那裡,世尊住在木瓜樹小村中。

那時,世尊召喚比丘們:

「來!比丘們!你們全部在毘舍離依靠朋友、熟人、友人進入雨季安居,而我就在木瓜樹小村這裡進入雨季安居[CFn116] 。」

「是的,大德!」那些比丘回答世尊後,全部在毘舍離依靠朋友、熟人、友人進入雨季安居,世尊就在木瓜樹小村那裡進入雨季安居。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 21. 世尊在毗舍離的菴婆巴利園住了一段時間後,便對阿難尊者說: “阿難,來吧,我們一起去畢樓婆村。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 於是世尊便和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起前往畢樓婆村。世尊住在畢樓婆村。

  1. 在那裏,世尊對比丘說: “比丘們,來吧,你們和朋友、相識、同伴分散在毗舍離過雨季。我在畢樓婆村這裏過雨季。”

“大德,是的。” 比丘回答世尊後,和朋友、相識、同伴分散在毗舍離過雨季。世尊在畢樓婆村那裏過雨季。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 21 爾時薄伽梵在菴婆婆梨園隨宜住已,語尊者阿難說:「來,阿難,我等去白鹿瓦村。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。於是佛與大比丘僧眾向白鹿瓦村進行。到已,佛陀住於白鹿瓦村。

22 爾時薄伽梵告諸比丘說:「諸比丘,汝等各於毘舍離附近的朋友、相識或知己處過雨季,我則在白鹿瓦村過雨季。」

「是,世尊。」諸比丘回答說。彼等遂在毘舍離附近的朋友、相識或知已處過雨季,而佛陀則在白鹿瓦村過雨季。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[16: The Gracious One’s Sickness ]

  1. Then the Gracious One, after living near Ambapālī's Wood for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come Ānanda let us approach the little village of Beluva.”[AFn071]

“Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at the little village of Beluva. There the Gracious One lived near the little village of Beluva.

There the Gracious One addressed the monks, (saying): “Go, monks, and undertake the Rains Retreat in the vicinity of Vesālī (living) like friends, like companions, like comrades, and I will spend the Rains Retreat right here at the little village of Beluva.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” and those monks, after replying to the Gracious One, undertook the Rains Retreat in the vicinity of Vesālī (living) like friends, like companions, like comrades. But the Gracious One spent the Rains Retreat right there at the little village of Beluva.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 26. When the Blessed One had stayed in Ambapali's grove as long as he pleased, he spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "Come, Ananda, let us go to the village of Beluva."

"So be it, Lord." And the Blessed One took up his abode in the village of Beluva together with a large community of bhikkhus.

The Blessed One's Deadly Sickness

  1. At that time the Blessed One spoke to the bhikkhus, saying: "Go now, bhikkhus, and seek shelter anywhere in the neighborhood of Vesali where you are welcome, among acquaintances and friends, and there spend the rainy season. As for me, I shall spend the rainy season in this very place, in the village of Beluva."

"So be it, O Lord," the bhikkhus said.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 164
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavato vassūpagatassa kharo ābādho uppajji, bāḷhā vedanā vattanti māraṇantikā. Tā sudaṃ bhagavā sato sampajāno adhivāsesi avihaññamāno. Atha kho bhagavato etadahosi – ‘‘na kho metaṃ patirūpaṃ, yvāhaṃ anāmantetvā upaṭṭhāke anapaloketvā bhikkhusaṅghaṃ parinibbāyeyyaṃ. Yaṃnūnāhaṃ imaṃ ābādhaṃ vīriyena paṭipaṇāmetvā jīvitasaṅkhāraṃ adhiṭṭhāya vihareyya’’nti. Atha kho bhagavā taṃ ābādhaṃ vīriyena paṭipaṇāmetvā jīvitasaṅkhāraṃ adhiṭṭhāya vihāsi. Atha kho bhagavato so ābādho paṭipassambhi. Atha kho bhagavā gilānā vuṭṭhito gilānavuṭṭhito (saddanīti) aciravuṭṭhito gelaññā vihārā nikkhamma vihārapacchāyāyaṃ paññatte āsane nisīdi. Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘diṭṭho me, bhante, bhagavato phāsu; diṭṭhaṃ me, bhante, bhagavato khamanīyaṃ, api ca me, bhante, madhurakajāto viya kāyo. Disāpi me na pakkhāyanti; dhammāpi maṃ na paṭibhanti bhagavato gelaññena, api ca me, bhante, ahosi kācideva assāsamattā – ‘na tāva bhagavā parinibbāyissati, na yāva bhagavā bhikkhusaṅghaṃ ārabbha kiñcideva udāharatī’’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,當世尊進入雨季安居時,生了重病,起激烈的、瀕臨死亡的感受,世尊正念、正知地忍受它,不被惱害。那時,世尊這麼想:

「如果我沒召喚隨侍,沒告別比丘僧團而後般涅槃[CFn117] ,那對我不適當,讓我以精進擋開這個病後,住於留住壽命行[CFn118] 。」

那時,世尊以精進擋開那個病後,住於留住壽命行。那時,世尊止息了那個病。那時,世尊病已康復,從病中康復不久,從住處出來,在住處蔭影中設置好的座位坐下。那時,尊者阿難去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:

「大德!我看見世尊的安樂;大德!我看見世尊的能夠容忍,大德!因為世尊生病,我的身體就像被麻醉了一樣,我不辨方向,對法也不清楚了,大德!唯有少許寬慰的是,我想:『世尊將不會就這樣般涅槃,除非直到世尊說了關於僧團的任何事為止。』」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 23. 世尊過雨季的時候,得了很重的病,生起強烈的痛楚,有性命危險。世尊保持念和覺知,忍受這些痛楚而不受困擾。

這時候,世尊心想: “如果我不告訴侍者、不通知比丘僧團便入滅是不適當的,讓我以精進來克服這個病,保存性命。”

於是,世尊以精進來克服這個病,保存性命。跟著,世尊的病消退了。

  1. 這時候,世尊從病中復元不久,從住所出來,坐在屋蔭下為他預備好的座位上。這時候,阿難尊者去到世尊那裏,對世尊作禮,坐在一邊,然後對世尊說: “大德,我看見世尊安穩了,我看見世尊復元了。儘管這樣,世尊的病使我現在也感到身體像失去平衡似的,我不能辨別方向,甚至連法也不在心中,但當我想到: ‘如果世尊不對比丘僧團囑咐一些東西,他是不會入滅的。’ 這時候我的內心才稍為紓緩。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 23 爾時世尊在雨季中匆罹劇痛痢疾,幾乎殞命。但彼攝心住念忍受之,無怨言。

薄伽梵自念:若我不告誡弟子及向比丘僧眾告辭而取涅槃,實非所宜,今且以堅強意志屈伏此疾,留住應享壽命。

於是佛陀以堅強意志屈伏疾病,並留住應享壽命。其後病亦漸瘥。

24 薄伽梵不久即告痊癒。病癒後彼從住室出坐於蔭處敷座上,爾時尊者阿難走向佛前向佛作禮,就座其側以後,白佛言:「世尊,我曾見薄伽梵於康健時,及見其如何受苦。世尊,當我見佛陀病時,雖然我身羸弱如蔓藤,及神志昏迷不辨方向,便一念及:『若薄伽梵未將遺教與比丘僧眾,彼將不證取涅槃。』我聊以自慰。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then while dwelling for the Rains Retreat, a heavy affliction arose for the Gracious One, and continued with strong and death-like feelings. There the Gracious One dwelt mindfully, with full awareness, and without being troubled. Then this occurred to the Gracious One: “It is not suitable that I, without having addressed my attendants, without having given notice to the Community of monks, should attain Final Emancipation. Having energetically dismissed this affliction, I could live on after determining the lifespan.”

Then the Gracious One having energetically dismissed that affliction lived on after determining[AFn072] the lifespan.[AFn073] Then the Gracious One's affliction abated. Then, the Gracious One, having risen from that sickness, not long after rising, departed from the Sick Room and sat down on the prepared seat in front of that Room.

Then venerable Ānanda approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side. While sitting on one side venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One:

“I have seen, reverend Sir, the Gracious One comfortable, I have seen, reverend Sir, the Gracious One bearing up (while sick),[AFn074] and my body, reverend Sir, became faint as it were, and although I could not see (straight), and things were not clear,[AFn075] it appeared to me, reverend Sir, that the Gracious One was sick, (but) it was some small comfort that the Gracious One would not attain Final Emancipation until the Gracious One had spoken regarding the Community of monks.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 28. But when the Blessed One had entered upon the rainy season, there arose in him a severe illness, and sharp and deadly pains came upon him. And the Blessed One endured them mindfully, clearly comprehending and unperturbed.
  1. Then it occurred to the Blessed One: "It would not be fitting if I came to my final passing away without addressing those who attended on me, without taking leave of the community of bhikkhus. Then let me suppress this illness by strength of will, resolve to maintain the life process, and live on."
  2. And the Blessed One suppressed the illness by strength of will, resolved to maintain the life process, and lived on. So it came about that the Blessed One's illness was allayed.
  3. And the Blessed One recovered from that illness; and soon after his recovery he came out from his dwelling place and sat down in the shade of the building, on a seat prepared for him. Then the Venerable Ananda approached the Blessed One, respectfully greeted him, and sitting down at one side, he spoke to the Blessed One, saying: "Fortunate it is for me, O Lord, to see the Blessed One at ease again! Fortunate it is for me, O Lord, to see the Blessed One recovered! For truly, Lord, when I saw the Blessed One's sickness it was as though my own body became weak as a creeper, every thing around became dim to me, and my senses failed me. Yet, Lord, I still had some little comfort in the thought that the Blessed One would not come to his final passing away until he had given some last instructions respecting the community of bhikkhus."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 165
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Kiṃ panānanda, bhikkhusaṅgho mayi paccāsīsati paccāsiṃsati (sī. syā.)? Desito, ānanda, mayā dhammo anantaraṃ abāhiraṃ karitvā. Natthānanda, tathāgatassa dhammesu ācariyamuṭṭhi. Yassa nūna, ānanda, evamassa – ‘ahaṃ bhikkhusaṅghaṃ pariharissāmī’ti vā ‘mamuddesiko bhikkhusaṅgho’ti vā, so nūna, ānanda, bhikkhusaṅghaṃ ārabbha kiñcideva udāhareyya. Tathāgatassa kho, ānanda, na evaṃ hoti – ‘ahaṃ bhikkhusaṅghaṃ pariharissāmī’ti vā ‘mamuddesiko bhikkhusaṅgho’ti vā. Sakiṃ kiṃ (sī. pī.), ānanda, tathāgato bhikkhusaṅghaṃ ārabbha kiñcideva udāharissati. Ahaṃ kho panānanda, etarahi jiṇṇo vuddho mahallako addhagato vayoanuppatto. Āsītiko me vayo vattati. Seyyathāpi, ānanda, jajjarasakaṭaṃ veṭhamissakena veḷumissakena (syā.), veghamissakena (pī.), vedhamissakena, vekhamissakena (ka.) yāpeti, evameva kho, ānanda, veṭhamissakena maññe tathāgatassa kāyo yāpeti. Yasmiṃ, ānanda, samaye tathāgato sabbanimittānaṃ amanasikārā ekaccānaṃ vedanānaṃ nirodhā animittaṃ cetosamādhiṃ upasampajja viharati, phāsutaro, ānanda, tasmiṃ samaye tathāgatassa kāyo hoti. Tasmātihānanda, attadīpā viharatha attasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā, dhammadīpā dhammasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā. Kathañcānanda, bhikkhu attadīpo viharati attasaraṇo anaññasaraṇo, dhammadīpo dhammasaraṇo anaññasaraṇo? Idhānanda, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati atāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Vedanāsu…pe… citte…pe… dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ. Evaṃ kho, ānanda, bhikkhu attadīpo viharati attasaraṇo anaññasaraṇo, dhammadīpo dhammasaraṇo anaññasaraṇo . Ye hi keci, ānanda, etarahi vā mama vā accayena attadīpā viharissanti attasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā, dhammadīpā dhammasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā, tamatagge me te, ānanda, bhikkhū bhavissanti ye keci sikkhākāmā’’ti.

Dutiyabhāṇavāro.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 「但,阿難!比丘僧團對我期待什麼呢?阿難!被我教導的法沒內、外之分,阿難!如來的法沒有師傅留一手[CFn119] ,阿難!確實有人這麼想:『我將照顧比丘僧團。』或『比丘僧團為我所管。』阿難!他確實應該說關於僧團的任何事,〔但,〕阿難!如來不這麼想:『我將照顧比丘僧團。』或『比丘僧團為我所管。』阿難!為何如來將說那關於僧團的任何事呢?又,阿難!我現在已衰老、已年老,高齡而年邁,已到了老人期,轉為八十歲的老人期了,阿難!猶如衰老的貨車以包纏物交錯綑綁[CFn120] 使之存續,同樣的,阿難!如來的身體的確以包纏物交錯綑綁使之存續,阿難!每當如來以對一切相的不作意、以對某類受的滅、進入後住於無相心定時,阿難!那時,如來的身體〔才〕較為安樂,阿難!因此,在這裡,你們要住於以自己為依靠[CFn121] ,以自己為歸依[CFn122] ,不以其他為歸依;以法為依靠,以法為歸依,不以其他為歸依。而,阿難!比丘如何以自己為依靠,以自己為歸依,不以其他為歸依;以法為依靠,以法為歸依,不以其他為歸依呢?阿難!這裡,比丘住於在身上隨觀身[CFn112] ,熱心、正知、有念,能調伏對於世間的貪與憂;在受上……(中略)在心上……(中略)住於在法上隨觀法,熱心、正知、有念,能調伏對於世間的貪與憂。阿難!比丘這樣住於以自己為依靠,以自己為歸依,不以其他為歸依;以法為依靠,以法為歸依,不以其他為歸依。阿難!不論現在,或我死後,凡任何住於以自己為依靠,以自己為歸依,不以其他為歸依;以法為依靠,以法為歸依,不以其他為歸依者,阿難!對我來說,這些比丘必將是任何那些對學熱衷者中第一的了。」

第二誦品〔終了〕。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 25. “阿難,比丘僧團還期待我說些什麼呢?我已經把法詳盡地宣說了出來,如來是沒有把法保留在自己拳頭之內的。阿難,有人可能會認為我支配著僧團或僧團依靠我,所以他會認為如來應該對比丘僧團囑咐一些東西。但是,如來根本沒有 ‘我支配著僧團’ 或 ‘僧團依靠我’ 這樣想,所以如來哪有東西囑咐比丘僧團呢?

“阿難,我現在已經老了;我過了很多日子,已經到八十歲了。阿難,就像一部舊牛車需要修補才能繼續行走那樣,如來的身體也需要調理才能繼續支撐下去。有時候為了平息痛楚,如來要心離所有相,進入無相定,那時如來的身體才能得到安穩。

  1. “阿難,因此,你們要做自己的島嶼[SFn07] ,做自己的皈依處,不要以其他地方為皈依處;以法為島嶼,以法為皈依處,不要以其他地方為皈依處。阿難,什麼是比丘做自己的島嶼,做自己的皈依處,不以其他地方為皈依處;以法為島嶼,以法為皈依處,不以其他地方為皈依處呢?

“阿難,比丘如實觀察身,勤奮、有覺知、有念,以此來清除世上的貪著和苦惱;如實觀察受,勤奮、有覺知、有念,以此來清除世上的貪著和苦惱;如實觀察心,勤奮、有覺知、有念,以此來清除世上的貪著和苦惱;如實觀察法,勤奮、有覺知、有念,以此來清除世上的貪著和苦惱。阿難,這樣就是比丘做自己的島嶼,做自己的皈依處,不以其他地方為皈依處;以法為島嶼,以法為皈依處,不以其他地方為皈依處了。

“阿難,無論現在或我入滅後,任何比丘如果能做自己的島嶼和皈依處,以法為島嶼和皈依處的話,他就是在有修學欲的比丘之中最高的。[SFn08]

第二誦完

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 25 「阿難,是否比丘僧眾盼望我之遺教?阿難,我所說法或顯或隱,是無分別,如來於法是無祕密,吝而不傳。阿難,若人作如是念:「我將引導僧伽」,或「僧伽以我為依怙」,則此人應對僧伽設立教言,但如來不作此想。阿難,為何如來應留關於僧伽之遺教?阿難,我今年已老矣,衰耄矣,旅程將盡,壽命將滿。我行年八十,譬如舊車方便修理,尚勉強可行。阿難,我想如來之身體亦復如是,應方便攝養,阿難當如來停止顧念外事,及任何感覺皆已停止而入於滅想定時,如來之身,始為安隱。」

26 「因此,阿難,以自己為明燈、為歸依,勿以他人為歸依;以法為明燈、為歸依, 勿以他人為歸依。阿難,云何為比丘以自己為明燈、為歸依,勿以他人為歸依;以法為明燈、為歸依,勿以他人為歸依?

「阿難,比丘當觀身,精勤不懈,攝心住念,捨棄世間渴望及失意。其觀感覺、觀意與觀法亦復如是。阿難,此是比丘以自己為明燈、為歸依,勿以他人歸依;以法為明燈、為歸依,勿以他人為歸依。

「阿難,無論現在或我去世後,若有人以自己為明燈、為歸依,勿以他人為歸依;以法為明燈、為歸依,勿以他人為歸依。阿難,彼等在我之比丘中將詣最高境界--但必須樂於修學。」

第二章竟

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. “But what, Ānanda, does the Community of monks expect of me? The Teaching has been taught by me, Ānanda, without having made (a distinction between) esoteric and exoteric, for the Realised One there is nothing, Ānanda, of a (closed) teacher's fist in regard to the Teaching.

To whoever, Ānanda, this (thought) occurs: ‘I will lead the Community of monks’ or ‘I am the instructer of the Community of monks' let him speak, Ānanda, regarding the Community of monks. But to the Realised One, Ānanda, this (thought) does not occur: ‘I will lead the Community of monks’ or ‘I am the instructor of the Community of monks’. Then why, Ānanda, should the Realised One speak regarding the Community of monks?[AFn076]

I, Ānanda, at present, am old, elderly, of great age, far gone, advanced in years, I am eighty years old. It is like, Ānanda, an old cart, which (only) keeps going when shored up with bamboo, just so, Ānanda, I think the Realised One's body (only) keeps going when shored up with bamboo.

When the Realised One doesn't pay attention, Ānanda, to any of the signs, when all feelings have ceased, he lives having established the signless mind-concentration,[AFn077] and at that time, Ānanda, the Realised One's body is most comfortable.

Therefore, Ānanda, live with yourself as an island, yourself as a refuge, with no other refuge, with the Teaching as an island, the Teaching as a refuge, with no other refuge. And how, Ānanda, does a monk live with himself as an island, himself as a refuge, with no other refuge, with the Teaching as an island, the Teaching as a refuge, with no other refuge?

Here, Ānanda, a monk dwells contemplating (the nature of) the body in the body, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world;[AFn078] he dwells contemplating (the nature of) feelings in feelings, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world; he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world; he dwells contemplating (the nature of) things in (various) things, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

Thus, Ānanda, a monk lives with himself as an island, himself as a refuge, with no other refuge, with the Teaching as an island, the Teaching as a refuge, with no other refuge. For whoever, Ānanda, whether at present or after my passing, lives with himself as an island, himself as a refuge, with no other refuge, with the Teaching as an island, the Teaching as a refuge, with no other refuge, those monks of mine, Ānanda, will go from darkness to the highest[AFn079] - whoever likes the training.”

The Second Chapter for Recital (is Finished).

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 32. Thus spoke the Venerable Ananda, but the Blessed One answered him, saying: "What more does the community of bhikkhus expect from me, Ananda? I have set forth the Dhamma without making any distinction of esoteric and exoteric doctrine; there is nothing, Ananda, with regard to the teachings that the Tathagata holds to the last with the closed fist of a teacher who keeps some things back. Whosoever may think that it is he who should lead the community of bhikkhus, or that the community depends upon him, it is such a one that would have to give last instructions respecting them. But, Ananda, the Tathagata has no such idea as that it is he who should lead the community of bhikkhus, or that the community depends upon him. So what instructions should he have to give respecting the community of bhikkhus?

"Now I am frail, Ananda, old, aged, far gone in years. This is my eightieth year, and my life is spent. Even as an old cart, Ananda, is held together with much difficulty, so the body of the Tathagata is kept going only with supports. It is, Ananda, only when the Tathagata, disregarding external objects, with the cessation of certain feelings, attains to and abides in the signless concentration of mind,[VFn19] that his body is more comfortable.

  1. "Therefore, Ananda, be islands unto yourselves, refuges unto yourselves, seeking no external refuge; with the Dhamma as your island, the Dhamma as your refuge, seeking no other refuge.

"And how, Ananda, is a bhikkhu an island unto himself, a refuge unto himself, seeking no external refuge; with the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, seeking no other refuge?

  1. "When he dwells contemplating the body in the body, earnestly, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, after having overcome desire and sorrow in regard to the world; when he dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, the mind in the mind, and mental objects in mental objects, earnestly, clearly comprehending, and mindfully, after having overcome desire and sorrow in regard to the world, then, truly, he is an island unto himself, a refuge unto himself, seeking no external refuge; having the Dhamma as his island, the Dhamma as his refuge, seeking no other refuge.
  2. "Those bhikkhus of mine, Ananda, who now or after I am gone, abide as an island unto themselves, as a refuge unto themselves, seeking no other refuge; having the Dhamma as their island and refuge, seeking no other refuge: it is they who will become the highest,[VFn20] if they have the desire to learn."

  • 第三頌(第三章)
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 166
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Nimittobhāsakathā

  1. Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya vesāliṃ piṇḍāya pāvisi. Vesāliyaṃ piṇḍāya caritvā pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘gaṇhāhi, ānanda, nisīdanaṃ, yena cāpālaṃ cetiyaṃ pāvālaṃ (cetiyaṃ (syā.) tenupasaṅkamissāma divā vihārāyā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā nisīdanaṃ ādāya bhagavantaṃ piṭṭhito piṭṭhito anubandhi. Atha kho bhagavā yena cāpālaṃ cetiyaṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Āyasmāpi kho ānando bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

徵相與暗示的談說

  1. 那時,世尊在午前時穿好衣服後,取鉢與僧衣,為了托鉢[CFn123] 進入毘舍離。在毘舍離為了托鉢而行後,食畢,從施食處返回,召喚尊者阿難:

「阿難!請你拿坐墊布[CFn124] ,我們去價玻勒塔廟[CFn014] 作中午的休息」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊後,取坐墊布,緊隨在世尊之後。

那時,世尊去價玻勒塔廟。抵達後,在設置好的座位坐下。尊者阿難向世尊問訊後,也在一旁坐下。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 1. 在上午,世尊穿好衣服,拿著大衣和缽入毗舍離化食。在化食完畢,吃過食物後返回來,對阿難尊者說: “阿難,拿坐蓆。我要去遮巴羅廟午休。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 之後拿起坐蓆,在後面跟隨世尊。

  1. 世尊前往遮巴羅廟,到了之後,坐在為他預備好的座位上。阿難尊者對世尊作禮,然後坐在一邊。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

第 三 章

  1. 01 爾時世尊於清晨著衣持缽往毘舍離乞食。行乞歸來後,飯食已畢,彼告尊者阿難說:「阿難,攜取坐具,我將去洽巴拉神舍休息。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說,即攜坐具隨從佛後。

02 於是薄伽梵走向洽巴拉神舍,坐於敷座上。尊者阿難亦就坐其側。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[The Third Chapter for Recitation] [AFn080]

[17: Ānanda's Failure]

  1. Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the morning time, after picking up his bowl and robe, entered Vesālī for alms. After walking for alms in Vesālī, and returning from the alms-round after the meal, he addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Take up the sitting mat, Ānanda, we will approach the Cāpāla shrine to dwell for the day.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One, and taking the sitting mat, he followed along close behind the Gracious One.

Then the Gracious One approached the Cāpāla shrine, and after approaching, he sat down on the prepared seat, and also venerable Ānanda, after worshipping the Gracious One, sat down on one side.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Part Three: Relinquishing the Will to Live

The Blessed One's Prompting

  1. 1. Then the Blessed One, getting ready in the forenoon, took bowl and robe and went into Vesali for alms. After the alms round and meal, on his return, he spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "Take up a mat, Ananda, and let us spend the day at the Capala shrine."

"So be it, Lord." And the Venerable Ananda took up a mat and followed behind the Blessed One, step by step.

  1. And the Blessed One went to the Capala shrine and sat down on the seat prepared for him. And when the Venerable Ananda had seated himself at one side after he had respectfully saluted the Blessed One,
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 167
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ bhagavā etadavoca – ‘‘ramaṇīyā, ānanda, vesālī, ramaṇīyaṃ udenaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ gotamakaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ sattambaṃ sattambakaṃ (pī.) cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ bahuputtaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ sārandadaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ cāpālaṃ cetiyaṃ. Yassa kassaci, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā. Tathāgatassa kho, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno ākaṅkhamāno (?), ānanda, tathāgato kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā’’ti. Evampi kho āyasmā ānando bhagavatā oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṃ; na bhagavantaṃ yāci – ‘‘tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṃ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussāna’’nti, yathā taṃ mārena pariyuṭṭhitacitto. Dutiyampi kho bhagavā…pe… tatiyampi kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘ramaṇīyā, ānanda, vesālī, ramaṇīyaṃ udenaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ gotamakaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ sattambaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ bahuputtaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ sārandadaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ cāpālaṃ cetiyaṃ. Yassa kassaci, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā. Tathāgatassa kho, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno, ānanda, tathāgato kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā’’ti. Evampi kho āyasmā ānando bhagavatā oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṃ ; na bhagavantaṃ yāci – ‘‘tiṭṭhatu , bhante, bhagavā kappaṃ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussāna’’nti, yathā taṃ mārena pariyuṭṭhitacitto. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘gaccha tvaṃ, ānanda, yassadāni kālaṃ maññasī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā avidūre aññatarasmiṃ rukkhamūle nisīdi.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 在一旁坐好後,世尊對尊者阿難這麼說:

「阿難!毘舍離是令人愉快的,屋跌那塔廟是令人愉快的,喬答摩葛塔廟是令人愉快的,七芒果樹塔廟是令人愉快的,多子塔廟是令人愉快的,沙愣達達塔廟是令人愉快的,價玻勒塔廟是令人愉快的。阿難!凡任何人已修習[CFn034] 、已多修習[CFn125] 四神足[CFn126] ,作為車輛、作為基礎、已實行、成為習慣、善精勤的,當他願意時,他能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間[CFn127] 。阿難!如來已修習、已多修習四神足,作為車輛、作為基礎、已實行、成為習慣、善精勤的,阿難!當如來願意時,他能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。」

當尊者阿難被世尊作了這麼明顯的徵相、明顯的暗示時,他不能夠洞察,沒求世尊:

「大德!為了眾人有利益,為了眾人安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人有利益、有利、安樂,請世尊住留一劫,請善逝住留一劫。」因為他被魔纏心。

第二次,世尊……(中略)。

第三次,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「阿難!毘舍離是令人愉快的,屋跌那塔廟是令人愉快的,喬答摩葛塔廟是令人愉快的,七芒果樹塔廟是令人愉快的,多子塔廟是令人愉快的,沙愣達達塔廟是令人愉快的,價玻勒塔廟是令人愉快的。阿難!凡任何人已修習、已多修習四神足,作為車輛、作為基礎、已實行、成為習慣、善精勤的,當他願意時,他能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。阿難!如來已修習、已多修習四神足,作為車輛、作為基礎、已實行、成為習慣、善精勤的,阿難!當如來願意時,他能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。」

當尊者阿難被世尊作了這麼明顯的徵相、明顯的暗示時,他不能夠洞察,沒求世尊:

「大德!為了眾人有利益,為了眾人安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人有利益、有利、安樂,請世尊住留一劫,請善逝住留一劫。」因為他被魔纏心。

那時,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「阿難!請你走吧!現在,你考量適當的時間[CFn019] 。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊後,起座向世尊問訊,然後作右繞,接著坐在離〔世尊〕不遠處的某棵樹下。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 世尊對阿難尊者說: “阿難,毗舍離是一個怡人的地方,優提那廟、喬答摩廟、七芒果廟、多子廟、沙蘭達達廟、遮巴羅廟是怡人的地方。
  1. “阿難,如果一個人修習四神足;多修習,慣常地修習,透徹地修習;著手修習,令它增長,令它圓滿;他可隨自己的意欲,活上一劫[SFn09] 或一劫多些。阿難,如來修習四神足;多修習,慣常地修習,透徹地修習;著手修習,令它增長,令它圓滿;如來可隨自己的意欲,活上一劫或一劫多些。”
  2. 阿難尊者的內心就像受到魔羅遮蔽那樣,不能明白世尊明顯的用意、明顯的提示,因此沒有這樣請求世尊: “大德,為了許多眾生的利益,為了許多眾生的快樂;為了悲憫世間,為了天和人的福祉、利益和快樂;請世尊活在世上一劫,請善逝活在世上一劫。”
  3. 世尊第二次及第三次對阿難尊者說:

“阿難,毗舍離是一個怡人的地方,優提那廟、喬答摩廟、七芒果廟、多子廟、沙蘭達達廟、遮巴羅廟是怡人的地方。

“阿難,如果一個人修習四神足;多修習,慣常地修習,透徹地修習;著手修習,令它增長,令它圓滿;他可隨自己的意欲,活上一劫或一劫多些。阿難,如來修習四神足;多修習,慣常地修習,透徹地修習;著手修習,令它增長,令它圓滿;如來可隨自己的意欲,活上一劫或一劫多些。”

阿難尊者的內心就像受到魔羅遮蔽那樣,不能明白世尊明顯的用意、明顯的提示,因此沒有這樣請求世尊: “大德,為了許多眾生的利益,為了許多眾生的快樂;為了悲憫世間,為了天和人的福祉、利益和快樂;請世尊活在世上一劫,請善逝活在世上一劫。”

  1. 於是,世尊對阿難尊者說: “阿難,離去。如果你認為是時候的話,請便。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 他起座,對世尊作禮,右繞世尊,然後去到附近一棵樹下坐下來。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 坐已,薄伽梵告尊者阿難說:「阿難,毘舍離是一可喜悅之處。而烏但那神舍、喬達摩卡神舍、七杧菓神舍、多子神舍、沙然達達神舍、洽巴拉神舍等亦是可喜樂的。

03 「阿難,若有人修持、留住、擴展四神足的極頂,既精於此,可用之如車乘,以此為基礎,若欲,彼可住壽一劫,或其劫之某部份。而佛陀曾充份修持,擴展此四神足(其詳見上),彼若有意,可住壽一劫或其劫之某部份。」

04 尊者阿難對佛陀所給與之明顯提示未能瞭解,他未曾懇請世尊說:「世尊,請住壽一劫,慈尊為眾生之利益與快樂,及慈愍此世界,為人天之利益,快樂與幸福,請住壽一劫!」因其心為魔所矇蔽。

05 如是再三,薄伽梵告尊者阿難說(其詳見上)。但尊者阿難數次均為魔所矇蔽。

06 於是薄伽梵告尊者阿難說:「去,阿難,可宜知時。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。即從座起,向佛作禮,右遶而去,坐於一附近樹下。

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. While sitting on one side the Gracious One said this to venerable Ānanda: “Delightful, Ānanda, is Vesālī, delightful is the Udena shrine, delightful is the Gotamaka shrine, delightful is the Sattamba shrine, delightful is the Many Sons' shrine, delightful is the Sārandada shrine, delightful is the Cāpāla shrine.[AFn081] Whoever has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power,[AFn082] could, if he wanted, Ānanda, remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan.[AFn083] The Realised One has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power. If he wanted, Ānanda, the Realised One could remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan.”

But venerable Ānanda, despite such a gross hint being made by the Gracious One, such a gross suggestion being made, was unable to penetrate it, and did not beg the Gracious One, (saying): “May the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan, may the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men,” like one whose mind was possessed by Māra.

For a second time the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Delightful, Ānanda, is Vesālī, delightful is the Udena shrine, delightful is the Gotamaka shrine, delightful is the Sattamba shrine, delightful is the Many Sons' shrine, delightful is the Sārandada shrine, delightful is the Cāpāla shrine.

Whoever has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power, could, if he wanted, remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan. The Realised One has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power. If he wanted, Ānanda, the Realised One could remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan.”

But venerable Ānanda, despite such a gross hint being made by the Gracious One, such a gross suggestion being made, was unable to penetrate it, and did not beg the Gracious One, (saying): “May the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan, may the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men,” like one whose mind was possessed by Māra.

For a third time the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Delightful, Ānanda, is Vesālī, delightful is the Udena shrine, delightful is the Gotamaka shrine, delightful is the Sattamba shrine, delightful is the Many Sons' shrine, delightful is the Sārandada shrine, delightful is the Cāpāla shrine.

Whoever has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power, could, if he wanted, remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan. The Realised One has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power. If he wanted, Ānanda, the Realised One could remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan.”

But venerable Ānanda, despite such a gross hint being made by the Gracious One, such a gross suggestion being made, was unable to penetrate it, and did not beg the Gracious One, (saying): “May the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan, may the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men,” like one whose mind was possessed by Māra.

Then the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Go, Ānanda, now is the time for whatever you are thinking.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One, rising from his seat, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, he sat down not far away at the root of a certain tree.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. the Lord said to him: "Pleasant, Ananda, is Vesali; pleasant are the shrines of Udena, Gotamaka, Sattambaka, Bahuputta, Sarandada, and Capala."
  1. And the Blessed One said: "Whosoever, Ananda, has developed, practiced, employed, strengthened, maintained, scrutinized, and brought to perfection the four constituents of psychic power could, if he so desired, remain throughout a world-period or until the end of it.[VFn21] The Tathagata, Ananda, has done so. Therefore the Tathagata could, if he so desired, remain throughout a world-period or until the end of it."
  2. But the Venerable Ananda was unable to grasp the plain suggestion, the significant prompting, given by the Blessed One. As though his mind was influenced by Mara,[VFn22] he did not beseech the Blessed One: "May the Blessed One remain, O Lord!. May the Happy One remain, O Lord, throughout the world-period, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men!"
  3. And when for a second and a third time the Blessed One repeated his words, the Venerable Ananda remained silent.
  4. Then the Blessed One said to the Venerable Ananda: "Go now, Ananda, and do as seems fit to you."

"Even so, O Lord." And the Venerable Ananda, rising from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and keeping his right side towards him, took his seat under a tree some distance away.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 168
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Mārayācanakathā

  1. Atha kho māro pāpimā acirapakkante āyasmante ānande yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṃ ṭhito kho māro pāpimā bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘parinibbātudāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante, bhagavato. Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā – ‘na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me bhikkhū na sāvakā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānī uttāniṃ (ka.), uttāni (sī. pī.) karissanti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desessantī’ti . Etarahi kho pana, bhante, bhikkhū bhagavato sāvakā viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhanti desenti paññapenti paṭṭhapenti vivaranti vibhajanti uttānīkaronti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desenti. Parinibbātudāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālodāni, bhante, bhagavato.

‘‘Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā – ‘na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me bhikkhuniyo na sāvikā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desessantī’ti . Etarahi kho pana, bhante, bhikkhuniyo bhagavato sāvikā viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo , sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhanti desenti paññapenti paṭṭhapenti vivaranti vibhajanti uttānīkaronti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desenti. Parinibbātudāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālodāni, bhante, bhagavato.

‘‘Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā – ‘na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me upāsakā na sāvakā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desessantī’ti. Etarahi kho pana, bhante, upāsakā bhagavato sāvakā viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhanti desenti paññapenti paṭṭhapenti vivaranti vibhajanti uttānīkaronti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desenti. Parinibbātudāni , bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālodāni , bhante, bhagavato.

‘‘Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā – ‘na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me upāsikā na sāvikā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desessantī’ti. Etarahi kho pana, bhante, upāsikā bhagavato sāvikā viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhanti desenti paññapenti paṭṭhapenti vivaranti vibhajanti uttānīkaronti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desenti. Parinibbātudāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālodāni, bhante, bhagavato.

‘‘Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā – ‘na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi , yāva me idaṃ brahmacariyaṃ na iddhaṃ ceva bhavissati phītañca vitthārikaṃ bāhujaññaṃ puthubhūtaṃ yāva devamanussehi suppakāsita’nti. Etarahi kho pana, bhante, bhagavato brahmacariyaṃ iddhaṃ ceva phītañca vitthārikaṃ bāhujaññaṃ puthubhūtaṃ, yāva devamanussehi suppakāsitaṃ. Parinibbātudāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālodāni, bhante, bhagavato’’ti .

Evaṃ vutte bhagavā māraṃ pāpimantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘appossukko tvaṃ, pāpima, hohi, na ciraṃ tathāgatassa parinibbānaṃ bhavissati. Ito tiṇṇaṃ māsānaṃ accayena tathāgato parinibbāyissatī’’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

魔請求的談說

  1. 那時,魔波旬在尊者阿難離開不久,去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁站立,在一旁站好後,魔波旬[CFn128] 對世尊這麼說:

「大德!現在,請世尊般涅槃,請善逝般涅槃,大德!現在是世尊般涅槃的時機,世尊說過這些話:『波旬!我將不般涅槃,除非我的比丘弟子們成為聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、〔已得離軛安穩[CFn129] 的、〕多聞的、持法的[CFn130] 、法隨法行[CFn131] 的、如法而行的[CFn132] 、隨法行的[CFn133] ,學習了自己阿闍梨[CFn134] 的〔教導〕後,將告知、教導、安立、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,以如法善折伏對方已生起的議論,折伏後將教導神變法[CFn135] 。』大德!現在,世尊的比丘弟子們是聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、已得離軛安穩的、多聞的、持法的、法隨法行的、如法而行的、隨法行的,學習了自己阿闍梨的〔教導〕後,告知、教導、安立、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,以如法善折伏對方已生起的議論,折伏後教導神變法。

大德!現在,請世尊般涅槃,請善逝般涅槃,大德!現在是世尊般涅槃的時機,世尊說過這些話:『波旬!我將不般涅槃,除非我的比丘尼弟子們成為聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、多聞的、持法的、法隨法行的、如法而行的、隨法行的,學習了自己阿闍梨的〔教導〕後,將告知、教導、安立、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,以如法善折伏對方已生起的議論,折伏後將教導神變法。』大德!現在,世尊的比丘尼弟子們是聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、已得離軛安穩的、多聞的、持法的、法隨法行的、如法而行的、隨法行的,學習了自己阿闍梨的〔教導〕後,告知、教導、安立、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,以如法善折伏對方已生起的議論,折伏後教導神變法。

大德!現在,請世尊般涅槃,請善逝般涅槃,大德!現在是世尊般涅槃的時機,世尊說過這些話:『波旬!我將不般涅槃,除非我的優婆塞弟子們成為聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、多聞的、持法的、法隨法行的、如法而行的、隨法行的,學習了自己阿闍梨的〔教導〕後,將告知、教導、安立、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,以如法善折伏對方已生起的議論,折伏後將教導神變法。』大德!現在,世尊的優婆塞弟子們是聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、已得離軛安穩的、多聞的、持法的、法隨法行的、如法而行的、隨法行的,學習了自己阿闍梨的〔教導〕後,告知、教導、安立、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,以如法善折伏對方已生起的議論,折伏後教導神變法。

大德!現在,請世尊般涅槃,請善逝般涅槃,大德!現在是世尊般涅槃的時機,世尊說過這些話:『波旬!我將不般涅槃,除非我的優婆夷弟子們成為聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、多聞的、持法的、法隨法行的、如法而行的、隨法行的,學習了自己阿闍梨的〔教導〕後,將告知、教導、安立、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,以如法善折伏對方已生起的議論,折伏後將教導神變法。』大德!現在,世尊的優婆夷弟子們是聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、已得離軛安穩的、多聞的、持法的、法隨法行的、如法而行的、隨法行的,學習了自己阿闍梨的〔教導〕後,告知、教導、安立、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,以如法善折伏對方已生起的議論,折伏後教導神變法。

大德!現在,請世尊般涅槃,請善逝般涅槃,大德!現在是世尊般涅槃的時機,世尊說過這些話:『波旬!我將不般涅槃,除非我的這梵行成為成功的、繁榮的、廣大流傳的、人多的、廣大的,在天與人中被善說明。』大德!現在,世尊的梵行成為成功的、繁榮的、廣大流傳的、人多的、廣大的,在天與人中被善說明。

大德!現在,請世尊般涅槃,請善逝般涅槃,大德!現在是世尊般涅槃的時機。」

當這麼說時,世尊對魔波旬這麼說:

「波旬!請你不用操心,如來不久將般涅槃,三個月後如來將般涅槃。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 7. 阿難尊者離去不久,邪惡者魔羅去到世尊那裏,站在一邊,然後對世尊說: “大德,請世尊現在入滅,請善逝現在入滅;現在是世尊入滅的時候了。大德,這句話曾出自世尊的口: ‘邪惡者,在我的比丘弟子還沒有聰慧、成熟、自信、多聞、持法、法隨法行、正向、依法而行時;在我的比丘弟子學了老師的教法後,未能向人講解、宣說、教導、建立、揭示、分析、清楚解釋時;在我的比丘弟子未能以正法來駁斥錯誤的見解,駁斥之後,宣說非凡的法義時;我不會入滅。’
  1. “大德,現在世尊的比丘弟子聰慧、成熟、自信、多聞、得安穩、持法、法隨法行、正向、依法而行了;現在世尊的比丘弟子學了老師的教法後,能向人講解、宣說、教導、建立、揭示、分析、清楚解釋了;現在世尊的比丘弟子能以正法來駁斥錯誤的見解,駁斥之後,宣說非凡的法義了。大德,請世尊現在入滅,請善逝現在入滅;現在是世尊入滅的時候了。

“大德,這句話曾出自世尊的口: ‘邪惡者,在我的比丘尼弟子……大德,請世尊現在入滅,請善逝現在入滅;現在是世尊入滅的時候了。   “大德,這句話曾出自世尊的口: ‘邪惡者,在我的優婆塞弟子……大德,請世尊現在入滅,請善逝現在入滅;現在是世尊入滅的時候了。

“大德,這句話曾出自世尊的口: ‘邪惡者,在我的優婆夷弟子還沒有聰慧、成熟、自信、多聞、持法、法隨法行、正向、依法而行時;在我的優婆夷弟子學了老師的教法後,未能向人講解、宣說、教導、建立、揭示、分析、清楚解釋時;在我的優婆夷弟子未能以正法來駁斥錯誤的見解,駁斥之後,宣說非凡的法義時;我不會入滅。’ 大德,現在世尊的優婆夷弟子聰慧、成熟、自信、多聞、持法、法隨法行、正向、依法而行了;現在世尊的優婆夷弟子學了老師的教法後,能向人講解、宣說、教導、建立、揭示、分析、清楚解釋了;現在世尊的優婆夷弟子能以正法來駁斥錯誤的見解,駁斥之後,宣說非凡的法義了。大德,請世尊現在入滅,請善逝現在入滅;現在是世尊入滅的時候了。

“大德,這句話曾出自世尊的口: ‘邪惡者,在我的梵行沒有流行,沒有興盛,沒有廣泛流傳,沒有遍及眾人時;在我的梵行沒有人宣說時[SFn10] ;我不會入滅。’ 大德,現在世尊的梵行流行、興盛、廣泛流傳、遍及眾人了;現在世尊的梵行有人宣說了。大德,請世尊現在入滅,請善逝現在入滅;現在是世尊入滅的時候了。”

  1. 邪惡者魔羅說了這番話後,世尊對他說: “邪惡者,你不用操心。如來將在不久之後入滅。三個月之後,如來便會入滅。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 07 爾時惡魔於尊者阿難去後不久,即來至佛所,立於其側,白佛言:「世尊,薄伽梵現在應入涅槃。慈尊,現在正是如來入涅槃之時,請速入涅槃,甚至根據前薄伽梵所說:『惡魔,若我之比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞優婆夷,尚未成為正聞、聰慧、善攝、多聞、熟記聖典、精嫻教義、奉持戒律;既精於法,乃能教導、宣演、建立、開啟、詳釋、明辨,能以正法掃蕩,降伏異論,及廣宣妙法--之弟子時,我將不入涅槃。』

08 世尊,現在諸比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞、優婆夷皆已成為正聞、聰慧、善攝……(其詳見上)之弟子。世尊,薄伽梵現在應入涅槃。慈尊,現在正是如來入涅槃之時,請速入涅槃!甚至依照薄伽梵所說:『惡魔,若我之清淨教不成功、興盛、廣布、普遍及遍傳於人間時,我將不入涅槃。』世尊,現在你之清淨教已成功、興盛、廣布、普遍、及遍傳於人間。世尊,薄伽梵現在應入涅槃。慈尊,現在正是如來入涅槃之時,請速入涅槃!」

09 他既作此語,薄伽梵告惡魔說:「惡魔,你且自喜。佛之圓寂已近。此後三月如來即將入涅槃。」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[18: The Relinquishment of the Life Process]

  1. Then the Wicked Māra, not long after venerable Ānanda had gone, approached the Gracious One, and after approaching, he stood on one side. While standing on one side the Wicked Māra said this to the Gracious One:

“May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation. For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

‘I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my monks are not (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.’[AFn084]

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's monks are (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, do declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.

May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.

For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

‘I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my nuns are not (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.’

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's nuns are (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, do declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.

May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.

For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One: ‘I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my laymen are not (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.’

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's laymen are (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, do declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.

May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.

For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

‘I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my laywomen are not (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.’

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's laywomen are (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, do declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.

May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.

For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

‘I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as this spiritual life of mine has not become successful and prosperous, well spread-out, possessed by many, become great, until it is well-explained amongst Divinities and men.’

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's spiritual life is successful and prosperous, well spread-out, possessed by many, become great, it is well-explained amongst Divinities and men. May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.”

When that was said the Gracious One said this to the Wicked Māra: “You should have little concern, Wicked One, in no long time the Realised One will be Finally Emancipated, after three months have passed from now, the Realised One will attain Final Emancipation.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Mara's Appeal

  1. 7. And when the Venerable Ananda had gone away, Mara, the Evil One, approached the Blessed One. And standing at one side he spoke to the Blessed One, saying: "Now, O Lord, let the Blessed One come to his final passing away; let the Happy One utterly pass away! The time has come for the Parinibbana of the Lord.

"For the Blessed One, O Lord, spoke these words to me: 'I shall not come to my final passing away, Evil One, until my bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, laymen and laywomen, have come to be true disciples — wise, well disciplined, apt and learned, preservers of the Dhamma, living according to the Dhamma, abiding by the appropriate conduct, and having learned the Master's word, are able to expound it, preach it, proclaim it, establish it, reveal it, explain it in detail, and make it clear; until, when adverse opinions arise, they shall be able to refute them thoroughly and well, and to preach this convincing and liberating Dhamma.'[VFn23]

  1. "And now, O Lord, bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, laymen and laywomen, have become the Blessed One's disciples in just this way. So, O Lord, let the Blessed One come to his final passing away! The time has come for the Parinibbana of the Lord.

"For the Blessed One, O Lord, spoke these words to me: 'I shall not come to my final passing away, Evil One, until this holy life taught by me has become successful, prosperous, far-renowned, popular, and widespread, until it is well proclaimed among gods and men.' And this too has come to pass in just this way. So, O Lord, let the Blessed One come to his final passing away, let the Happy One utterly pass away! The time has come for the Parinibbana of the Lord."

The Blessed One Relinquishes His Will to Live

  1. When this was said, the Blessed One spoke to Mara, the Evil One, saying: "Do not trouble yourself, Evil One. Before long the Parinibbana of the Tathagata will come about. Three months hence the Tathagata will utterly pass away."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 169
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Āyusaṅkhāraossajjanaṃ

  1. Atha kho bhagavā cāpāle cetiye sato sampajāno āyusaṅkhāraṃ ossaji. Ossaṭṭhe ca bhagavatā āyusaṅkhāre mahābhūmicālo ahosi bhiṃsanako salomahaṃso lomahaṃso (syā.), devadundubhiyo devadudrabhiyo (ka.) ca phaliṃsu . Atha kho bhagavā etamatthaṃ viditvā tāyaṃ velāyaṃ imaṃ udānaṃ udānesi –
‘‘Tulamatulañca sambhavaṃ, bhavasaṅkhāramavassaji muni;
Ajjhattarato samāhito, abhindi kavacamivattasambhava’’nti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

壽行的捨棄

  1. 那時,世尊在價玻勒塔廟正念、正知地捨棄壽行[CFn136] 。而當世尊捨棄壽行時,發生大地震,令人恐懼、身毛豎立[CFn137] ,並且天鼓破裂[CFn138]

那時,世尊知道這個義理後,那時候自說優陀那:

「權衡不可比的與生成[CFn139] ,牟尼捨棄有行[CFn140]
自身內喜樂、入定,破壞自己的存在如〔破壞〕鎧甲[CFn141] 。」
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 10. 世尊在遮巴羅廟有念、有覺知地捨棄了壽行。當世尊捨棄壽行時,大地發生了使人恐懼、使人驚慌的震動,天上響起了震耳的雷聲,於是他有感而發,說出感興偈:
“可量不可量[SFn11]
牟尼捨生死;
內有喜與定,
破有行鎧甲。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 10 爾時薄伽梵於洽巴拉神舍謹然住念捨壽。佛既捨壽,有大地震,殊可驚怖及天雷響震。佛見此事已,既說偈曰:
 生命之源無量或微小。
 牟尼今捨其壽數。
 以內心靜樂,
 打破其如甲冑之生命之源。

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then at the Cāpāla shrine the Gracious One, mindfully, with full awareness, relinquished the life-process. With the relinquishment of the life-process by the Gracious One there was a great earthquake, and a fearful, horrifying crash of the Divinities’ (thunder) drum. Then the Gracious One, having understood the significance of it, on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance:
“Measurable and immeasurable continuity,
And the continuation-process the Sage relinquished.
Content in himself, and concentrated,
He broke continuity of self like a coat of mail.”
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 10. And at the Capala shrine the Blessed One thus mindfully and clearly comprehending renounced his will to live on. And upon the Lord's renouncing his will to live on, there came a tremendous earthquake, dreadful and astonishing, and thunder rolled across the heavens. And the Blessed One beheld it with understanding, and made this solemn utterance:
What causes life, unbounded or confined[VFn24]
His process of becoming[VFn25] — this the Sage
Renounces. With inward calm and joy he breaks,
As though a coat of mail, his own life's cause.[VFn26]
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 170
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Mahābhūmicālahetu

  1. Atha kho āyasmato ānandassa etadahosi – ‘‘acchariyaṃ vata bho, abbhutaṃ vata bho, mahā vatāyaṃ bhūmicālo; sumahā vatāyaṃ bhūmicālo bhiṃsanako salomahaṃso; devadundubhiyo ca phaliṃsu. Ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāyā’’ti?

Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami, upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi, ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘acchariyaṃ, bhante, abbhutaṃ, bhante, mahā vatāyaṃ, bhante, bhūmicālo; sumahā vatāyaṃ , bhante, bhūmicālo bhiṃsanako salomahaṃso; devadundubhiyo ca phaliṃsu. Ko nu kho, bhante , hetu ko paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāyā’’ti?

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

大地震的原因

  1. 那時,尊者阿難這麼想:

「實在不可思議啊,先生!實在未曾有[CFn142] 啊,先生!這地震確實很大,這地震確實非常大,令人恐懼、身毛豎立,並且天鼓破裂。大地震出現是什麼因、什麼緣呢?」

那時,尊者阿難去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:

「實在不可思議啊,大德!實在未曾有啊,大德!大德!這地震確實很大,大德!這地震確實非常大,令人恐懼、身毛豎立,並且天鼓破裂。大德!大地震出現是什麼因、什麼緣呢?」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 11. 這時候,阿難尊者心想: “真稀奇!從沒有發生過!這個大地發生極大的震動,發生使人恐懼、使人驚慌的震動,天上響起了震耳的雷聲!是什麼原因和條件使大地出現震動呢?”
  1. 於是阿難尊者去到世尊那裏,對世尊作禮,坐在一邊,然後對世尊說: “大德,真稀奇!大德,從沒有發生過!這個大地發生極大的震動,發生使人恐懼、使人驚慌的震動,天上響起了震耳的雷聲!大德,是什麼原因和條件使大地出現震動呢?”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 11 爾時尊者阿難自念:「此誠奇妙不可思議。此大地震殊可驚怖及天雷響震,此地震出現之遠近因緣究何所在?」

12 於是尊者阿難走向佛前向佛作禮,就座其側以後,白佛言:「世尊,此誠奇妙不可思議,此大地震殊可驚怖及天雷響震。世尊,此地震出現之遠近因緣究何所在?」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[19: Eight Reasons for Earthquakes]

  1. Then it occured to venerable Ānanda: “Surely it is wonderful, surely it is marvellous, this great earthquake, this very great earthquake, and (this) awful, hair-raising, crash of the Divinities' (thunder) drum. What was the reason, what was the cause, for the occurrence of this great earthquake?”

Then venerable Ānanda approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down at one side. Sitting on one side venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: “Surely it is wonderful, reverend Sir, surely it is marvellous, reverend Sir, this great earthquake, this very great earthquake, and (this) awful, hair-raising, crash of the Divinities' (thunder) drum. What was the reason, reverend Sir, what was the cause, for the occurrence of this great earthquake?”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 11. Then it came to the mind of the Venerable Ananda: "Marvellous it is indeed, and most wonderful! The earth shakes mightily, tremendously! Dreadful and astonishing it is, how the thunders roll across the heavens! What could be the reason, what the cause, that so mighty an earthquake should arise?"

Eight Causes of Earthquakes

  1. And the Venerable Ananda approached the Blessed One, and respectfully greeting him, sat down at one side. Then he spoke to the Blessed One, saying: "Marvellous it is indeed, and most wonderful! The earth shakes mightily, tremendously! Dreadful and astonishing it is how the thunders roll across the heavens! What could be the reason, what the cause, that so mighty an earthquake should arise?"
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 171
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Aṭṭha kho ime, ānanda, hetū, aṭṭha paccayā mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya. Katame aṭṭha? Ayaṃ, ānanda, mahāpathavī udake patiṭṭhitā, udakaṃ vāte patiṭṭhitaṃ, vāto ākāsaṭṭho. Hoti kho so, ānanda, samayo, yaṃ mahāvātā vāyanti. Mahāvātā vāyantā udakaṃ kampenti. Udakaṃ kampitaṃ pathaviṃ kampeti. Ayaṃ paṭhamo hetu paṭhamo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, samaṇo vā hoti brāhmaṇo vā iddhimā cetovasippatto, devo vā mahiddhiko mahānubhāvo, tassa parittā pathavīsaññā bhāvitā hoti, appamāṇā āposaññā. So imaṃ pathaviṃ kampeti saṅkampeti sampakampeti sampavedheti. Ayaṃ dutiyo hetu dutiyo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, yadā bodhisatto tusitakāyā cavitvā sato sampajāno mātukucchiṃ okkamati, tadāyaṃ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṃ tatiyo hetu tatiyo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, yadā bodhisatto sato sampajāno mātukucchismā nikkhamati, tadāyaṃ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṃ catuttho hetu catuttho paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, yadā tathāgato anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambujjhati, tadāyaṃ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṃ pañcamo hetu pañcamo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, yadā tathāgato anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavatteti, tadāyaṃ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṃ chaṭṭho hetu chaṭṭho paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, yadā tathāgato sato sampajāno āyusaṅkhāraṃ ossajjati, tadāyaṃ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṃ sattamo hetu sattamo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.

‘‘Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, yadā tathāgato anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbāyati, tadāyaṃ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṃ aṭṭhamo hetu aṭṭhamo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya. Ime kho, ānanda, aṭṭha hetū, aṭṭha paccayā mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāyā’’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 「阿難!大地震出現有這八因、八緣,哪八個呢?

阿難!這大地住立在水上,水住立在風上,風住立於空中。阿難!有時,大風吹起,當大風吹時,它們使水搖動,當水被搖動時,使地搖動,這是大地震出現的第一個因、第一個緣。

再者,阿難!有具神通[CFn143] 、得心自在的沙門、婆羅門,或大神通力[CFn004] 、大威力的天神,他已修習小地想[CFn144] 與無量水想,他使這地搖動、震動、動搖、大震動,這是大地震出現的第二個因、第二個緣。

再者,阿難!當菩薩從兜率天死去後,正念、正知地入母胎時,使這地搖動、震動、動搖、大震動,這是大地震出現的第三個因、第三個緣。

再者,阿難!當菩薩正念、正知地出母胎時,使這地搖動、震動、動搖、大震動,這是大地震出現的第四個因、第四個緣。

再者,阿難!當如來現正覺[CFn064] 無上遍正覺時,使這地搖動、震動、動搖、大震動,這是大地震出現的第五個因、第五個緣。

再者,阿難!當無上法輪已被如來轉動時,使這地搖動、震動、動搖、大震動,這是大地震出現的第六個因、第六個緣。

再者,阿難!當如來捨棄壽行時,使這地搖動、震動、動搖、大震動,這是大地震出現的第七個因、第七個緣。

再者,阿難!當如來般涅槃於無餘涅槃界時,使這地搖動、震動、動搖、大震動,這是大地震出現的第八個因、第八個緣。

阿難!這是大地震出現的八因、八緣。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 13. “阿難,有八種原因和條件使大地出現震動。哪八種呢?阿難,大地在水之上,水在風之上,風在空之上。有時候,當大風在吹動時,水便受到翻動;當水翻動時,大地便會震動。這就是使大地出現震動的第一種原因和條件。
  1. “阿難,其次,如果大神力的沙門、婆羅門,或大勢力的天神修習很少的水想而修習無量的地想,這個大地便會發生各種震動。這就是使大地出現震動的第二種原因和條件。
  2. “阿難,其次,當菩薩從兜率天下生,有念有覺知地進入母胎時,這個大地便會發生各種震動。這就是使大地出現震動的第三種原因和條件。
  3. “阿難,其次,當菩薩有念有覺知地從母胎出生時,這個大地便會發生各種震動。這就是使大地出現震動的第四種原因和條件。
  4. “阿難,其次,當如來覺悟無上正等正覺時,這個大地便會發生各種震動。這就是使大地出現震動的第五種原因和條件。
  5. “阿難,其次,當如來轉無上法輪時,這個大地便會發生各種震動。這就是使大地出現震動的第六種原因和條件。
  6. “阿難,其次,當如來有念、有覺知地捨棄壽行時,這個大地便會發生各種震動。這就是使大地出現震動的第七種原因和條件。
  7. “阿難,其次,當如來進入無餘湼槃界時,這個大地便會發生各種震動。這就是使大地出現震動的第八種原因和條件。阿難,這些就是使大地出現震動的八種原因和條件了。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 13 「阿難,大地震之出現有八種因緣,何者為八?阿難,此大地止於水上,水止於風,風止於空。阿難,有時空中起大風,起大風則水動,水動則地動。此為大地震出現之第一因緣。

14 「復次,阿難,有時具大智慧力之沙門或婆羅門作攝心想;或有大威神之神祗--當彼等觀水想多,觀地想少,地即大震動。此為大地震出現之第二因緣。

15 「復次,阿難,當菩薩謹然住念離兜率天而入於母胎時,地即大震動。此為大地震出現之第三因緣。

16 「復次,阿難,當菩薩謹然住念出母胎時,地即大震動,此為大地震出現之第四因緣。

17 「復次,阿難,當如來證無上正等覺時,地即大震動。此為大地震出現之第五因緣。

18 「復次,阿難,當如來轉無上法輪時,地即大震動。此即大地震出現之第六因緣。

19 「復次,阿難,當如來謹然住念捨壽時,地即大震動。此為大地震出現之第七因緣。

20 「復次,阿難,當如來於無餘涅槃界證取涅槃時,地即大震動。此為大地震出現之第八因緣。阿難,此為大地震出現之八種因緣。」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. “There are these eight reasons, eight causes, Ānanda, for the occurrence of a great earthquake.

Which eight?

1) This great Earth, Ānanda, stands in the water, the water stands in the atmosphere, the atmosphere stands in space.[AFn085] There comes a time, Ānanda, when great winds blow, with the great winds blowing, the waters move, the waters having moved, the Earth moves. This is the first reason, the first cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake.

2) Furthermore, Ānanda, when an ascetic or a brahmin or a Divinity, one of great power, one of great majesty, has, through spiritual power, attained (complete) mastery of the mind, and has then developed even a trifling perception of the Earth, or an unlimited perception of water, this Earth moves, wavers, flutters, and shakes. This is the second reason, the second cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake.

3) Furthermore, Ānanda, when the Buddha-to-be falls away from the Tusita hosts,[AFn086] and mindfully, with full awareness, enters his mother's womb, this Earth moves, wavers, flutters, and shakes. This is the third reason, the third cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake.

4) Furthermore, Ānanda, when the Buddha-to-be mindfully, with full awareness, exits his mother's womb, this Earth moves, wavers, flutters, and shakes. This is the fourth reason, the fourth cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake.

5) Furthermore, Ānanda, when the Realised One perfectly awakens to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening, this Earth moves, wavers, flutters, and shakes. This is the fifth reason, the fifth cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake.

6) Furthermore, Ānanda, when the Realised One sets the unsurpassed wheel of the Teaching rolling, this Earth moves, wavers, flutters, and shakes. This is the sixth reason, the sixth cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake.

7) Furthermore, Ānanda, when the Realised One mindfully, with full awareness gives up the life-process, this Earth moves, wavers,

8) Furthermore, Ānanda, when the Realised One is Finally Emancipated in the Emancipation-element which has no basis for attachment remaining, this Earth moves, wavers, flutters, and shakes. This is the eighth reason, the eighth cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake. These are the eight reasons, the eight causes, Ānanda, for the occurrence of a great earthquake.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 13. Then the Blessed One said: "There are eight reasons, Ananda, eight causes for a mighty earthquake to arise. What are those eight?
  1. "This great earth, Ananda, is established upon liquid, the liquid upon the atmosphere, and the atmosphere upon space. And when, Ananda, mighty atmospheric disturbances take place, the liquid is agitated. And with the agitation of the liquid, tremors of the earth arise. This is the first reason, the first cause for the arising of mighty earthquakes.
  2. "Again, Ananda, when an ascetic or holy man of great power, one who has gained mastery of his mind, or a deity who is mighty and potent, develops intense concentration on the delimited aspect of the earth element, and to a boundless degree on the liquid element, he, too, causes the earth to tremble, quiver, and shake. This is the second reason, the second cause for the arising of mighty earthquakes.

16-21. "Again, Ananda, when the Bodhisatta departs from the Tusita realm and descends into his mother's womb, mindfully and clearly comprehending; and when the Bodhisatta comes out from his mother's womb, mindfully and clearly comprehending; and when the Tathagata becomes fully enlightened in unsurpassed, supreme Enlightenment; when the Tathagata sets rolling the excellent Wheel of the Dhamma; when the Tathagata renounces his will to live on; and when the Tathagata comes to pass away into the state of Nibbana in which no element of clinging remains — then, too, Ananda, this great earth trembles, quivers, and shakes.

"These, Ananda, are the eight reasons, the eight causes for a great earthquake to arise.[VFn27]

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 172
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Aṭṭha parisā

  1. ‘‘Aṭṭha kho imā, ānanda, parisā. Katamā aṭṭha? Khattiyaparisā, brāhmaṇaparisā, gahapatiparisā, samaṇaparisā, cātumahārājikaparisā cātummahārājikaparisā (sī. syā. kaṃ. pī.), tāvatiṃsaparisā, māraparisā, brahmaparisā. Abhijānāmi kho panāhaṃ, ānanda , anekasataṃ khattiyaparisaṃ upasaṅkamitā. Tatrapi mayā sannisinnapubbaṃ ceva sallapitapubbañca sākacchā ca samāpajjitapubbā . Tattha yādisako tesaṃ vaṇṇo hoti, tādisako mayhaṃ vaṇṇo hoti. Yādisako tesaṃ saro hoti, tādisako mayhaṃ saro hoti. Dhammiyā kathāya sandassemi samādapemi samuttejemi sampahaṃsemi. Bhāsamānañca maṃ na jānanti – ‘ko nu kho ayaṃ bhāsati devo vā manusso vā’ti? Dhammiyā kathāya sandassetvā samādapetvā samuttejetvā sampahaṃsetvā antaradhāyāmi. Antarahitañca maṃ na jānanti – ‘ko nu kho ayaṃ antarahito devo vā manusso vā’ti? Abhijānāmi kho panāhaṃ, ānanda, anekasataṃ brāhmaṇaparisaṃ…pe… gahapatiparisaṃ… samaṇaparisaṃ… cātumahārājikaparisaṃ… tāvatiṃsaparisaṃ… māraparisaṃ… brahmaparisaṃ upasaṅkamitā. Tatrapi mayā sannisinnapubbaṃ ceva sallapitapubbañca sākacchā ca samāpajjitapubbā. Tattha yādisako tesaṃ vaṇṇo hoti, tādisako mayhaṃ vaṇṇo hoti. Yādisako tesaṃ saro hoti, tādisako mayhaṃ saro hoti. Dhammiyā kathāya sandassemi samādapemi samuttejemi sampahaṃsemi. Bhāsamānañca maṃ na jānanti – ‘ko nu kho ayaṃ bhāsati devo vā manusso vā’ti? Dhammiyā kathāya sandassetvā samādapetvā samuttejetvā sampahaṃsetvā antaradhāyāmi. Antarahitañca maṃ na jānanti – ‘ko nu kho ayaṃ antarahito devo vā manusso vā’ti? Imā kho, ānanda, aṭṭha parisā.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

八眾

  1. 阿難!有這八眾,哪八個呢?剎帝利眾、婆羅門眾、屋主眾、沙門眾、四大王天眾、三十三天眾、魔眾、梵天眾。

又,阿難!我自證[CFn145] 去見過好幾百名剎帝利眾,在那裡,他們以前曾與我共坐、閒聊、進入交談,在那裡,他們的外貌是怎樣,我的外貌就像〔他們〕那樣,他們的聲音是怎樣,我的聲音就像〔他們〕那樣,我以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵,使之歡喜[CFn073] ,但,當講說時,他不知道我〔而想〕:『這位講說者是誰?天或人呢?』我以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵,使之歡喜後,我消失了。當消失時,他不知道我〔而想〕:『這消失者是誰?天或人呢?』

又,阿難!我自證去見過好幾百名婆羅門眾,……(中略)屋主眾……沙門眾……四大王天眾……三十三天眾……魔眾……梵天眾,在那裡,他們以前曾與我共坐、閒聊、進入交談,在那裡,他們的外貌是怎樣,我的外貌就像〔他們〕那樣,他們的聲音是怎樣,我的聲音就像〔他們〕那樣,我以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵,使之歡喜,但,當講說時,他不知道我〔而想〕:『這位講說者是誰?天或人呢?』我以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵,使之歡喜後,我消失了。當消失時,他不知道我〔而想〕:『這消失者是誰?天或人呢?』

阿難!這些是八眾。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 21. “阿難,有八種大眾。八種大眾是什麼呢?是剎帝利眾、婆羅門眾、居士眾、沙門眾、四王天眾、三十三天眾、魔羅眾、梵天眾。
  1. “阿難,我記得曾經走進數以百計的剎帝利眾中去,和他們一起坐,一起交談,一起說話;我化作他們的外觀,依隨他們的語言來為他們說法,對他們開示,對他們教導,使他們景仰,使他們歡喜。他們不知道說話的是誰,他們說: ‘說話的是天還是人呢?’ 我為他們說法,對他們開示,對他們教導,使他們景仰,使他們歡喜,然後隱沒。他們不知道隱沒的是誰,他們說: ‘隱沒的是天還是人呢?’
  2. “阿難,我記得曾經走進數以百計的婆羅門眾……居士眾……沙門眾……四王天眾……三十三天眾……魔羅眾……梵天眾中去,和他們一起坐,一起交談,一起說話;我化作他們的外觀,依隨他們的語言來為他們說法,對他們開示,對他們教導,使他們景仰,使他們歡喜。他們不知道說話的是誰,他們說: ‘說話的是天還是人呢?’ 我為他們說法,對他們開示,對他們教導,使他們景仰,使他們歡喜,然後隱沒。他們不知道隱沒的是誰,他們說: ‘隱沒的是天還是人呢?’ 阿難,這些就是八種大眾了。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 21 「阿難,有八種眾。何者為八?即:剎帝利眾、婆羅門眾、居士眾、沙門眾、四天王眾、忉利天眾、魔眾及梵天眾。

22 「阿難,我憶念往昔曾參加一約數百人之剎帝利眾。於我未就座、或言說、或交談以前,我使我自己與其顏色相同、與其聲音相同,以法要示教利喜之。當我宣說時,彼等不識我,自問說:『宣說者為誰?是神是人?』以法要示教利喜之後,我即隱身不見。彼等亦不知我何時隱去,自問說:『隱去者為誰?是神是人?』

23 「阿難,我憶念往昔曾參加一約數百人之婆羅門眾、居士眾、沙門眾、四天王眾、忉利天眾、魔眾及梵天眾。於我未就座、或言說、或交談以前,我使我自己與其顏色相同,與其聲音相同,以法要示教利喜之。當我宣說時,彼等不識我,自問說:『宣說者為誰?是神是人?』以法要示教利喜之後,我即隱身不見。彼等亦不知我何時隱去,自問說:『隱去者為誰?是神是人?』阿難,此為八種眾。」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[20: The Eight Assemblies]

  1. There are, Ānanda, eight assemblies.

Which eight?

The assembly of Nobles, the assembly of brahmins, the assembly of householders, the assembly of ascetics, the assembly of the Four Great Kings, the assembly of the Tāvatiṁsa (Divinities), the assembly of Māra, the assembly of the Brahmā Divinities.[AFn087]

1) I know, Ānanda, after approaching countless hundreds of assemblies of Nobles, that there, before settling down, before conversing, and before entering upon discussion, whatever their appearance was, my appearance would become,[AFn088] whatever their voice was, my voice would become,[AFn089] and I instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, and while I was speaking they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this speaking, a Divinity or a man?’ and having instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, I disappeared. And when I had disappeared they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this who disappeared, a Divinity or a man?’

2) I know, Ānanda, that after approaching countless hundreds of assemblies of brahmins, that there, before settling down, before conversing, and before entering upon discussion, whatever their appearance was, my appearance would become, whatever their voice was, my voice would become, and I instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, and while I was speaking they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this speaking, a Divinity or a man?’ and having instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, I disappeared. And when I had disappeared they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this who disappeared, a Divinity or a man?’

3) I know, Ānanda, that after approaching countless hundreds of assemblies of householders, that there, before settling down, before conversing, and before entering upon discussion, whatever their appearance was, my appearance would become, whatever their voice was, my voice would become, and I instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, and while I was speaking they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this speaking, a Divinity or a man?’ and having instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, I disappeared. And when I had disappeared they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this who disappeared, a Divinity or a man?’

4) I know, Ānanda, that after approaching countless hundreds of assemblies of ascetics, that there, before settling down, before conversing, and before entering upon discussion, whatever their appearance was, my appearance would become, whatever their voice was, my voice would become, and I instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, and while I was speaking they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this speaking, a Divinity or a man?’ and having instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, I disappeared. And when I had disappeared they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this who disappeared, a Divinity or a man?’

5) I know, Ānanda, that after approaching countless hundreds of assemblies of the Four Great Kings, that there, before settling down, before conversing, and before entering upon discussion, whatever their appearance was, my appearance would become, whatever their voice was, my voice would become, and I instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, and while I was speaking they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this speaking, a Divinity or a man?’ and having instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, I disappeared. And when I had disappeared they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this who disappeared, a Divinity or a man?’

6) I know, Ānanda, that after approaching countless hundreds of assemblies of the Tāvatiṁsa (Divinities), that there, before settling down, before conversing, and before entering upon discussion, whatever their appearance was, my appearance would become, whatever their voice was, my voice would become, and I instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, and while I was speaking they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this speaking, a Divinity or a man?’ and having instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, I disappeared. And when I had disappeared they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this who disappeared, a Divinity or a man?’

7) I know, Ānanda, that after approaching countless hundreds of assemblies of Māra, that there, before settling down, before conversing, and before entering upon discussion, whatever their appearance was, my appearance would become, whatever their voice was, my voice would become, and I instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, and while I was speaking they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this speaking, a Divinity or a man?’ and having instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, I disappeared. And when I had disappeared they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this who disappeared, a Divinity or a man?’

8) I know, Ānanda, that after approaching countless hundreds of assemblies of the Brahmā Divinities, that there, before settling down, before conversing, and before entering upon discussion, whatever their appearance was, my appearance would become, whatever their voice was, my voice would become, and I instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, and while I was speaking they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this speaking, a Divinity or a man?’ and having instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, I disappeared. And when I had disappeared they did not know me (and would ask): ‘Who is this who disappeared, a Divinity or a man?’

These, Ānanda, are the eight assemblies.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Eight Assemblies

  1. 22. "Now there are eight kinds of assemblies, Ananda, that is to say, assemblies of nobles, brahmans, householders, ascetics, of the Four Great Kings, of the Thirty-three gods, of Maras, and of Brahmas.
  1. "And I recall, Ananda, how I have attended each of these eight kinds of assemblies, amounting to hundreds.[VFn28] And before seating myself and starting the conversation or the discussion, I made my appearance resemble theirs, my voice resemble theirs. And so I taught them the Dhamma, and roused, edified, and gladdened them. Yet while I was speaking to them thus, they did not know me, and they would enquire of one another, asking: 'Who is he that speaks to us? Is it a man or a god?'

"Then having taught them the Dhamma, and roused, edified, and gladdened them, I would straightaway vanish. And when I had vanished, too, they did not know me, and they would enquire of one another, asking: 'Who is he that has vanished? Is it a man or a god?'

"And such, Ananda, are the eight kinds of assemblies.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 173
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Aṭṭha abhibhāyatanāni

  1. ‘‘Aṭṭha kho imāni, ānanda, abhibhāyatanāni. Katamāni aṭṭha ? Ajjhattaṃ rūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati parittāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni. ‘Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti evaṃsaññī hoti. Idaṃ paṭhamaṃ abhibhāyatanaṃ.

‘‘Ajjhattaṃ rūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati appamāṇāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni. ‘Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti evaṃsaññī hoti. Idaṃ dutiyaṃ abhibhāyatanaṃ.

‘‘Ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati parittāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni. ‘Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti evaṃsaññī hoti. Idaṃ tatiyaṃ abhibhāyatanaṃ.

‘‘Ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati appamāṇāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni. ‘Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti evaṃsaññī hoti. Idaṃ catutthaṃ abhibhāyatanaṃ.

‘‘Ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati nīlāni nīlavaṇṇāni nīlanidassanāni nīlanibhāsāni. Seyyathāpi nāma umāpupphaṃ nīlaṃ nīlavaṇṇaṃ nīlanidassanaṃ nīlanibhāsaṃ. Seyyathā vā pana taṃ vatthaṃ bārāṇaseyyakaṃ ubhatobhāgavimaṭṭhaṃ nīlaṃ nīlavaṇṇaṃ nīlanidassanaṃ nīlanibhāsaṃ. Evameva ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati nīlāni nīlavaṇṇāni nīlanidassanāni nīlanibhāsāni. ‘Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti evaṃsaññī hoti. Idaṃ pañcamaṃ abhibhāyatanaṃ.

‘‘Ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati pītāni pītavaṇṇāni pītanidassanāni pītanibhāsāni. Seyyathāpi nāma kaṇikārapupphaṃ pītaṃ pītavaṇṇaṃ pītanidassanaṃ pītanibhāsaṃ. Seyyathā vā pana taṃ vatthaṃ bārāṇaseyyakaṃ ubhatobhāgavimaṭṭhaṃ pītaṃ pītavaṇṇaṃ pītanidassanaṃ pītanibhāsaṃ. Evameva ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati pītāni pītavaṇṇāni pītanidassanāni pītanibhāsāni. ‘Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti evaṃsaññī hoti. Idaṃ chaṭṭhaṃ abhibhāyatanaṃ.

‘‘Ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati lohitakāni lohitakavaṇṇāni lohitakanidassanāni lohitakanibhāsāni. Seyyathāpi nāma bandhujīvakapupphaṃ lohitakaṃ lohitakavaṇṇaṃ lohitakanidassanaṃ lohitakanibhāsaṃ. Seyyathā vā pana taṃ vatthaṃ bārāṇaseyyakaṃ ubhatobhāgavimaṭṭhaṃ lohitakaṃ lohitakavaṇṇaṃ lohitakanidassanaṃ lohitakanibhāsaṃ. Evameva ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati lohitakāni lohitakavaṇṇāni lohitakanidassanāni lohitakanibhāsāni. ‘Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti evaṃsaññī hoti. Idaṃ sattamaṃ abhibhāyatanaṃ.

‘‘Ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati odātāni odātavaṇṇāni odātanidassanāni odātanibhāsāni. Seyyathāpi nāma osadhitārakā odātā odātavaṇṇā odātanidassanā odātanibhāsā. Seyyathā vā pana taṃ vatthaṃ bārāṇaseyyakaṃ ubhatobhāgavimaṭṭhaṃ odātaṃ odātavaṇṇaṃ odātanidassanaṃ odātanibhāsaṃ. Evameva ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati odātāni odātavaṇṇāni odātanidassanāni odātanibhāsāni. ‘Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti evaṃsaññī hoti. Idaṃ aṭṭhamaṃ abhibhāyatanaṃ . Imāni kho, ānanda, aṭṭha abhibhāyatanāni.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

八勝處

  1. 阿難!有這八勝處[CFn146] ,哪八個呢?

某位內有色想者見少的、美的、醜的外色,征服它們後,他成為這樣想者:『我知道,我看見。』這是第一個勝處。

某位內有色想者見無量的、美的、醜的外色,征服它們後,他成為這樣想者:『我知道,我看見。』這是第二個勝處。

某位內無色想者見少的、美的、醜的外色,征服它們後,他成為這樣想者:『我知道,我看見。』這是第三個勝處。

某位內無色想者見無量的、美的、醜的外色,征服它們後,他成為這樣想者:『我知道,我看見。』這是第四個勝處。

某位內無色想者見青的、青色、青色外觀的、青色光澤的外色,猶如青的、青色、青色外觀的、青色光澤的亞麻花;猶如青的、青色、青色外觀的、青色光澤的波羅奈生產,兩邊都整理得光滑的衣服。同樣的,內無色想者見青的、青色、青色外觀的、青色光澤的外色,征服它們後,他成為這樣想者:『我知道,我看見。』這是第五個勝處。

某位內無色想者見黃的、黃色、黃色外觀的、黃色光澤的外色,猶如黃的、黃色、黃色外觀的、黃色光澤的黃花樹花;猶如黃的、黃色、黃色外觀的、黃色光澤的波羅奈生產,兩邊都整理得光滑的衣服。同樣的,內無色想者見黃的、黃色、黃色外觀的、黃色光澤的外色,征服它們後,他成為這樣想者:『我知道,我看見。』這是第六個勝處。

某位內無色想者見赤的、赤色、赤色外觀的、赤色光澤的外色,猶如赤的、赤色、赤色外觀的、赤色光澤的朱槿花;猶如赤的、赤色、赤色外觀的、赤色光澤的波羅奈生產,兩邊都整理得光滑的衣服。同樣的,內無色想者見赤的、赤色、赤色外觀的、赤色光澤的外色,征服它們後,他成為這樣想者:『我知道,我看見。』這是第七個勝處。

某位內無色想者見白的、白色、白色外觀的、白色光澤的外色,猶如白的、白色、白色外觀的、白色光澤的太白星;猶如白的、白色、白色外觀的、白色光澤的波羅奈生產,兩邊都整理得光滑的衣服。同樣的,內無色想者見白的、白色、白色外觀的、白色光澤的外色,征服它們後,他成為這樣想者:『我知道,我看見。』這是第八個勝處。阿難!這些是八勝處。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 24. “阿難,有八勝處。八勝處是什麼呢?
  1. “一個內有色想的人,少觀看外色的美相和醜相。他這樣想: ‘我制勝色想之後,對此有知、有見。’ 這是第一勝處。
  2. “一個內有色想的人,多觀看外色的美相和醜相。他這樣想: ‘我制勝色想之後,對此有知、有見。’ 這是第二勝處。
  3. “一個內沒有色想的人,少觀看外色的美相和醜相。他這樣想: ‘我制勝色想之後,對此有知、有見。’ 這是第三勝處。
  4. “一個內沒有色想的人,多觀看外色的美相和醜相。他這樣想: ‘我制勝色想之後,對此有知、有見。’ 這是第四勝處。
  5. “一個內沒有色想的人,觀看藍色的外色:藍色、藍色外相、藍色光澤。有如觀看亞麻花那樣,藍色、藍色外相、藍色光澤;或有如觀看藍色的波羅奈布料那樣,底和面都很幼滑,藍色、藍色外相、藍色光澤。他這樣想: ‘我制勝色想之後,對此有知、有見。’ 這是第五勝處。
  6. “一個內沒有色想的人,觀看黃色的外色:黃色、黃色外相、黃色光澤。有如觀看迦尼迦羅花那樣,黃色、黃色外相、黃色光澤;或有如觀看黃色的波羅奈布料那樣,底和面都很幼滑,黃色、黃色外相、黃色光澤。他這樣想: ‘我制勝色想之後,對此有知、有見。’ 這是第六勝處。
  7. “一個內沒有色想的人,觀看紅色的外色:紅色、紅色外相、紅色光澤。有如觀看木槿花那樣,紅色、紅色外相、紅色光澤;或有如觀看紅色的波羅奈布料那樣,底和面都很幼滑,紅色、紅色外相、紅色光澤。他這樣想: ‘我制勝色想之後,對此有知、有見。’ 這是第七勝處。
  8. “一個內沒有色想的人,觀看白色的外色:白色、白色外相、白色光澤。有如觀看草藥星[SFn12] 那樣,白色、白色外相、白色光澤;或有如觀看白色的波羅奈布料那樣,底和面都很幼滑,白色、白色外相、白色光澤。他這樣想: ‘我制勝色想之後,對此有知、有見。’

這是第八勝處。阿難,這些就是八勝處了。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 24 「阿難,有八勝處。何者為八?

25 「阿難,若人有主觀色想視外間有限或苦或樂之諸相,既專精於此,遂有『我知我見』之念。此為第一勝處。

26 「若人以主觀色想視外間無窮或苦或樂之諸相,既專精於此,遂有『我知我見』之念。此為第二勝處。

27 「若人無主觀色想視外間有限或苦或樂之諸相,既專精於此,遂有『我知我見』之念。此為第三勝處。

28 「若人以無主觀色想視外間無窮或苦或樂之諸相,既專精於此,遂有『我知我見』之念。此為第四勝處。

29 「若人以無主觀色想視外間諸相是青色、青相、青映影。正如烏馬花是青色、青相、青映影。又如波羅奈所產細布,表裹精緻是青色、青相、青映影。若如此以無主觀色想視外間諸相是青色、青相、青映影,既專精於此,遂有『我知我見』之念。此為第五勝處。

30 「若人以無主觀色想視外間諸相是黃色、黃相、黃映影。正如堪尼卡羅花是黃色、黃相、黃映影。又如波羅奈所產細布,表裹精緻是黃色、黃相、黃映影,既專精於此,遂有『我知我見』之念。此為第六勝處。

31 「若人以無主觀色想視外間諸相是紅色、紅相、紅映影。正如班都幾瓦卡是紅色、紅相、紅映影,又如波羅奈所產細布,表裹精緻是紅色、紅相、紅映影,既專精於此,遂有『我知我見』之念。此為第七勝處。

32 「若人以無主觀色想視外間諸相是白色、白相、白映影。正如俄沙底星是白色、白相、白映影。又如波羅奈所產細布,表裹精緻是白色、白相、白映影。若人如此以無主觀色想視外間諸相是白色、白相、白映影,既專精於此,遂有『我知我見』之念。此為第八勝處。阿難,此為八勝處。」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[21: The Eight Means of (Mind) mastery]

  1. There are, Ānanda, eight means of (mind) mastery.[AFn090]

Which eight?

1) Perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, limited, beautiful or ugly, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: ‘I know, I see’. This is the first means of (mind) mastery.[AFn091]

2) Perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, unlimited, beautiful or ugly, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: ‘I know, I see’. This is the second means of (mind) mastery.

3) Without perceiving forms internally,[AFn092] someone sees forms externally, limited, beautiful or ugly, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: ‘I know, I see’. This is the third means of (mind) mastery.

4) Without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, unlimited, beautiful or ugly, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: ‘I know, I see’. This is the fourth means of (mind) mastery.

5) Without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally,[AFn093] blue, blue-coloured, of blue appearance, shiny blue, just as the flower called Ummā is blue, blue-coloured, of blue appearance, shiny blue, or just as there is Banaras cloth smoothed on both sides that is blue, blue-coloured, of blue appearance, shiny blue, so, without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, blue, blue-coloured, of blue appearance, shiny blue, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: ‘I know, I see’. This is the fifth means of (mind) mastery.

6) Without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, yellow, yellow-coloured, of yellow appearance, shiny yellow, just as the flower called Kaṇikāra is yellow, yellow-coloured, of yellow appearance, shiny yellow, or just as there is Banaras cloth smoothed on both sides that is yellow, yellow-coloured, of yellow appearance, shiny yellow, so, without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, yellow, yellow colour, of yellow appearance, shiny yellow, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: ‘I know, I see’. This is the sixth means of (mind) mastery.

7) Without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, red, red-coloured, of red appearance, shiny red, just as the flower called Bandhujīvaka is red, red-coloured, of red appearance, shiny red, or just as there is Banaras cloth smoothed on both sides that is red, red-coloured, of red appearance, shiny red, so, without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, red, red-coloured, of red appearance, shiny red, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: ‘I know, I see’. This is the seventh means of (mind) mastery.

8) Without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, white, white-coloured, of white appearance, shiny white, just as the Osadhī star, is white, white-coloured, of white appearance, shiny white, or just as there is Banaras cloth smoothed on both sides that is white, white-coloured, of white appearance, shiny white, so, without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, white, white-coloured, of white appearance, shiny white, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: ‘I know, I see’. This is the eighth means of (mind) mastery.

These, Ānanda, are the eight means of (mind) mastery.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Eight Fields of Mastery

  1. 24. "Now there are eight fields of mastery,[VFn29] Ananda.

What are those eight?

  1. "When one, perceiving forms subjectively,[VFn30] sees small forms, beautiful or ugly, external to himself,[VFn31] and mastering them, is aware that he perceives and knows them as they are — this is the first field of mastery.
  2. "When one, perceiving forms subjectively, sees large forms, beautiful or ugly, external to himself, and mastering them, is aware that he perceives and knows them as they are — this is the second field of mastery.
  3. "When one, not perceiving forms subjectively,[VFn32] sees small forms, beautiful or ugly, external to himself, and mastering them, is aware that he perceives and knows them as they are — this is the third field of mastery.
  4. "When one, not perceiving forms subjectively, sees large forms, beautiful or ugly, external to himself, and mastering them, is aware that he perceives and knows them as they are — this is the fourth field of mastery.
  5. "When one, not perceiving forms subjectively, sees forms external to himself that are blue, blue in color, of a blue luster like the blossoms of flax, or like fine Benares muslin which, burnished on both sides, is blue, blue in color, of a blue luster — when such a one sees forms external to himself that are blue, and mastering them, is aware that he perceives and knows them as they are — this is the fifth field of mastery.
  6. "When one, not perceiving forms subjectively, sees forms external to himself that are yellow, yellow in color, of a yellow luster like the Kanikara blossom, or like fine Benares muslin which, burnished on both sides, is yellow, yellow in color, of a yellow luster — when such a one sees forms external to himself that are yellow, and mastering them, is aware that he perceives and knows them as they are — this is the sixth field of mastery.
  7. "When one, not perceiving forms subjectively, sees forms external to himself that are red, red in color, of a red luster like the Bandhujivaka blossom, or like fine Benares muslin which, burnished on both sides, is red, red in color, of a red luster — when such a one sees forms external to himself that are red, and mastering them, is aware that he perceives and knows them as they are — this is the seventh field of mastery.
  8. "When one, not perceiving forms subjectively, sees forms external to himself that are white, white in color, of a white luster like the morning star, or like fine Benares muslin which, burnished on both sides, is white, white in color, of a white luster — when such a one sees forms external to himself that are white, and mastering them, is aware that he perceives and knows them as they are — this is the eighth field of mastery.

"These, Ananda, are the eight fields of mastery.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 174
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Aṭṭha vimokkhā

  1. ‘‘Aṭṭha kho ime, ānanda, vimokkhā. Katame aṭṭha? Rūpī rūpāni passati, ayaṃ paṭhamo vimokkho. Ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati, ayaṃ dutiyo vimokkho. Subhanteva adhimutto hoti, ayaṃ tatiyo vimokkho. Sabbaso rūpasaññānaṃ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṃ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṃ amanasikārā ‘ananto ākāso’ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati, ayaṃ catuttho vimokkho. Sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma ‘anantaṃ viññāṇa’nti viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati, ayaṃ pañcamo vimokkho. Sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma ‘natthi kiñcī’ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati, ayaṃ chaṭṭho vimokkho. Sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṃ sattamo vimokkho. Sabbaso nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma saññāvedayitanirodhaṃ upasampajja viharati, ayaṃ aṭṭhamo vimokkho. Ime kho, ānanda, aṭṭha vimokkhā.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

八解脫

  1. 阿難!有這八解脫[CFn147] ,哪八個呢?有色者見諸色,這是第一解脫。內無色想者見外諸色,這是第二解脫。只傾心於清淨的,這是第三解脫。以一切色想的超越[CFn148] ,以有對想[CFn149] 的滅沒,以不作意種種想〔而知〕:『虛空是無邊的』,進入後住於虛空無邊處,這是第四解脫。以一切虛空無邊處的超越〔而知〕:『識是無邊的』,進入後住於識無邊處,這是第五解脫。以一切識無邊處的超越〔而知〕:『什麼都沒有』,進入後住於無所有處,這是第六解脫。以一切無所有處的超越,進入後住於非想非非想處,這是第七解脫。以一切非想非非想處的超越,進入後住於想受滅[CFn150] ,這是第八解脫,阿難!這些是八解脫。
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 33. “阿難,有八解脫。八解脫是什麼呢?

“一個具有色身的人觀看色。這是第一解脫。

“一個內沒有色想的人觀看外色。這是第二解脫。

“內心只安放在美麗的外相。這是第三解脫。

“內心想著無邊的虛空,超越了所有色想,滅除了有對想,不思維各種想,他進入了空無邊處。這是第四解脫。

“內心想著無邊的心識,超越了所有的空無邊處,他進入了識無邊處。這是第五解脫。

“內心想著 ‘沒有任何東西’ ,超越了所有的識無邊處,他進入了無所有處。這是第六解脫。

“超越了所有的無所有處,他進入了非想非非想處。這是第七解脫。

“超越了所有的非想非非想處,他進入了想受滅盡定。這是第八解脫。

“阿難,這些就是八解脫了。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 33 「阿難,此為八解脫。何者為八?

「以相見相,是第一解脫。

「不覺其自相見外間諸相,是第二解脫。

「存心於善,是第三解脫。

「超出諸色想,斷除諸憤怒想,不思念諸相,自念:是『空無邊』而入於空無邊處定,是第四解脫。

「超出空無邊處,自念:是『識無邊處』而入於識無邊處定,是第五解脫。

「超出識無邊處,自念:是『無所有』而入於無所有處定,是第六解脫。

「超出無所有處,自念:是『非想非非想』而入於非想非非想處定,是第七解脫。

「超出一切『非想非非想處』而入於滅想定,是第八解脫。阿難,此為八解脫。

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[22: The Eight Liberations]

  1. There are, Ānanda, eight liberations.

Which eight?

1) One having form sees forms. This is the first liberation.[AFn094]

2) Not perceiving forms internally, he sees forms externally. This is the second liberation.[AFn095]

3) One is intent on endless beauty.[AFn096] This is the third liberation.

4) Having completely transcended perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of (sensory) impact, not attending to perceptions of variety, (understanding): ‘This is endless space’, he abides in the sphere of endless space.[AFn097] This is the fourth liberation.

5) Having completely transcended the sphere of endless space, (understanding): ‘This is endless consciousness’, he abides in the sphere of endless consciousness. This is the fifth liberation.

6) Having completely transcended the sphere of endless consciousness, (understanding): ‘This is nothing’, he abides in the sphere of nothingness. This is the sixth liberation.

7) Having completely transcended the sphere of nothingness, he abides in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. This is the seventh liberation.

8) Having completely transcended the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he abides in the cessation of perception and feeling. This is the eighth liberation.

These, Ānanda, are the eight liberations.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Eight Liberations

  1. 33. "Now there are eight liberations, Ananda. What are those eight?[VFn33]
  1. "Oneself having form,[VFn34] one perceives forms; this is the first liberation.
  2. "Being unaware of one's own form, one perceives forms external to oneself; this is the second liberation.
  3. "Experiencing loveliness, one is intent upon it;[VFn35] this is the third liberation.
  4. "By utterly transcending the perceptions of matter, by the disappearance of the perceptions of sense-reaction, and by giving no attention to diversity-perceptions, one becomes aware of, attains to, and abides in the sphere of infinite space; this is the fourth liberation.
  5. "By utterly transcending the sphere of infinite space, one becomes aware of, attains to, and abides in the sphere of infinite consciousness; this is the fifth liberation.
  6. "By utterly transcending the sphere of infinite consciousness, one becomes aware of, attains to, and abides in the sphere of nothingness; this is the sixth liberation.
  7. "By utterly transcending the sphere of nothingness, one attains to and abides in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception; this is the seventh liberation.
  8. "By utterly transcending the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, one attains to and abides in the cessation of perception and sensation; this is the eighth liberation.

"These, Ananda, are the eight liberations.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 175
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Ekamidāhaṃ , ānanda, samayaṃ uruvelāyaṃ viharāmi najjā nerañjarāya tīre ajapālanigrodhe paṭhamābhisambuddho. Atha kho, ānanda, māro pāpimā yenāhaṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṃ ṭhito kho, ānanda, māro pāpimā maṃ etadavoca – ‘parinibbātudāni, bhante, bhagavā; parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālodāni, bhante, bhagavato’ti. Evaṃ vutte ahaṃ, ānanda, māraṃ pāpimantaṃ etadavocaṃ –

‘‘‘Na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me bhikkhū na sāvakā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desessanti.

‘‘‘Na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me bhikkhuniyo na sāvikā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desessanti.

‘‘‘Na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me upāsakā na sāvakā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desessanti.

‘‘‘Na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me upāsikā na sāvikā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo, sakaṃ ācariyakaṃ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṃ parappavādaṃ sahadhammena suniggahitaṃ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṃ dhammaṃ desessanti.

‘‘‘Na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me idaṃ brahmacariyaṃ na iddhañceva bhavissati phītañca vitthārikaṃ bāhujaññaṃ puthubhūtaṃ yāva devamanussehi suppakāsita’nti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 阿難!這裡,有一次,我住在優樓頻螺,尼連禪河邊牧羊人的榕樹下,初現正覺。那時,魔波旬來見我。抵達後,向我問訊,接著在一旁站立,在一旁站好後,魔波旬對世尊這麼說:『大德!現在,請世尊般涅槃,請善逝般涅槃,大德!現在是世尊般涅槃的時機。』當這麼說時,我對魔波旬這麼說:

『波旬!我將不般涅槃,除非我的比丘弟子們成為聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、多聞的、持法的、法隨法行的、如法而行的、隨法行的,學習了自己阿闍梨的〔教導〕後,將告知、教導、安立、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,以如法善折伏對方已生起的議論,折伏後將教導神變法。

波旬!我將不般涅槃,除非我的比丘尼弟子們成為聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、多聞的、持法的、法隨法行的、如法而行的、隨法行的,學習了自己阿闍梨的〔教導〕後,將告知、教導、安立、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,以如法善折伏對方已生起的議論,折伏後將教導神變法。

波旬!我將不般涅槃,除非我的優婆塞弟子們成為聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、多聞的、持法的、法隨法行的、如法而行的、隨法行的,學習了自己阿闍梨的〔教導〕後,將告知、教導、安立、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,以如法善折伏對方已生起的議論,折伏後將教導神變法。

波旬!我將不般涅槃,除非我的優婆夷弟子們成為聰明的、已被教導的、有自信的、多聞的、持法的、法隨法行的、如法而行的、隨法行的,學習了自己阿闍梨的〔教導〕後,將告知、教導、安立、建立、開顯、解析、闡明,以如法善折伏對方已生起的議論,折伏後將教導神變法。

波旬!我將不般涅槃,除非我的這梵行成為成功的、繁榮的、廣大流傳的、人多的、廣大的,在天與人中被善說明。』

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 34. “阿難,有一次,我在優樓頻螺的尼連禪河邊初得無上正等正覺,逗留在牧羊人的榕樹下時,邪惡者魔羅走來我那裏,站在一邊,然後對我說: ‘大德,請世尊現在入滅,請善逝現在入滅;現在是世尊入滅的時候了。’
  1. “阿難,邪惡者魔羅說了這番話後,我對他說: ‘邪惡者,在我的比丘弟子還沒有聰慧、成熟、自信、多聞、持法、法隨法行、正向、依法而行時;在我的比丘弟子學了老師的教法後,未能向人講解、宣說、教導、建立、揭示、分析、清楚解釋時;在我的比丘弟子未能以正法來駁斥錯誤的見解,駁斥之後,宣說非凡的法義時;我不會入滅。

‘邪惡者,在我的比丘尼弟子……

‘邪惡者,在我的優婆塞弟子……

‘邪惡者,在我的優婆夷弟子沒有聰慧、成熟、自信、多聞、持法、法隨法行、正向、依法而行時;在我的優婆夷弟子學了老師的教法後,未能向人講解、宣說、教導、建立、揭示、分析、清楚解釋時;在我的優婆夷弟子未能以正法來駁斥錯誤的見解,駁斥之後,宣說非凡的法義時;我不會入滅。

‘邪惡者,在我的梵行沒有流行,沒有興盛,沒有廣泛流傳,沒有遍及眾人時;在我的梵行沒有人宣說時;我不會入滅。’

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 34 「阿難,往昔我於尼連禪河岸邊,牧羊人菩提樹下初成正覺時,彼時惡魔來至我所,立於我側向我說:『世尊,薄伽梵現在應入涅槃。慈尊,現在正是如來入涅槃之時,請速入涅槃。』

35 「阿難,彼作是語已,我告惡魔說:『惡魔,若我之比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞、優婆夷尚未成為正聞、聰慧、善攝、多聞、熟記聖典、精嫻教義、奉持戒律;既精於法乃能教導、宣演、建立、開啟、詳釋、明辨;能以正法掃蕩、降伏異論及廣宣妙法之弟子時,我將不入涅槃。

「『惡魔,若我之清淨戒不成功、興盛、廣布、普遍及遍傳於人間時,我將不入涅槃。』

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[23: Ānanda's Fault]

  1. At one time Ānanda I was living at Uruvelā, on the bank of the river Nerañjarā, at the root of the Goatherd's Banyan tree, in the first (period) after attaining Awakening.[AFn098] Then, Ānanda, the Wicked Māra approached me, and after approaching he stood on one side. While standing to one side, Ānanda, the Wicked Māra said this to me:

“May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.”

After this was said, Ānanda, I said this to the Wicked Māra: “I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my monks are not (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.

I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my nuns are not (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.

I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my laymen are not (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.

I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my laywomen are not (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.

I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as this spiritual life of mine has not become successful and prosperous, well spread-out, possessed by many, become great, until it is well-explained amongst Divinities and men.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Mara's Former Temptation

  1. 42. "There was a time, Ananda, when I dwelt at Uruvela, on the bank of the Nerañjara River, at the foot of the goatherds' banyan-tree, soon after my supreme Enlightenment. And Mara, the Evil One, approached me, saying: 'Now, O Lord, let the Blessed One come to his final passing away! Let the Happy One utterly pass away! The time has come for the Parinibbana of the Lord.'
  1. "Then, Ananda, I answered Mara, the Evil One, saying: 'I shall not come to my final passing away, Evil One, until my bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, laymen and laywomen, have come to be true disciples — wise, well disciplined, apt and learned, preservers of the Dhamma, living according to the Dhamma, abiding by appropriate conduct and, having learned the Master's word, are able to expound it, preach it, proclaim it, establish it, reveal it, explain it in detail, and make it clear; until, when adverse opinions arise, they shall be able to refute them thoroughly and well, and to preach this convincing and liberating Dhamma.
  2. "'I shall not come to my final passing away, Evil One, until this holy life taught by me has become successful, prosperous, far-renowned, popular, and widespread, until it is well proclaimed among gods and men.'
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 176
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Idāneva kho, ānanda, ajja cāpāle cetiye māro pāpimā yenāhaṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṃ ṭhito kho, ānanda, māro pāpimā maṃ etadavoca – ‘parinibbātudāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālodāni, bhante, bhagavato. Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā – ‘‘na tāvāhaṃ, pāpima , parinibbāyissāmi , yāva me bhikkhū na sāvakā bhavissanti…pe… yāva me bhikkhuniyo na sāvikā bhavissanti…pe… yāva me upāsakā na sāvakā bhavissanti…pe… yāva me upāsikā na sāvikā bhavissanti…pe… yāva me idaṃ brahmacariyaṃ na iddhañceva bhavissati phītañca vitthārikaṃ bāhujaññaṃ puthubhūtaṃ, yāva devamanussehi suppakāsita’’nti. Etarahi kho pana, bhante, bhagavato brahmacariyaṃ iddhañceva phītañca vitthārikaṃ bāhujaññaṃ puthubhūtaṃ, yāva devamanussehi suppakāsitaṃ. Parinibbātudāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālodāni, bhante, bhagavato’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 阿難!現在,就在這裡;在價玻勒塔廟,魔波旬來見我。抵達後在一旁站立,在一旁站好後,阿難!魔波旬對我這麼說:『大德!現在,請世尊般涅槃,請善逝般涅槃,大德!現在是世尊般涅槃的時機,世尊說過這些話:「波旬!我將不般涅槃,除非我的比丘弟子們成為,……(中略)除非我的比丘尼弟子們成為,……(中略)除非我的優婆塞弟子們成為,……(中略)除非我的優婆夷弟子們成為,……(中略)除非我的這梵行成為成功的、繁榮的、廣大流傳的、人多的、廣大的,在天與人中被善說明。」大德!現在,世尊的梵行成為成功的、繁榮的、廣大流傳的、人多的、廣大的,在天與人中被善說明。大德!現在,請世尊般涅槃,請善逝般涅槃,大德!現在是世尊般涅槃的時機。』
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 36. “阿難,今天在遮巴羅廟邪惡者魔羅走來我那裏,站在一邊,然後對我說: ‘大德,請世尊現在入滅,請善逝現在入滅;現在是世尊入滅的時候了。大德,這句話曾出自世尊的口: “邪惡者,在我的比丘弟子還沒有聰慧、成熟、自信、多聞、持法、法隨法行、正向、依法而行時;在我的比丘弟子學了老師的教法後,未能向人講解、宣說、教導、建立、揭示、分析、清楚解釋時;在我的比丘弟子未能以正法來駁斥錯誤的見解,駁斥之後,宣說非凡的法義時;我不會入滅。”

大德,現在世尊的比丘弟子聰慧、成熟、自信、多聞、持法、法隨法行、正向、依法而行了;現在世尊的比丘弟子學了老師的教法後,能向人講解、宣說、教導、建立、揭示、分析、清楚解釋了;現在世尊的比丘弟子能以正法來駁斥錯誤的見解,駁斥之後,宣說非凡的法義了。大德,請世尊現在入滅,請善逝現在入滅;現在是世尊入滅的時候了。

‘大德,這句話曾出自世尊的口: “邪惡者,在我的比丘尼弟子……大德,請世尊現在入滅,請善逝現在入滅;現在是世尊入滅的時候了。

‘大德,這句話曾出自世尊的口: “邪惡者,在我的優婆塞弟子……大德,請世尊現在入滅,請善逝現在入滅;現在是世尊入滅的時候了。

‘大德,這句話曾出自世尊的口: “邪惡者,在我的優婆夷弟子沒有聰慧、成熟、自信、多聞、持法、法隨法行、正向、依法而行時;在我的優婆夷弟子學了老師的教法後,未能向人講解、宣說、教導、建立、揭示、分析、清楚解釋時;在我的優婆夷弟子未能以正法來駁斥錯誤的見解,駁斥之後,宣說非凡的法義時;我不會入滅。”

大德,現在世尊的優婆夷弟子聰慧、成熟、自信、多聞、持法、法隨法行、正向、依法而行了;現在世尊的優婆夷弟子學了老師的教法後,能向人講解、宣說、教導、建立、揭示、分析、清楚解釋了;現在世尊的優婆夷弟子能以正法來駁斥錯誤的見解,駁斥之後,宣說非凡的法義了。大德,請世尊現在入滅,請善逝現在入滅;現在是世尊入滅的時候了。

‘大德,這句話曾出自世尊的口: “邪惡者,在我的梵行沒有流行,沒有興盛,沒有廣泛流傳,沒有遍及眾人時;在我的梵行沒有人宣說時;我不會入滅。”

大德,現在世尊的梵行流行、興盛、廣泛流傳、遍及眾人了;現在世尊的梵行有人宣說了。大德,請世尊現在入滅,請善逝現在入滅;現在是世尊入滅的時候了。’

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 36 37 「阿難,我今於洽巴拉神舍,該惡魔復來我所,立於我側向我說:『世尊,薄伽梵現在應入涅槃。慈尊,現在正是如來入涅槃之時,請速入涅槃!世尊,即使依照前薄伽梵所說:(其詳見上)』
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Now today, Ānanda, at the Cāpāla Shrine the Wicked Māra approached me, and after approaching he stood on one side. While standing on one side the Wicked Māra said this to me:

‘May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation. For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

“I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my monks are not (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.”

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's monks are (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, do declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.

May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation. For the Gracious One has said these words:

“I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my nuns are not (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.”

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's nuns are (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, do declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.

May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation. For the Gracious One has said these words:

“I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my laymen are not (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.”

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's laymen are (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, do declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.

May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation. For the Gracious One has said these words:

“I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my laywomen are not (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching.”

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's laywomen are (true) disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, do declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain - after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen - and teach the miraculous Teaching. May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation. For the Gracious One has said these words:

“I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as this spiritual life of mine has not become successful and prosperous, well spread-out, possessed by many, become great, until it is well-explained amongst Divinities and men.”

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's spiritual life is successful and prosperous, well spread-out, possessed by many, become great, it is well-explained amongst Divinities and men.

May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.’

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 45. "And again today, Ananda, at the Capala shrine, Mara, the Evil One, approached me, saying: 'Now, O Lord, bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, laymen and laywomen, have come to be true disciples of the Blessed One — wise, well disciplined, apt and learned, preservers of the Dhamma, living according to the Dhamma, abiding in the appropriate conduct, and having learned the Master's word, are able to expound it, preach it, proclaim it, establish it, reveal it, explain it in detail, and make it clear; and when adverse opinions arise, they are now able to refute them thoroughly and well, and to preach this convincing and liberating Dhamma.

"'And now, O Lord, this holy life taught by the Blessed One has become successful, prosperous, far-renowned, popular and widespread, and it is well proclaimed among gods and men. Therefore, O Lord, let the Blessed One come to his final passing away! Let the Happy One utterly pass away! The time has come for the Parinibbana of the Lord.'

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 177
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Evaṃ vutte, ahaṃ, ānanda, māraṃ pāpimantaṃ etadavocaṃ – ‘appossukko tvaṃ, pāpima, hohi, naciraṃ tathāgatassa parinibbānaṃ bhavissati. Ito tiṇṇaṃ māsānaṃ accayena tathāgato parinibbāyissatī’ti. Idāneva kho, ānanda, ajja cāpāle cetiye tathāgatena satena sampajānena āyusaṅkhāro ossaṭṭho’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 當這麼說時,我對魔波旬這麼說:『波旬!請你不用操心,如來不久將般涅槃,三個月後如來將般涅槃。』阿難!現在,就在這裡;在價玻勒塔廟,如來正念、正知地捨棄壽行。」
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 37. “阿難,邪惡者魔羅說了這番話後,我對他說: ‘邪惡者,你不用操心。如來將在不久之後入滅。三個月之後,如來便會入滅。’

“阿難,如來今天在遮巴羅廟有念、有覺知地捨棄了壽行。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 「阿難,他既作此語,我告惡魔說:『惡魔,你應歡喜!佛陀不久即將圓寂。此後三月,如來即將入涅槃。』

「阿難,如來今日於洽巴拉神舍謹然住念捨壽。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. When that was said, Ānanda, I said this to the Wicked Māra: ‘You should have little concern, Wicked One, in no long time the Realised One will be Finally Emancipated, after three months have passed from now, the Realised One will attain Final Emancipation.’ Now today, Ānanda, at the Cāpāla Shrine the Realised One mindfully, with full awareness, gave up the life-process.”
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 46. "And then, Ananda, I answered Mara, the Evil One, saying: 'Do not trouble yourself, Evil One. Before long the Parinibbana of the Tathagata will come about. Three months hence the Tathagata will utterly pass away.'
  1. "And in this way, Ananda, today at the Capala shrine the Tathagata has renounced his will to live on."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 178
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Ānandayācanakathā

  1. Evaṃ vutte āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṃ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussāna’’nti.

‘‘Alaṃdāni, ānanda. Mā tathāgataṃ yāci, akālodāni, ānanda, tathāgataṃ yācanāyā’’ti. Dutiyampi kho āyasmā ānando…pe… tatiyampi kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṃ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussāna’’nti.

‘‘Saddahasi tvaṃ, ānanda, tathāgatassa bodhi’’nti? ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’. ‘‘Atha kiñcarahi tvaṃ, ānanda, tathāgataṃ yāvatatiyakaṃ abhinippīḷesī’’ti? ‘‘Sammukhā metaṃ, bhante, bhagavato sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ – ‘yassa kassaci, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā. Tathāgatassa kho, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā. So ākaṅkhamāno, ānanda, tathāgato kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā’’’ti. ‘‘Saddahasi tvaṃ, ānandā’’ti? ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’. ‘‘Tasmātihānanda, tuyhevetaṃ dukkaṭaṃ, tuyhevetaṃ aparaddhaṃ, yaṃ tvaṃ tathāgatena evaṃ oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṃ, na tathāgataṃ yāci – ‘tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṃ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussāna’’nti. Sace tvaṃ, ānanda, tathāgataṃ yāceyyāsi, dveva te vācā tathāgato paṭikkhipeyya, atha tatiyakaṃ adhivāseyya. Tasmātihānanda, tuyhevetaṃ dukkaṭaṃ, tuyhevetaṃ aparaddhaṃ.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

阿難請求的談說

  1. 當這麼說時,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:

「為了眾人有利益,為了眾人安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人有利益、有利、安樂,大德!請世尊住留一劫,大德!請善逝住留一劫。」

「夠了,阿難!不要求如來,阿難!現在不是求如來的時機。」

第二次,尊者阿難……(中略)第三次,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:

「為了眾人有利益,為了眾人安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人有利益、有利、安樂,大德!請世尊住留一劫,大德!請善逝住留一劫。」

「阿難!你相信如來的覺嗎?」

「是的,大德!」

「那樣的話,阿難!你為何騷擾如來三次之多呢?」

「大德!我在世尊面前聽到、領受這樣:『阿難!凡任何人已修習、已多修習四神足,作為車輛、作為基礎、已實行、成為習慣、善精勤的,當他願意時,他能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。阿難!如來已修習、已多修習四神足,作為車輛、作為基礎、已實行、成為習慣、善精勤的,當他願意時,他能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。』」

「阿難!你相信嗎?」

「是的,大德!」

「阿難!因此,在這裡,這就是你的惡作[CFn151] ,這就是你的罪過,因為當你被如來作了這麼明顯的徵相、明顯的暗示時,你不能夠洞察,沒求世尊: 『大德!為了眾人有利益,為了眾人安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人有利益、有利、安樂,請世尊住留一劫,請善逝住留一劫。』阿難!如果你求如來,如來會拒絕你的言語兩次,而第三次會同意,阿難!因此,在這裡,這就是你的惡作,這就是你的罪過。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 38. 世尊說了這番話後,阿難尊者對他說: “大德,為了許多眾生的利益,為了許多眾生的快樂;為了悲憫世間,為了天和人的福祉、利益和快樂;請世尊活在世上一劫,請善逝活在世上一劫。”

“阿難,不。不要請求世尊,現在不是請求世尊的時候。”

  1. 阿難尊者第二次對世尊說……

“阿難,不。不要請求世尊,現在不是請求世尊的時候。”

阿難尊者第三次對世尊說: “大德,為了許多眾生的利益,為了許多眾生的快樂;為了悲憫世間,為了天和人的福祉、利益和快樂;請世尊活在世上一劫,請善逝活在世上一劫。”

“阿難,你對如來的覺悟有沒有敬信呢?”

“大德,有。”

“阿難,那你為什麼煩擾如來三次呢?”

  1. “大德,我曾在世尊面前聽過,曾在世尊面前受教: ‘阿難,如果一個人修習四神足;多修習,慣常地修習,透徹地修習;著手修習,令它增長,令它圓滿;他可隨自己的意欲,活上一劫或一劫多些。阿難,如來修習四神足;多修習,慣常地修習,透徹地修習;著手修習,令它增長,令它圓滿;如來可隨自己的意欲,活上一劫或一劫多些。’ ”

“阿難,你有沒有敬信呢?”

“大德,有。”

“阿難,這是你的過錯,這是你的過失。你不能明白如來明顯的用意、明顯的提示,沒有這樣請求如來: ‘為了許多眾生的利益,為了許多眾生的快樂;為了悲憫世間,為了天和人的福祉、利益和快樂;請世尊活在世上一劫,請善逝活在世上一劫。’ 阿難,在當時如果你請求如來兩次,如來都會拒絕;如果你作出第三次請求,如來便會答應你的請求。阿難,這是你的過錯,這是你的過失。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 38 彼說是語時,尊者阿難白佛言:「世尊,請住壽一劫,慈尊為眾生之利益與快樂,及慈愍此世界,為人天之利益、快樂與幸福,請住壽一劫!」

「阿難,止止,莫懇請如來。現今勸請如來,已非其時。」

39 如是第二第三(阿難如是懇請,佛陀如是回答)。

「阿難,你對佛陀之智慧是否有信仰?」

「是,世尊。」

「阿難,你為何煩擾如來至於第三次?」

40 「世尊,我親從佛聞及親從佛受:『若有人修持、留住、擴展及抵達四神足的極頂,既精於此,可用之如車乘。以此為基礎,若欲,彼可住壽一劫或劫之剩餘部份;而佛陀曾充份修持、擴展及抵達此四神足………(其詳見上)他若有意,可住壽一劫或其劫之某部份。』

「阿難,你是否有信仰?」

「是,世尊。」

「阿難,此是你之錯誤及罪過。前如來給與你之明顯提示,你都未能瞭解,未曾懇請如來說:『世尊,請住壽一劫,慈尊為眾生之利益與快樂,及慈愍此世界,為人天之利益,快樂與幸福,請住壽一劫。』阿難,你若如是墾請如來,至於第二次,他或不俯允,但第三次他或將納受。因此,阿難,此是你之錯誤及罪過!」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. When this was said venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: “Let the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan, let the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, having compassion on the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men.”

“Enough, Ānanda, do not beg the Realised One, now is the wrong time, Ānanda, for begging the Realised One.”

For a second time venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One:

“Let the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan, let the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, having compassion on the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men.”

“Enough, Ānanda, do not beg the Realised One, now is the wrong time, Ānanda, for begging the Realised One.”

For a third time venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One:

“Let the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan, let the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, having compassion on the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men.”

“Do you, Ānanda, have faith in the Realised One's Awakening?”

“Yes, reverend Sir,”

“Then why do you, Ānanda, harrass the Realised One up and till the third time?”

“Face to face with me, reverend Sir, face to face I have heard (you say): ‘Whoever has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power, could, if he wanted, remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan. The Realised One has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power. If he wanted, Ānanda, the Realised One could remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan.’ ”

“Do you have faith, Ānanda?”

“Yes, reverend Sir,”

“Then, Ānanda, there is this wrong-doing for you, there is this fault for you, in that you, despite such a gross hint being made by the Realised One, such a gross suggestion being made, was unable to penetrate it, and did not beg the Realised One, (saying):

‘May the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan; may the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men.’

If you, Ānanda, had begged the Realised One twice the Realised One might have rejected your speech, but would have accepted it on the third occasion. So, Ānanda, there is this wrong-doing for you, there is this fault for you.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Ananda's Appeal

  1. 48. At these words the Venerable Ananda spoke to the Blessed One, saying: "May the Blessed One remain, O Lord! May the Happy One remain, O Lord, throughout the world-period, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men!"
  1. And the Blessed One answered, saying: "Enough, Ananda. Do not entreat the Tathagata, for the time is past, Ananda, for such an entreaty."

50-51. But for a second and a third time, the Venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One: "May the Blessed One remain, O Lord! May the Happy One remain, O Lord, throughout the world-period, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men!"

  1. Then the Blessed One said: "Do you have faith, Ananda, in the Enlightenment of the Tathagata?" And the Venerable Ananda replied: "Yes, O Lord, I do."

"Then how, Ananda, can you persist against the Tathagata even up to the third time?"

  1. Then the Venerable Ananda said: "This, O Lord, I have heard and learned from the Blessed One himself when the Blessed One said to me: 'Whosoever, Ananda, has developed, practiced, employed, strengthened, maintained, scrutinized, and brought to perfection the four constituents of psychic power could, if he so desired, remain throughout a world-period or until the end of it. The Tathagata, Ananda, has done so. Therefore the Tathagata could, if he so desired, remain throughout a world-period or until the end of it.'"
  2. "And did you believe it, Ananda?"

"Yes, O Lord, I did."

"Then, Ananda, the fault is yours. Herein have you failed, inasmuch as you were unable to grasp the plain suggestion, the significant prompting given by the Tathagata, and you did not then entreat the Tathagata to remain. For if you had done so, Ananda, twice the Tathagata might have declined, but the third time he would have consented. Therefore, Ananda, the fault is yours; herein have you failed.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 179
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Ekamidāhaṃ, ānanda, samayaṃ rājagahe viharāmi gijjhakūṭe pabbate. Tatrāpi kho tāhaṃ, ānanda, āmantesiṃ – ‘ramaṇīyaṃ, ānanda, rājagahaṃ, ramaṇīyo, ānanda, gijjhakūṭo pabbato. Yassa kassaci, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā. Tathāgatassa kho, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno, ānanda, tathāgato kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā’ti. Evampi kho tvaṃ, ānanda, tathāgatena oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṃ, na tathāgataṃ yāci – ‘tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṃ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussāna’nti. Sace tvaṃ, ānanda, tathāgataṃ yāceyyāsi, dve te vācā tathāgato paṭikkhipeyya, atha tatiyakaṃ adhivāseyya. Tasmātihānanda, tuyhevetaṃ dukkaṭaṃ, tuyhevetaṃ aparaddhaṃ.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 阿難!這裡,有一次,我住在王舍城耆闍崛山,阿難!在那裡,我也召喚〔你〕:『阿難!王舍城是令人愉快的,耆闍崛山是令人愉快的。阿難!凡任何人已修習、已多修習四神足,作為車輛、作為基礎、已實行、成為習慣、善精勤的,當他願意時,他能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。阿難!如來已修習、已多修習四神足,作為車輛、作為基礎、已實行、成為習慣、善精勤的,阿難!當如來願意時,他能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。』當你被如來作了這麼明顯的徵相、明顯的暗示時,你不能夠洞察,沒求世尊: 『大德!為了眾人有利益,為了眾人安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人有利益、有利、安樂,請世尊住留一劫,請善逝住留一劫。』阿難!如果你求如來,如來會拒絕你的言語兩次,而第三次會同意,阿難!因此,在這裡,這就是你的惡作,這就是你的罪過。
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 41. “阿難,有一次我住在王舍城靈鷲山,在那裏我也有對你說: ‘阿難,王舍城是一個怡人的地方,靈鷲山是一個怡人的地方。阿難,如果一個人修習四神足;多修習,慣常地修習,透徹地修習;著手修習,令它增長,令它圓滿;他可隨自己的意欲,活上一劫或一劫多些。阿難,如來修習四神足;多修習,慣常地修習,透徹地修習;著手修習,令它增長,令它圓滿;如來可隨自己的意欲,活上一劫或一劫多些。’ 阿難,你不能明白如來明顯的用意、明顯的提示,沒有這樣請求如來: ‘為了許多眾生的利益,為了許多眾生的快樂;為了悲憫世間,為了天和人的福祉、利益和快樂;請世尊活在世上一劫,請善逝活在世上一劫。’ 阿難,在當時如果你請求如來兩次,如來都會拒絕;如果你作出第三次請求,如來便會答應你的請求。阿難,這是你的過錯,這是你的過失。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 41 「阿難,往昔我住王舍城靈鷲山峰時亦曾向你說:『阿難,王舍城與靈鷲山峰是甚可喜樂之處。阿難,若有人修持、留住、擴展及抵達四神足的極頂,既精於此,可用之如車乘。以此為基礎,若欲,彼可住壽一劫或其劫之剩餘部份;而佛陀曾充份修持、擴展及抵達此四神足……(其詳見上),他若有意,可住壽一劫或其劫之剩餘部份。』而你,阿難,如來給與你之明顯提示,你都未能瞭解,未曾懇請如來說:『世尊,請住壽一劫,慈尊為眾生之利益與快樂,及慈愍此世界,為人天之利益、快樂與幸福,請住壽一劫!』阿難,你若如是懇請如來至於第二次,他或不俯允,但第三次他或將納受。因此,阿難,此是你之錯誤及罪過!」
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[24: Ānanda's Fault at Rājagaha ]

  1. At one time, Ānanda, I was living at Rājagaha[AFn099] on the Vulture's Peak Mountain,[AFn100] I was living right there at Rājagaha near the Gotama Banyan Tree, I was living right there at Rājagaha near the Thieves' Precipice, I was living right there at Rājagaha on the side of the Vebhāra (mountain) in the Seven Leaves Cave,[AFn101] I was living right there at Rājagaha on the side of the Isigili (mountain) on Black Rock, I was living right there at Rājagaha in the Cool Wood, at the Snake Tank Slope, I was living right there at Rājagaha in the (River) Tapodā Monastery, I was living right there near Rājagaha, at Jīvaka's Mango Wood, I was living right there near Rājagaha, in the Deer Park at (the place called) Crushing Womb, in that place, Ānanda, I addressed you, (saying):

‘Delightful, Ānanda, is Rājagaha, delightful is the Vulture's Peak Mountain, delightful is the Gotama Banyan Tree, delightful is the Thieves' Precipice, delightful is the side of the Vebhāra (mountain) in the Seven Leaves Cave, delightful is the side of the Isigili (mountain) on Black Rock, delightful is the Cool Wood, at the Snake Tank Slope, delightful is the (River) Tapodā Monastery, delightful is the Squirrel's Feeding Place in Bamboo Wood, delightful is Jīvaka's Mango Wood, delightful is the Deer Park at (the place called) Crushing Womb.

Whoever has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power, could, if he wanted, remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan. The Realised One has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power. If he wanted, Ānanda, the Realised One could remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan.’

But despite such a gross hint being made by the Realised One, such a gross suggestion being made, you were unable to penetrate it, and did not beg the Realised One, (saying):

‘May the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan; may the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men.’

If you, Ānanda, had begged the Realised One twice the Realised One might have rejected your speech, but would have accepted it on the third occasion. So, Ānanda, there is this wrong-doing for you, there is this fault for you.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. "At Rajagaha, Ananda, when dwelling at Vultures' Peak, I spoke to you, saying: 'Pleasant, Ananda, is Rajagaha; pleasant is Vultures' Peak. Whosoever, Ananda, has developed... Therefore the Tathagata could, if he so desired, remain throughout a world-period or until the end of it.'
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 180
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Ekamidāhaṃ, ānanda, samayaṃ tattheva rājagahe viharāmi gotamanigrodhe…pe… tattheva rājagahe viharāmi corapapāte… tattheva rājagahe viharāmi vebhārapasse sattapaṇṇiguhāyaṃ… tattheva rājagahe viharāmi isigilipasse kāḷasilāyaṃ… tattheva rājagahe viharāmi sītavane sappasoṇḍikapabbhāre… tattheva rājagahe viharāmi tapodārāme… tattheva rājagahe viharāmi veḷuvane kalandakanivāpe… tattheva rājagahe viharāmi jīvakambavane… tattheva rājagahe viharāmi maddakucchismiṃ migadāye tatrāpi kho tāhaṃ, ānanda, āmantesiṃ – ‘ramaṇīyaṃ, ānanda, rājagahaṃ, ramaṇīyo gijjhakūṭo pabbato, ramaṇīyo gotamanigrodho, ramaṇīyo corapapāto, ramaṇīyā vebhārapasse sattapaṇṇiguhā, ramaṇīyā isigilipasse kāḷasilā, ramaṇīyo sītavane sappasoṇḍikapabbhāro , ramaṇīyo tapodārāmo, ramaṇīyo veḷuvane kalandakanivāpo, ramaṇīyaṃ jīvakambavanaṃ, ramaṇīyo maddakucchismiṃ migadāyo. Yassa kassaci, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā…pe… ākaṅkhamāno, ānanda, tathāgato kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā’ti. Evampi kho tvaṃ, ānanda, tathāgatena oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṃ, na tathāgataṃ yāci – ‘tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṃ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussāna’nti. Sace tvaṃ, ānanda, tathāgataṃ yāceyyāsi, dveva te vācā tathāgato paṭikkhipeyya, atha tatiyakaṃ adhivāseyya. Tasmātihānanda, tuyhevetaṃ dukkaṭaṃ, tuyhevetaṃ aparaddhaṃ.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 阿難!這裡,有一次,我就住在王舍城喬達摩尼拘律樹那裡……(中略)我就住在王舍城盜賊崖那裡……我就住在王舍城毘婆波世山七葉窟那裡……我就住在王舍城仙吞山坡的黑岩那裡……我就住在王舍城寒林蛇頭岩洞窟那裡……我就住在王舍城溫泉園那裡……我就住在王舍城栗鼠飼養處的竹林那裡……我就住在耆婆的芒果園那裡……我就住在王舍城嘛瘩姑七的鹿野苑那裡,阿難!在那裡,我也召喚[你]:『阿難!王舍城是令人愉快的,耆闍崛山是令人愉快的,喬達摩尼拘律樹是令人愉快的,盜賊崖是令人愉快的,毘婆波世山七葉窟是令人愉快的,仙吞山坡的黑岩是令人愉快的,寒林蛇頭岩洞窟是令人愉快的,溫泉園是令人愉快的,栗鼠飼養處的竹林是令人愉快的,耆婆的芒果園是令人愉快的,嘛瘩姑七的鹿野苑是令人愉快的。阿難!凡任何人已修習、已多修習四神足,作為車輛、作為基礎、已實行、成為習慣、善精勤的……(中略)阿難!當如來願意時,他能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。』當你被如來作了這麼明顯的徵相、明顯的暗示時,你不能夠洞察,沒求世尊: 『大德!為了眾人有利益,為了眾人安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人有利益、有利、安樂,請世尊住留一劫,請善逝住留一劫。』阿難!如果你求如來,如來會拒絕你的言語兩次,而第三次會同意,阿難!因此,在這裡,這就是你的惡作,這就是你的罪過。
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 42. “阿難,有一次我住在王舍城喬答摩榕樹園……王舍城盜賊崖……王舍城毗富羅山七葉窟……王舍城仙人山黑石……王舍城尸陀林蛇頭山坡……王舍城多頗達園……王舍城竹園松鼠飼餵處……王舍城耆婆芒果林……阿難,有一次我住在王舍城母胎鹿野苑。
  1. “在那裏我也有對你說: ‘阿難,王舍城是一個怡人的地方,靈鷲山、喬答摩榕樹園、盜賊崖、毗富羅山七葉窟、仙人山黑石、尸陀林蛇頭山坡、多頗達園、竹園松鼠飼餵處、耆婆芒果林、母胎鹿野苑是怡人的地方。
  2. ‘阿難,如果一個人修習四神足;多修習,慣常地修習,透徹地修習;著手修習,令它增長,令它圓滿;他可隨自己的意欲,活上一劫或一劫多些。阿難,如來修習四神足;多修習,慣常地修習,透徹地修習;著手修習,令它增長,令它圓滿;如來可隨自己的意欲,活上一劫或一劫多些。’ 阿難,你不能明白如來明顯的用意、明顯的提示,沒有這樣請求如來: ‘為了許多眾生的利益,為了許多眾生的快樂;為了悲憫世間,為了天和人的福祉、利益和快樂;請世尊活在世上一劫,請善逝活在世上一劫。’ 阿難,在當時如果你請求如來兩次,如來都會拒絕;如果你作出第三次請求,如來便會答應你的請求。阿難,這是你的過錯,這是你的過失。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 42 「阿難,往昔我住王舍城榕樹園,住王舍城賊峰,住王舍城韋跋羅坡之沙打畔尼洞,住王舍城伊思𠶹裏坡之黑巖,住王舍城沙巴桑底卡山𡼿斯塔園,住王舍城塔坡達園,住王舍城竹園餵松鼠處,住王舍城耆婆之杧菓園,住王舍城馬打苦其之鹿林。

43 「阿難,在上列各處,我也曾向你說:『阿難,王舍城等等(其詳見上)是甚可喜樂之處。』

44 「『阿難,若有人修持、留住、擴展及抵達四神足的極頂,既精於此,可用之如車乘。經此為基礎,若欲,彼可住壽一劫或其劫之剩餘部份;而佛陀曾充份修持、擴展及抵達此四神足(其詳見上),他若有意,可住壽一劫或其劫之剩餘部份。』而你,阿難,如來給與你之明顯提示,你都未能瞭解,未曾懇請如來說:『世尊,請住壽一劫,慈尊為眾生之利益與快樂,及慈愍此世界,為人天之利益、快樂與幸福,請住壽一劫!』阿難,你若如是懇請如來至於第二次,他或不俯允,但第三次他或將納受。因此,阿難,此是你之錯誤及罪過!」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. At one time, Ānanda, I was living at Rājagaha99 on the Vulture's Peak Mountain,100 I was living right there at Rājagaha near the Gotama Banyan Tree, I was living right there at Rājagaha near the Thieves' Precipice, I was living right there at Rājagaha on the side of the Vebhāra (mountain) in the Seven Leaves Cave,101 I was living right there at Rājagaha on the side of the Isigili (mountain) on Black Rock, I was living right there at Rājagaha in the Cool Wood, at the Snake Tank Slope, I was living right there at Rājagaha in the (River) Tapodā Monastery, I was living right there near Rājagaha, at Jīvaka's Mango Wood, I was living right there near Rājagaha, in the Deer Park at (the place called) Crushing Womb, in that place, Ānanda, I addressed you, (saying):

‘Delightful, Ānanda, is Rājagaha, delightful is the Vulture's Peak Mountain, delightful is the Gotama Banyan Tree, delightful is the Thieves' Precipice, delightful is the side of the Vebhāra (mountain) in the Seven Leaves Cave, delightful is the side of the Isigili (mountain) on Black Rock, delightful is the Cool Wood, at the Snake Tank Slope, delightful is the (River) Tapodā Monastery, delightful is the Squirrel's Feeding Place in Bamboo Wood, delightful is Jīvaka's Mango Wood, delightful is the Deer Park at (the place called) Crushing Womb.

Whoever has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power, could, if he wanted, remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan. The Realised One has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power. If he wanted, Ānanda, the Realised One could remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan.’

But despite such a gross hint being made by the Realised One, such a gross suggestion being made, you were unable to penetrate it, and did not beg the Realised One, (saying):

‘May the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan; may the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men.’

If you, Ānanda, had begged the Realised One twice the Realised One might have rejected your speech, but would have accepted it on the third occasion. So, Ānanda, there is this wrong-doing for you, there is this fault for you.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 56. "So also at the Banyan Grove, at Robbers' Cliff, at the Sattapanni Cave on the Vebhara Mountain, at the Black Rock of Isigili, at the Serpents' Pool in the Cool Forest, at the Tapoda Grove, at the Bamboo Grove in the Squirrels' Feeding-ground, at Jivaka's Mango Grove, and at Small Nook in the Deer Park I spoke to you in the same words, saying: 'Pleasant, Ananda, is Rajagaha, pleasant are these places. Whosoever, Ananda, has developed... Therefore the Tathagata could, if he so desired, remain throughout a world-period or until the end of it.'

"But you, Ananda, were unable to grasp the plain suggestion, the significant prompting given you by the Tathagata, and you did not entreat the Tathagata to remain. For if you had done so, Ananda, twice the Tathagata might have declined, but the third time he would have consented. Therefore, Ananda, the fault is yours; herein you have failed.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 181
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Ekamidāhaṃ, ānanda, samayaṃ idheva vesāliyaṃ viharāmi udene cetiye. Tatrāpi kho tāhaṃ, ānanda, āmantesiṃ – ‘ramaṇīyā, ānanda, vesālī, ramaṇīyaṃ udenaṃ cetiyaṃ. Yassa kassaci, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā. Tathāgatassa kho, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno, ānanda, tathāgato kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā’ti. Evampi kho tvaṃ, ānanda, tathāgatena oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṃ, na tathāgataṃ yāci – ‘tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṃ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussāna’nti. Sace tvaṃ, ānanda, tathāgataṃ yāceyyāsi, dveva te vācā tathāgato paṭikkhipeyya, atha tatiyakaṃ adhivāseyya, tasmātihānanda, tuyhevetaṃ dukkaṭaṃ, tuyhevetaṃ aparaddhaṃ.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 阿難!這裡,有一次,我住在這毘舍離屋跌那塔廟,阿難!在那裡,我也召喚[你]:『阿難!毘舍離是令人愉快的,屋跌那塔廟是令人愉快的。阿難!凡任何人已修習、已多修習四神足,作為車輛、作為基礎、已實行、成為習慣、善精勤的,當他願意時,他能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。阿難!如來已修習、已多修習四神足,作為車輛、作為基礎、已實行、成為習慣、善精勤的,阿難!當如來願意時,他能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。』當你被如來作了這麼明顯的徵相、明顯的暗示時,你不能夠洞察,沒求世尊: 『大德!為了眾人有利益,為了眾人安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人有利益、有利、安樂,請世尊住留一劫,請善逝住留一劫。』阿難!如果你求如來,如來會拒絕你的言語兩次,而第三次會同意,阿難!因此,在這裡,這就是你的惡作,這就是你的罪過。
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 45. “阿難,有一次我住在毗舍離優提那廟,在那裏我也有對你說: ‘阿難,毗舍離是一個怡人的地方,優提那廟是一個怡人的地方。阿難,如果一個人修習四神足;多修習,慣常地修習,透徹地修習;著手修習,令它增長,令它圓滿;他可隨自己的意欲,活上一劫或一劫多些。阿難,如來修習四神足;多修習,慣常地修習,透徹地修習;著手修習,令它增長,令它圓滿;如來可隨自己的意欲,活上一劫或一劫多些。’ 阿難,你不能明白如來明顯的用意、明顯的提示,沒有這樣請求如來: ‘為了許多眾生的利益,為了許多眾生的快樂;為了悲憫世間,為了天和人的福祉、利益和快樂;請世尊活在世上一劫,請善逝活在世上一劫。’ 阿難,在當時如果你請求如來兩次,如來都會拒絕;如果你作出第三次請求,如來便會答應你的請求。阿難,這是你的過錯,這是你的過失。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 45 「阿難,往昔我住毘舍離之烏但拉神舍時,亦曾向你說『阿難,毘舍離與烏但拉是甚可喜樂之處。若有人修持、留住、擴展及抵達四神足的極頂,既精於此,可用之如車乘,以此為基礎,若欲,彼可住壽一劫或其劫之剩餘部份;而佛陀曾充份修持、留住及擴展此四神足……(其詳見上),他若有意,可住壽一劫或其劫之剩餘部份。』而你,阿難,如來給與你之明顯提示,你都未能瞭解,未曾懇請如來說:『世尊,請住壽一劫,慈尊為眾生之利益與快樂,及慈愍此世界,為人天之利益、快樂與幸福,請住壽一劫!』阿難,你若如是懇請如來至於第二次,他或不俯允,但第三次他或將納受。因此,阿難,此是你之錯誤及罪過!」
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[25: Ānanda's Fault at Vesālī ]

  1. At one time, Ānanda, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Udena Shrine, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Gotamaka Shrine, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Seven Mangos Shrine, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Many Sons Shrine, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Sārandada Shrine, and here today, Ānanda, at the Cāpāla Shrine I addressed you, (saying):

‘Delightful, Ānanda, is Vesālī, delightful is the Udena Shrine, delightful is the Gotamaka Shrine, delightful is the Seven Mangos Shrine, delightful is the Many Sons Shrine, delightful is the Sārandada Shrine, delightful is the Cāpāla Shrine.

Whoever has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power, could, if he wanted, remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan. The Realised One has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power. If he wanted, Ānanda, the Realised One could remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan.’

But despite such a gross hint, Ānanda, being made by the Realised One, such a gross suggestion being made, you were unable to penetrate it, and did not beg the Realised One, (saying):

‘May the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan; may the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men.’

If you, Ānanda, had begged the Realised One twice the Realised One might have rejected your speech, but would have accepted it on the third occasion. So, Ānanda, there is this wrong-doing for you, there is this fault for you.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 57. "So also at Vesali, Ananda, at different times the Tathagata has spoken to you, saying: 'Pleasant, Ananda, is Vesali; pleasant are the shrines of Udena, Gotamaka, Sattambaka, Bahuputta, Sarandada, and Capala. Whosoever, Ananda, has developed... Therefore the Tathagata could, if he so desired, remain throughout a world-period or until the end of it.'

"But you, Ananda, were unable to grasp the plain suggestion, the significant prompting, given you by the Tathagata, and you did not entreat the Tathagata to remain. For if you had done so, Ananda, twice the Tathagata might have declined, but the third time he would have consented. Therefore, Ananda, the fault is yours; herein you have failed.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 182
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Ekamidāhaṃ , ānanda, samayaṃ idheva vesāliyaṃ viharāmi gotamake cetiye …pe… idheva vesāliyaṃ viharāmi sattambe cetiye… idheva vesāliyaṃ viharāmi bahuputte cetiye… idheva vesāliyaṃ viharāmi sārandade cetiye… idāneva kho tāhaṃ, ānanda, ajja cāpāle cetiye āmantesiṃ – ‘ramaṇīyā, ānanda, vesālī, ramaṇīyaṃ udenaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ gotamakaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ sattambaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ bahuputtaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ sārandadaṃ cetiyaṃ, ramaṇīyaṃ cāpālaṃ cetiyaṃ. Yassa kassaci, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā. Tathāgatassa kho, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno, ānanda, tathāgato kappaṃ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṃ vā’ti. Evampi kho tvaṃ, ānanda, tathāgatena oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṃ, na tathāgataṃ yāci – ‘tiṭṭhatu bhagavā kappaṃ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṃ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussāna’nti. Sace tvaṃ, ānanda, tathāgataṃ yāceyyāsi, dveva te vācā tathāgato paṭikkhipeyya, atha tatiyakaṃ adhivāseyya. Tasmātihānanda, tuyhevetaṃ dukkaṭaṃ, tuyhevetaṃ aparaddhaṃ.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 阿難!這裡,有一次,我住在這毘舍離喬答摩葛塔廟……(中略)我住在這毘舍離七芒果樹塔廟……(中略)我住在這毘舍離多子塔廟……(中略)我住在這毘舍離沙愣達達塔廟……(中略)阿難!現在,我住在這毘舍離價玻勒塔廟,阿難!在那裡,我也召喚[你]:『阿難!毘舍離是令人愉快的,屋跌那塔廟是令人愉快的,喬答摩葛塔廟是令人愉快的,七芒果樹塔廟是令人愉快的,多子塔廟是令人愉快的,沙愣達達塔廟是令人愉快的,價玻勒塔廟是令人愉快的。阿難!凡任何人已修習、已多修習四神足,作為車輛、作為基礎、已實行、成為習慣、善精勤的,當他願意時,他能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。阿難!如來已修習、已多修習四神足,作為車輛、作為基礎、已實行、成為習慣、善精勤的,阿難!當如來願意時,他能住留一劫或一劫剩餘的時間。』當你被如來作了這麼明顯的徵相、明顯的暗示時,你不能夠洞察,沒求世尊: 『大德!為了眾人有利益,為了眾人安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人有利益、有利、安樂,請世尊住留一劫,請善逝住留一劫。』阿難!如果你求如來,如來會拒絕你的言語兩次,而第三次會同意,阿難!因此,在這裡,這就是你的惡作,這就是你的罪過。
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 46. “阿難,有一次我住在毗舍離喬答摩廟……毗舍離七芒果廟……毗舍離多子廟……毗舍離沙蘭達達廟……
  1. “阿難,今天我在遮巴羅廟這裏對你說: ‘阿難,毗舍離是一個怡人的地方,優提那廟、喬答摩廟、七芒果廟、多子廟、沙蘭達達廟、遮巴羅廟是怡人的地方。阿難,如果一個人修習四神足;多修習,慣常地修習,透徹地修習;著手修習,令它增長,令它圓滿;他可隨自己的意欲,活上一劫或一劫多些。阿難,如來修習四神足;多修習,慣常地修習,透徹地修習;著手修習,令它增長,令它圓滿;如來可隨自己的意欲,活上一劫或一劫多些。’ 阿難,你不能明白如來明顯的用意、明顯的提示,沒有這樣請求如來: ‘為了許多眾生的利益,為了許多眾生的快樂;為了悲憫世間,為了天和人的福祉、利益和快樂;請世尊活在世上一劫,請善逝活在世上一劫。’ 阿難,在當時如果你請求如來兩次,如來都會拒絕;如果你作出第三次請求,如來便會答應你的請求。阿難,這是你的過錯,這是你的過失。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 46 「阿難,往昔我住毘舍離之喬達摩卡神舍,住毘舍利之七杧菓神舍,住毘舍離之多子塔神舍,住毘舍離之沙然達達神舍時,亦曾向你說:『阿難,毘舍離各地是甚可喜樂之處……。」(其詳見上)

47 「阿難,現今在洽巴拉神舍,我也曾向你說:『阿難,毘舍離是甚為幽靜,烏但拉神舍,喬達摩卡神舍,七杧菓神舍,多子塔神舍,沙然達達神舍等是甚可喜樂之處。若有人修持、留住、擴展及抵達四神足的極頂,既精於此,可用之如車乘,以此為基礎,若欲,彼可住壽一或其劫之剩餘部份;而佛陀曾充份修持、留住及擴展此四神足。他若有意,可住壽一劫或其劫之剩餘部份。』而你,阿難,如來給與你之明顯提示,你都未能瞭解,未曾懇請如來說:『世尊,請住壽一劫,慈尊為眾生之利益與快樂,及慈愍此世界,為人天之利益、快樂與幸福,請住壽一劫!』阿難,你若如是懇請如來至於第二次,他或不俯允,但第三次他或將納受。因此,阿難,此是你之錯誤及罪過!」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. At one time, Ānanda, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Udena Shrine, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Gotamaka Shrine, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Seven Mangos Shrine, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Many Sons Shrine, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Sārandada Shrine, and here today, Ānanda, at the Cāpāla Shrine I addressed you, (saying):

‘Delightful, Ānanda, is Vesālī, delightful is the Udena Shrine, delightful is the Gotamaka Shrine, delightful is the Seven Mangos Shrine, delightful is the Many Sons Shrine, delightful is the Sārandada Shrine, delightful is the Cāpāla Shrine.

Whoever has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power, could, if he wanted, remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan. The Realised One has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power. If he wanted, Ānanda, the Realised One could remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan.’

But despite such a gross hint, Ānanda, being made by the Realised One, such a gross suggestion being made, you were unable to penetrate it, and did not beg the Realised One, (saying):

‘May the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan; may the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men.’

If you, Ānanda, had begged the Realised One twice the Realised One might have rejected your speech, but would have accepted it on the third occasion. So, Ānanda, there is this wrong-doing for you, there is this fault for you.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 57. "So also at Vesali, Ananda, at different times the Tathagata has spoken to you, saying: 'Pleasant, Ananda, is Vesali; pleasant are the shrines of Udena, Gotamaka, Sattambaka, Bahuputta, Sarandada, and Capala. Whosoever, Ananda, has developed... Therefore the Tathagata could, if he so desired, remain throughout a world-period or until the end of it.'

"But you, Ananda, were unable to grasp the plain suggestion, the significant prompting, given you by the Tathagata, and you did not entreat the Tathagata to remain. For if you had done so, Ananda, twice the Tathagata might have declined, but the third time he would have consented. Therefore, Ananda, the fault is yours; herein you have failed.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 183
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Nanu etaṃ evaṃ (syā. pī.), ānanda, mayā paṭikacceva paṭigacceva (sī. pī.) akkhātaṃ – ‘sabbeheva piyehi manāpehi nānābhāvo vinābhāvo aññathābhāvo. Taṃ kutettha, ānanda, labbhā, yaṃ taṃ jātaṃ bhūtaṃ saṅkhataṃ palokadhammaṃ, taṃ vata mā palujjīti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati’. Yaṃ kho panetaṃ, ānanda, tathāgatena cattaṃ vantaṃ muttaṃ pahīnaṃ paṭinissaṭṭhaṃ ossaṭṭho āyusaṅkhāro, ekaṃsena vācā bhāsitā – ‘na ciraṃ tathāgatassa parinibbānaṃ bhavissati. Ito tiṇṇaṃ māsānaṃ accayena tathāgato parinibbāyissatī’ti. Tañca taṃ vacanaṃ (sī.) tathāgato jīvitahetu puna paccāvamissatīti paccāgamissatīti (syā. ka.) netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. Āyāmānanda, yena mahāvanaṃ kūṭāgārasālā tenupasaṅkamissāmā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 阿難!以前這不是被我說過嗎?與一切所愛的、合意的分離、別離、異離。阿難!在這裡,這如何可得:凡那被生的、存在的、有為的、敗壞之法都不要被破壞,這是不可能的!而, 阿難!凡壽行被如來捨、吐、釋放、捨斷、斷念、捨棄,被〔他〕決定性說的話:『如來不久將般涅槃,三個月後如來將般涅槃。』者,因為活命的理由如來再收回,這是不可能的。來!阿難!我們去大林重閣講堂。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。

世尊與尊者阿難一起去大林重閣講堂。抵達後,召喚尊者阿難:

「阿難!請你去集合所有依毘舍離居住的比丘到講堂中。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊後,集合了所有依毘舍離居住的比丘到講堂中,然後去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁站立。在一旁站好後,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:

「大德!比丘僧眾已經集合,大德!現在請世尊考量適當的時間。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 48. “阿難,我不是曾經對你說過嗎,所有我們的至親和喜愛的事物都會變化,都會消逝,都會和我們分離;要這些事物不變化,不消逝,不和我們分離是沒有可能的。阿難,任何生、有、眾緣和合的事物都是敗壞法,要它不敗壞是沒有可能的。阿難,如來已經終止、放下、去掉、除卻、捨棄了壽行,如來已經說出: ‘如來將在不久之後入滅。三個月之後,如來便會入滅。’ 沒可能要如來為活命而食言。

“阿難,來吧,我們一起去大林尖頂講堂。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

  1. 於是世尊便和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起前往大林尖頂講堂,到了之後,對阿難尊者說: “阿難,你去叫所有住在毗舍離一帶的比丘到大堂聚集。”

“大德,是的。” 阿難尊者回答世尊後,便叫所有住在毗舍離一帶的比丘到大堂聚集。之後,他去到世尊那裏,對世尊作禮,站在一邊,然後對世尊說:

“大德,比丘僧團已經聚集好了。如果世尊認為是時候的話,請便。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 48 「阿難,是否往昔我曾告訴你說:萬物實性如此,其與我們最親近者將要與我們分別隔離?當一物既生而成形,既具分離必然性,不要其解離,此何可能,且必無此理。阿難,如來已捨棄壽命。且他一言既出:『佛陀之圓寂甚近,此後三月如來即將入涅槃。』如來為生存而食言,應無是處!」

「來,阿難,我等去大林的重閣講堂。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。

49 爾時佛陀與尊者阿難走向大林的重閣講堂。到已,佛告尊者阿難說:「阿難。你往告住在毘舍離附近的諸比丘盡集講堂。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。他即往告住在毘舍離附近的諸比丘盡會講堂。回來時他向佛作禮,退立一面說:「世尊,比丘僧眾已齊集講堂,唯聖知時。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Were you not warned by me when I declared: ‘There is alteration in, separation from, and changeability in all that is dear and appealing’?[AFn102] How can it be otherwise, Ānanda, for that which is obtained, born, become, conditioned, subject to dissolution? It is not possible (to say) this: ‘It should not dissolve’. But this has been relinquished, cast out, let loose, abandoned by the Realised One, forsaken, the life-process that has been given up. For sure this word was spoken by the Realised One:

‘Not long now there will be the Realised One's Final Emancipation, after the passing of three months the Realised One will attain Final Emancipation.’ The Realised One cannot for the sake of life go back on that, it is not possible.

[26: The Thirty-Seven Things on the Side of Awakening ]

Come Ānanda let us approach the Gabled House Hall in Great Wood.”[AFn103]

“Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One.

Then the Gracious One with venerable Ānanda approached the Gabled House Hall in Great Wood, and after approaching he addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying):

“Go, Ānanda, and whatever monks are living in dependance on Vesālī assemble them in the Attendance Hall.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One and assembling whatever monks were living in dependance on Vesālī in the Attendance Hall, he approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he stood at one side. While standing on one side, venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: “The Community of monks has assembled, reverend Sir, now is the time, Gracious One, for whatever you are thinking.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 58. "Yet, Ananda, have I not taught from the very beginning that with all that is dear and beloved there must be change, separation, and severance? Of that which is born, come into being, is compounded and subject to decay, how can one say: 'May it not come to dissolution!' There can be no such state of things. And of that, Ananda, which the Tathagata has finished with, that which he has relinquished, given up, abandoned, and rejected — his will to live on — the Tathagata's word has been spoken once for all: 'Before long the Parinibbana of the Tathagata will come about. Three months hence the Tathagata will utterly pass away.' And that the Tathagata should withdraw his words for the sake of living on — this is an impossibility.

The Last Admonition

  1. "So, then, Ananda, let us go to the hall of the Gabled House, in the Great Forest." And the Venerable Ananda replied: "So be it, Lord."
  2. Then the Blessed One, with the Venerable Ananda, went to the hall of the Gabled House, in the Great Forest. And there he spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "Go now, Ananda, and assemble in the hall of audience all the bhikkhus who dwell in the neighborhood of Vesali."

"So be it, Lord." And the Venerable Ananda gathered all the bhikkhus who dwelt in the neighborhood of Vesali, and assembled them in the hall of audience. And then, respectfully saluting the Blessed One, and standing at one side, he said: "The community of bhikkhus is assembled, Lord. Now let the Blessed One do as he wishes."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 184
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavā yenupaṭṭhānasālā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Nisajja kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘tasmātiha, bhikkhave, ye te mayā dhammā abhiññā desitā, te vo sādhukaṃ uggahetvā āsevitabbā bhāvetabbā bahulīkātabbā, yathayidaṃ brahmacariyaṃ addhaniyaṃ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṃ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṃ. Katame ca te, bhikkhave, dhammā mayā abhiññā desitā, ye vo sādhukaṃ uggahetvā āsevitabbā bhāvetabbā bahulīkātabbā, yathayidaṃ brahmacariyaṃ addhaniyaṃ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṃ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṃ. Seyyathidaṃ – cattāro satipaṭṭhānā cattāro sammappadhānā cattāro iddhipādā pañcindriyāni pañca balāni satta bojjhaṅgā ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo. Ime kho te, bhikkhave, dhammā mayā abhiññā desitā, ye vo sādhukaṃ uggahetvā āsevitabbā bhāvetabbā bahulīkātabbā, yathayidaṃ brahmacariyaṃ addhaniyaṃ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṃ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussāna’’nti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊前往講堂。抵達後,在設置好的座位上坐下。坐好後,世尊召喚比丘們:

「比丘們!因此,在這裡,凡那些被我證知後教導的法,你們徹底地學得那些後應該練習實行、應該修習、應該多修習,以便這梵行會是長時間、長久地住立的,那會是為了眾人有利益,為了眾人安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人有利益、有利、安樂。比丘們!什麽是那些被我證知後教導的法,你們徹底地學得那些後應該練習實行、應該修習、應該多修習,以便這梵行會是長時間、長久住立的,那會是為了眾人有利益,為了眾人安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人有利益、有利、安樂呢?即:四念住[CFn062] 、四正勤[CFn152] 、四神足[CFn126] 、五根、五力、七覺支[CFn063] 、八支聖道[CFn153] ,比丘們!這些是被我證知後教導的法,你們徹底地學得那些後應該練習實行、應該修習、應該多修習,以便這梵行會是長時間、長久住立的,那會是為了眾人有利益,為了眾人安樂,為了世間的憐愍,為了天與人有利益、有利、安樂。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 50. 於是世尊前往大堂,坐在為他預備好的座位上,然後對比丘說: “比丘們,我從無比智[SFn13] 所證得的法已對你們宣說,你們要好好學習,要接近、培育和修習;這樣的話梵行便會長久延續下去,能為許多眾生帶來利益,能為許多眾生帶來快樂,能悲憫世間,為天和人帶來福祉、利益和快樂。比丘們,我從無比智所證得的法是什麼呢?是四念處、四正勤、四神足、五根、五力、七覺支、八正道。比丘們,這些就是我從無比智所證得的法,你們要好好學習,要接近、培育和修習;這樣的話梵行便會長久延續下去,能為許多眾生帶來利益,能為許多眾生帶來快樂,能悲憫世間,為天和人帶來福祉、利益和快樂。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 50 於是薄伽梵從座起,走向講堂,就座已,告諸比丘說:「因此,諸比丘,我所知及為汝等所宣說之法,當善學、善修、善思、善佈,因而梵教可以長遠住世。此是為眾生之利益與快樂,及慈愍此世界,為人天之利益、快樂與幸福。諸比丘,云何為我所知及為汝等所宣說之法,當善學、善修、善思、善佈,因而梵教可以長遠住世。此是為眾生之利益與快樂,及慈愍此世界,為人天之利益、快樂與幸福?蓋即:
  四念處 四正勤  四神足五根
  五力  七菩提分 八聖道

諸比丘,此是我所知及為汝等所宣說之法,當善學、善修、善思、善佈,因而梵教可以長遠住世。此是為眾生之利益與快樂,及慈愍此世界,為人天之利益、快樂與幸福。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then the Gracious One approached the Attendance Hall, and after approaching he sat down on the prepared seat. While sitting the Gracious One addressed the monks, (saying):

“Therefore,[AFn104] monks, whatever Teachings have, with deep knowledge, been taught by me, after grasping them well, you should practise, develop, and make a lot of them, so that the Spiritual Life may last long, and may endure for a long time, and that will be for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men.

And what are those Teachings that have, with deep knowledge, been taught by me, which after grasping them well, you should practise, develop, and make a lot of them, so that the Spiritual Life may last long, and may endure for a long time, that will be for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men?

They are as follows:[AFn105]

The Four Ways of Attending to Mindfulness,[AFn106] the Four Right Strivings,[AFn107] the Four Paths to Power,[AFn108] the Five Faculties,[AFn109] the Five Strengths,[AFn110] the Seven Factors of Awakening,[AFn111] the Noble Eight-Fold Path.[AFn112]

These, monks, are those Teachings that have, with deep knowledge, been taught by me, after grasping them well, you should practise, develop, and make a lot of them, so that the Spiritual Life may last long, and may endure for a long time, and that will be for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 61. Thereupon the Blessed One entered the hall of audience, and taking the seat prepared for him, he exhorted the bhikkhus, saying: "Now, O bhikkhus, I say to you that these teachings of which I have direct knowledge and which I have made known to you — these you should thoroughly learn, cultivate, develop, and frequently practice, that the life of purity may be established and may long endure, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men.
  1. "And what, bhikkhus, are these teachings? They are the four foundations of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four constituents of psychic power, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven factors of enlightenment, and the Noble Eightfold Path. These, bhikkhus, are the teachings of which I have direct knowledge, which I have made known to you, and which you should thoroughly learn, cultivate, develop, and frequently practice, that the life of purity may be established and may long endure, for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, well being, and happiness of gods and men."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 185
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘handadāni, bhikkhave, āmantayāmi vo, vayadhammā saṅkhārā, appamādena sampādetha. Naciraṃ tathāgatassa parinibbānaṃ bhavissati. Ito tiṇṇaṃ māsānaṃ accayena tathāgato parinibbāyissatī’’ti. Idamavoca bhagavā, idaṃ vatvāna sugato athāparaṃ etadavoca satthā ito paraṃ syāmapotthake evaṃpi pāṭho dissati –§daharāpi ca ye vuddhā, ye bālā ye ca paṇḍitā.§aḍḍhāceva daliddā ca, sabbe maccuparāyanā.§yathāpi kumbhakārassa, kataṃ mattikabhājanaṃ.§khuddakañca mahantañca, yañca pakkaṃ yañca āmakaṃ.§sabbaṃ bhedapariyantaṃ, evaṃ maccāna jīvitaṃ.§athāparaṃ etadavoca satthā. –
‘‘Paripakko vayo mayhaṃ, parittaṃ mama jīvitaṃ;
Pahāya vo gamissāmi, kataṃ me saraṇamattano.
‘‘Appamattā satīmanto, susīlā hotha bhikkhavo;
Susamāhitasaṅkappā, sacittamanurakkhatha.
‘‘Yo imasmiṃ dhammavinaye, appamatto vihassati;
Pahāya jātisaṃsāraṃ, dukkhassantaṃ karissatī’’ti viharissati (syā.), vihessati (sī.).

Tatiyo bhāṇavāro.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊召喚比丘們:

「好了,比丘們!我現在召喚你們:『諸行是消散法[CFn154] ,你們要以不放逸使目標達成。』如來不久將般涅槃,三個月後如來將般涅槃。」

這就是世尊所說,說了這個後,善逝、大師又更進一步這麼說:

 「我的年紀已遍熟,我的〔剩餘〕生命已少,
 捨斷後我將離你們而去,我對自己的歸依已作。
 不放逸的、有念的,比丘們!你們要成為善戒者,
 以善得定的志向, 你們要守護自心。
 凡在這法律中,住於不放逸者,
 捨斷老死後,將得到苦的結束。」

第三誦品〔終了〕。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 50. 於是世尊前往大堂,坐在為他預備好的座位上,然後對比丘說: “比丘們,我從無比智[SFn13] 所證得的法已對你們宣說,你們要好好學習,要接近、培育和修習;這樣的話梵行便會長久延續下去,能為許多眾生帶來利益,能為許多眾生帶來快樂,能悲憫世間,為天和人帶來福祉、利益和快樂。比丘們,我從無比智所證得的法是什麼呢?是四念處、四正勤、四神足、五根、五力、七覺支、八正道。比丘們,這些就是我從無比智所證得的法,你們要好好學習,要接近、培育和修習;這樣的話梵行便會長久延續下去,能為許多眾生帶來利益,能為許多眾生帶來快樂,能悲憫世間,為天和人帶來福祉、利益和快樂。”
  1. 這時候,世尊對比丘說: “比丘們,我現在對你們說,行是衰敗法,你們要不放逸地修行取證。如來將在不久之後入滅。三個月之後,如來便會入滅。”

世尊.善逝.導師說了這番話後,接著再說:

  “我今已年邁,
  生命何短少,
  將捨汝而去,
  汝應自依止。
  正念不放逸,
  比丘持淨戒,
  專心而思惟,
  常隨護自心。
  法與律之中,
  不放逸而住,
  捨輪迴生死,
  苦惱得止息。”

第三誦完

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 51 爾時薄伽梵告諸比丘說:「諸因緣合和法皆歸老朽,當精勤取證!如來的圓寂甚近,此後三月,如來即將入涅槃。」

薄伽梵說此後,復以偈曰:

  我之生命已成熟,
  我之壽命將盡。
  我將離爾等而去,
  獨依靠我自己。
  諸比丘當精勤、持淨及善思維,
  應有堅定決心及自觀心。
  誰能勤懇住於法與戒,
  則超度生命之海,
  而證得苦盡。

第三章竟

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then the Gracious One addressed the monks, (saying):

“Come now, monks, for I tell you (all) conditioned things are subject to decay, strive on with heedfulness! Not long now there will be the Realised One's Final Emancipation, after the passing of three months the Realised One will attain Final Emancipation.”

The Gracious One said this, and after saying this, the Fortunate One, the Teacher, said something more:[AFn113]

[“Youths and also the old, fools and also the wise,
Rich and also the poor - all end in death.
Like an earthen vessel made by a potter
Small and great, that which is baked and unbaked,
All end in breakage, just so life (ends) in death.”

Then the Teacher, said something more:]

“Well-matured, decayed, with little of my life remaining,
Having abandoned (rebirth) I will go, having made myself a refuge.
Be heedful, mindful, and virtuous, monks,
With well-reasoned thoughts, protect your minds.
Whoever in this Teaching and Discipline will live heedful,[AFn114]
Having given up the round of rebirths, he will put an end to suffering.”

The Third Chapter for Recital (is Finished).

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 63. Then the Blessed One said to the bhikkhus: "So, bhikkhus, I exhort you: All compounded things are subject to vanish. Strive with earnestness. The time of the Tathagata's Parinibbana is near. Three months hence the Tathagata will utterly pass away."
  1. And having spoken these words, the Happy One, the Master, spoke again, saying:
My years are now full ripe, the life span left is short.
Departing, I go hence from you, relying on myself alone.
Be earnest, then, O bhikkhus, be mindful and of virtue pure!

With firm resolve, guard your own mind!
Whoso untiringly pursues the Dhamma and the Discipline
Shall go beyond the round of births and make an end of suffering.

《大般涅槃經》多譯本對讀(分章及整部) Content of Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ
第一頌 第二頌 第三頌 第四頌 第五頌 第六頌 整部《大般涅槃經》
在摩揭陀國 遊化至毘舍離 捨壽 世尊最後一餐 在拘尸那羅 大般涅槃  
In Māgadha The Journey to Vesali Relinquishing the Will to Live The Last Meal At Kusinara The Blessed One's Final Exhortation  

  • 第四頌(第四章)
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 186
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Nāgāpalokitaṃ

  1. Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya vesāliṃ piṇḍāya pāvisi. Vesāliyaṃ piṇḍāya caritvā pacchābhattaṃ piṇḍapātappaṭikkanto nāgāpalokitaṃ vesāliṃ apaloketvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘idaṃ pacchimakaṃ, ānanda, tathāgatassa vesāliyā dassanaṃ bhavissati. Āyāmānanda, yena bhaṇḍagāmo bhaṇḍugāmo (ka.) tenupasaṅkamissāmā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi.

Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ yena bhaṇḍagāmo tadavasari. Tatra sudaṃ bhagavā bhaṇḍagāme viharati. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘catunnaṃ, bhikkhave, dhammānaṃ ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamañceva tumhākañca. Katamesaṃ catunnaṃ? Ariyassa, bhikkhave, sīlassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamaṃ ceva tumhākañca. Ariyassa, bhikkhave, samādhissa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamaṃ ceva tumhākañca. Ariyāya, bhikkhave, paññāya ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamaṃ ceva tumhākañca. Ariyāya, bhikkhave, vimuttiyā ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṃ dīghamaddhānaṃ sandhāvitaṃ saṃsaritaṃ mamaṃ ceva tumhākañca. Tayidaṃ, bhikkhave, ariyaṃ sīlaṃ anubuddhaṃ paṭividdhaṃ, ariyo samādhi anubuddho paṭividdho, ariyā paññā anubuddhā paṭividdhā, ariyā vimutti anubuddhā paṭividdhā, ucchinnā bhavataṇhā, khīṇā bhavanetti, natthi dāni punabbhavo’’ti. Idamavoca bhagavā, idaṃ vatvāna sugato athāparaṃ etadavoca satthā –

‘‘Sīlaṃ samādhi paññā ca, vimutti ca anuttarā;
Anubuddhā ime dhammā, gotamena yasassinā.
‘‘Iti buddho abhiññāya, dhammamakkhāsi bhikkhunaṃ;
Dukkhassantakaro satthā, cakkhumā parinibbuto’’ti.

Tatrāpi sudaṃ bhagavā bhaṇḍagāme viharanto etadeva bahulaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ dhammiṃ kathaṃ karoti – ‘‘iti sīlaṃ, iti samādhi, iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṃso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṃsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṃ cittaṃ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṃ – kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā’’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 龍象回顧
  1. 那時,世尊在午前時穿好衣服後,取鉢與僧衣,為了托鉢進入毘舍離。在毘舍離為了托鉢而行後,食畢,從施食處返回,如龍象回顧般地回顧毘舍離後,召喚尊者阿難:

「阿難!這將是如來對毘舍離的最後一看,來!阿難!我們去貨物村。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。

那時,世尊與大比丘僧團一起抵達貨物村,在那裡,世尊住在貨物村中。在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:

「比丘們!因為對四法的不隨覺、不通達,這樣,我與你們就流轉過這長途的輪迴,哪四法呢?比丘們!因為對聖戒的不隨覺、不通達,這樣,我與你們就流轉過這長途的輪迴;因為對聖定的不隨覺、不通達,這樣,我與你們就流轉過這長途的輪迴;因為對聖慧的不隨覺、不通達,這樣,我與你們就流轉過這長途的輪迴;因為對聖解脫的不隨覺、不通達,這樣,我與你們就流轉過這長途的輪迴。比丘們!這聖戒已隨覺、已通達;聖定已隨覺、已通達;聖慧已隨覺、已通達;聖解脫已隨覺、已通達,有的渴愛[CFn080] 已被切斷,有之管道[CFn081] 已盡,現在,不再有再生。」

這就是世尊所說,說了這個後,善逝、大師又更進一步這麼說:

 「戒、定[CFn155] 與慧,以及無上解脫,
 這些法被有名聲的喬達摩[CFn010] 隨覺。
 像這樣,證知後,佛陀告訴比丘們法,
 大師、得到苦的結束者、有眼者[CFn156] 般涅槃。」

在那裡,當世尊住在貨物村時,他就對比丘們多作這法說:

「像這樣是戒;像這樣是定;像這樣是慧,當已遍修習戒時,定有大果、大效益;當已遍修習定時,慧有大果、大效益;已遍修習慧的心就完全地解脫煩惱,即:欲的煩惱、有的煩惱、無明的煩惱。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 1. 在上午,世尊穿好衣服,拿著大衣和缽入毗舍離化食。在化食完畢,吃過食物後返回來。他像大象那樣觀看毗舍離[SFn14] ,然後對阿難尊者說: “阿難,這是如來最後一次看毗舍離了。阿難,來吧,我們一起去賓達村。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

於是世尊便和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起前往賓達村。世尊住在賓達村。

  1. 在那裏,世尊對比丘說:

“比丘們,因為不覺悟、不洞悉四種法,所以我和你們長期輪迴生死。這四種法是什麼呢?

“比丘們,因為不覺悟、不洞悉聖者之戒,所以我和你們長期輪迴生死。

“比丘們,因為不覺悟、不洞悉聖者之定,所以我和你們長期輪迴生死。

“比丘們,因為不覺悟、不洞悉聖者之慧,所以我和你們長期輪迴生死。

“比丘們,因為不覺悟、不洞悉聖者之解脫,所以我和你們長期輪迴生死。

“比丘們,因為現在我覺悟、洞悉聖者之戒,覺悟、洞悉聖者之定,覺悟、洞悉聖者之慧,覺悟、洞悉聖者之解脫,所以我截斷了有愛,盡除了有因,從此不再受後有。”

  1. 世尊.善逝.導師說了以上的話後,再說以下偈頌:
  “聖者戒定慧,
  及無上解脫;
  聞名喬答摩,
  覺悟此等法。
  佛證此法已,
  教化諸比丘。
  導師得離苦,
  具眼者滅盡。”
  1. 世尊住在賓達村的時候,常對比丘說的,是有關戒、有關定、有關慧的教法──戒成熟時便得定,是大果報、大利益;定成熟時便得慧,是大果報、大利益;慧成熟時心便能徹底解脫欲漏、有漏、見漏、無明漏。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 第 四 章
  1. 01 爾時世尊於清晨著衣持缽去毘舍離乞食。行乞後,飯食已畢,從城中托缽歸來時,他以象視--回身轉顧毘舍離,告尊者阿難說:「阿難,此為如來最後顧視毘舍離。來,阿難,我等去班達鎮。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。於是佛與大比丘僧眾向班達鎮進行。到已,如來即住在鎮上。

02 爾時佛告諸比丘說:「諸比丘,因不瞭解四種法,我與汝等長期奔陟於生死之途。何者為四?諸比丘,是聖戒、聖定、聖慧及聖解脫。諸比丘,若能瞭解及證悟此四種法,,則世欲已盡,塵緣已絕,永久不受後有。」

03 薄伽梵作如是語已,慈喜之導師復以偈曰:

  戒定慧與無上解脫,
  此為喬達摩所證最著之法。
  智者以所知之法宣示諸比丘,
  導師以天眼使苦盡而證涅槃。

※     ※

04 佛陀在班達鎮時亦向諸比丘如是宣說圓滿法語:「此為戒,此為定,此為慧。修戒則定有很大利益與果報,修定則慧有很大利益與果報,修慧則心從漏得解脫--欲漏、有漏、見漏及無明漏。」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. [The Fourth Chapter for Recitation]

[27: The Four Noble Things]

  1. Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the morning time, after picking up his bowl and robe, entered Vesālī for alms. After walking for alms in Vesālī, when he was returning from the alms-round after the meal, after looking at Vesālī with an elephant's look,[AFn115] he addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “This is the last time, Ānanda, there will be sight of Vesālī for the Realised One. Come Ānanda let us approach Bhaṇḍagāma.”[AFn116]

“Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Bhaṇḍagāma. There the Gracious One lived near Bhaṇḍagāma.

There the Gracious One said this to the monks: “Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration, monks, of four things both you and I have been wandering and running along (in Saṁsāra) for a long time.[AFn117]

Which four?

1) Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration of Noble Virtue[AFn118] both you and I have been wandering and running along (in Saṁsāra)[AFn119] for a long time.

2) Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration of Noble Concentrated (Development)[AFn120] both you and I have been wandering and running along (in Saṁsāra) for a long time.

3) Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration of Noble Wisdom both you and I have been wandering and running along (in Saṁsāra) for a long time.

4) Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration of Noble Freedom both you and I have been wandering and running along (in Saṁsāra) for a long time.

(But now) this Noble Virtue has been understood and penetrated, this Noble Concentrated (Development) has been understood and penetrated, this Noble Wisdom has been understood and penetrated, this Noble Freedom has been understood and penetrated. Craving for continued existence has been cut off, what leads to rebirth has been exhausted, there is no continuation in existence.”

The Gracious One said this, and after saying this, the Fortunate One, the Teacher, said something more:

“Virtue, Concentrated (Development), Wisdom, and unsurpassed Freedom, These things have been understood by the Famous Gotama,[AFn121] Thus after knowing it deeply the Buddha declared the Teaching to the monks, The Suffering-Ender, the Teacher, the Visionary One[AFn122] who is Emancipated.”

* * *

There also the Gracious One, while living in Bhaṇḍagāma, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, (saying):

“Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of (craving for) continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Part Four: The Last Meal

The Elephant's Look

  1. 1. Then the Blessed One, getting ready in the forenoon, took bowl and robe and went into Vesali for alms. After the alms round and meal, on his return, he looked upon Vesali with the elephant's look,[VFn36] and said to the Venerable Ananda: "This, Ananda, is the last time that the Tathagata will look upon Vesali. Come, Ananda, let us go to Bhandagama."

"So be it, O Lord." And the Blessed One took up his abode at Bhandagama together with a large community of bhikkhus.

  1. And the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus, saying: "Bhikkhus, it is through not realizing, through not penetrating four principles that this long course of birth and death has been passed through and undergone by me as well as by you. What are those four? They are: noble virtue, noble concentration, noble wisdom, and noble emancipation. But now, bhikkhus, that these have been realized and penetrated, cut off is the craving for existence, destroyed is that which leads to renewed becoming, and there is no fresh becoming."
  2. And having spoken these words, the Happy One, the Master, spoke again, saying:

"Virtue, concentration, wisdom, and emancipation unsurpassed —

These are the principles realized by Gotama the renowned;

And, knowing them, he, the Buddha, to his monks has taught the Dhamma.

He, the destroyer of suffering, the Master, the Seer, is at peace."

  1. And also at Bhandagama the Blessed One often gave counsel to the bhikkhus thus: "Such and such is virtue; such and such is concentration; and such and such is wisdom. Great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of concentration when it is fully developed by virtuous conduct; great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of wisdom when it is fully developed by concentration; utterly freed from the taints of lust, becoming, and ignorance is the mind that is fully developed in wisdom."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 187
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Catumahāpadesakathā

  1. Atha kho bhagavā bhaṇḍagāme yathābhirantaṃ viharitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘āyāmānanda, yena hatthigāmo, yena ambagāmo, yena jambugāmo, yena bhoganagaraṃ tenupasaṅkamissāmā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ yena bhoganagaraṃ tadavasari. Tatra sudaṃ bhagavā bhoganagare viharati ānande sānandare (ka.) cetiye. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘cattārome, bhikkhave, mahāpadese desessāmi, taṃ suṇātha, sādhukaṃ manasikarotha, bhāsissāmī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ , bhante’’ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṃ. Bhagavā etadavoca –
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

四大法教

  1. 那時,世尊如其意住在貨物村後,召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!我們去象村、去芒果樹村、去閻浮村、去財富城。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。那時,世尊與大比丘僧團一起抵達財富城,在那裡,世尊就住在財富城的阿難塔廟。

在那裡,世尊召喚比丘們:

「比丘們!我將教導你們這四大法教[CFn157] ,你們要聽!你們要好好作意[CFn024] ,你們要聽!你們要好好作意!我要說了。」!我要說了。」

「是的,大德!」那些比丘回答世尊。

世尊這麼說:

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 5. 世尊在賓達村住了一段時間後,便對阿難尊者說: “阿難,來吧,我們一起去呵提村。” ……

……芒果村……

……閻浮村……

世尊在閻浮村住了一段時間後,便對阿難尊者說: “阿難,來吧,我們一起去波伽城。”

  1. 阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

於是世尊便和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起前往波伽城。

  1. 世尊住在波伽城的阿難廟。在那裏,世尊對比丘說: “比丘們,我要說四大教法[SFn15] ,留心聽,好好用心思量,我現在說了。”

比丘回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 世尊說:

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 05 爾時薄伽梵在班達鎮隨宜住已,語尊者阿難說:「來,阿難,我等去哈諦鎮、杧菓鎮、江捕鎮及波戞城。」

06 「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。於是佛與大比丘僧眾向上列諸處進行(每處均複述上列之二、三、四各節)。

07 到已,佛陀即住在波戞城之阿難陀神舍。彼告諸比丘說:「諸比丘,我將宣說四大教法,且專心諦聽!」

「是,世尊。」諸比丘回答說。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[28: The Four Great Referalls]

  1. Then the Gracious One, after living near Bhaṇḍagāma for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying):

“Come Ānanda let us approach Hatthigāma (Elephant Village), Ambagāma (Mango Village), Jambugāma (Rose-Apple Village), Bhoganagara (Wealthy Village).”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Bhoganagara. There the Gracious One lived near Bhoganagara at the Joyous Shrine.

There the Gracious One addressed the monks, (saying): “I will teach these Four Great Referrals,[AFn123] monks, listen to it, apply your minds well, and I will speak.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 5. When the Blessed One had stayed at Bhandagama as long as he pleased, he spoke to the Venerable Ananda: "Come, Ananda, let us go to Hatthigama."

"So be it, Lord." And the Blessed One took up his abode at Hatthigama together with a large community of bhikkhus.

And when the Blessed One had stayed at Hatthigama as long as he pleased, he took up his abode at Ambagama, then at Jambugama. And at each of these places the Blessed One often gave counsel to the bhikkhus thus: "Such and such is virtue; such and such is concentration; and such and such is wisdom. Great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of concentration when it is fully developed by virtuous conduct; great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of wisdom when it is fully developed by concentration; utterly freed from the taints of lust, becoming, and ignorance is the mind that is fully developed in wisdom."

  1. And when the Blessed One had stayed at Jambugama as long as he pleased, he spoke to the Venerable Ananda: "Come, Ananda, let us go to Bhoganagara."

"So be it, Lord." And the Blessed One took up his abode at Bhoganagara together with a large community of bhikkhus, and stayed in the Ananda shrine.

The Four Great References

  1. And there the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus, saying: "Now, bhikkhus, I shall make known to you the four great references.[VFn37] Listen and pay heed to my words." And those bhikkhus answered, saying:

"So be it, Lord."

8-11. Then the Blessed One said:

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 188
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ vadeyya – ‘sammukhā metaṃ, āvuso, bhagavato sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ, ayaṃ dhammo ayaṃ vinayo idaṃ satthusāsana’nti. Tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno bhāsitaṃ neva abhinanditabbaṃ nappaṭikkositabbaṃ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā tāni padabyañjanāni sādhukaṃ uggahetvā sutte osāretabbāni otāretabbāni, vinaye sandassetabbāni. Tāni ce sutte osāriyamānāni otāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni na ceva sutte osaranti otaranti (sī. pī. a. ni. 4.180, na ca vinaye sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ – ‘addhā, idaṃ na ceva tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ; imassa ca bhikkhuno duggahita’nti. Itihetaṃ, bhikkhave, chaḍḍeyyātha. Tāni ce sutte osāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni sutte ceva osaranti, vinaye ca sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ – ‘addhā, idaṃ tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ; imassa ca bhikkhuno suggahita’nti. Idaṃ, bhikkhave, paṭhamaṃ mahāpadesaṃ dhāreyyātha.

‘‘Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ vadeyya – ‘amukasmiṃ nāma āvāse saṅgho viharati sathero sapāmokkho. Tassa me saṅghassa sammukhā sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ, ayaṃ dhammo ayaṃ vinayo idaṃ satthusāsana’nti. Tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno bhāsitaṃ neva abhinanditabbaṃ nappaṭikkositabbaṃ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā tāni padabyañjanāni sādhukaṃ uggahetvā sutte osāretabbāni, vinaye sandassetabbāni. Tāni ce sutte osāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni na ceva sutte osaranti, na ca vinaye sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ – ‘addhā, idaṃ na ceva tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ; tassa ca saṅghassa duggahita’nti. Itihetaṃ, bhikkhave, chaḍḍeyyātha. Tāni ce sutte osāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni sutte ceva osaranti vinaye ca sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ – ‘addhā , idaṃ tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ; tassa ca saṅghassa suggahita’nti. Idaṃ, bhikkhave, dutiyaṃ mahāpadesaṃ dhāreyyātha.

‘‘Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ vadeyya – ‘amukasmiṃ nāma āvāse sambahulā therā bhikkhū viharanti bahussutā āgatāgamā dhammadharā vinayadharā mātikādharā. Tesaṃ me therānaṃ sammukhā sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ – ayaṃ dhammo ayaṃ vinayo idaṃ satthusāsana’nti. Tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno bhāsitaṃ neva abhinanditabbaṃ…pe… na ca vinaye sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ – ‘addhā, idaṃ na ceva tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ; tesañca therānaṃ duggahita’nti. Itihetaṃ, bhikkhave, chaḍḍeyyātha. Tāni ce sutte osāriyamānāni…pe… vinaye ca sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ – ‘addhā, idaṃ tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ; tesañca therānaṃ suggahita’nti. Idaṃ, bhikkhave, tatiyaṃ mahāpadesaṃ dhāreyyātha.

‘‘Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṃ vadeyya – ‘amukasmiṃ nāma āvāse eko thero bhikkhu viharati bahussuto āgatāgamo dhammadharo vinayadharo mātikādharo. Tassa me therassa sammukhā sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ – ayaṃ dhammo ayaṃ vinayo idaṃ satthusāsana’nti. Tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno bhāsitaṃ neva abhinanditabbaṃ nappaṭikkositabbaṃ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā tāni padabyañjanāni sādhukaṃ uggahetvā sutte osāritabbāni, vinaye sandassetabbāni. Tāni ce sutte osāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni na ceva sutte osaranti, na ca vinaye sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ – ‘addhā, idaṃ na ceva tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ; tassa ca therassa duggahita’nti. Itihetaṃ, bhikkhave, chaḍḍeyyātha. Tāni ca sutte osāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni sutte ceva osaranti, vinaye ca sandissanti , niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṃ – ‘addhā , idaṃ tassa bhagavato vacanaṃ; tassa ca therassa suggahita’nti. Idaṃ, bhikkhave, catutthaṃ mahāpadesaṃ dhāreyyātha. Ime kho, bhikkhave, cattāro mahāpadese dhāreyyāthā’’ti.

Tatrapi sudaṃ bhagavā bhoganagare viharanto ānande cetiye etadeva bahulaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ dhammiṃ kathaṃ karoti – ‘‘iti sīlaṃ, iti samādhi, iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṃso . Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṃsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṃ cittaṃ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṃ – kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā’’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 「比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『學友[CFn158] 們!我從世尊的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師[CFn083] 的教導。」』比丘們!對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜〔認可〕,也不應該排斥,不歡喜〔認可〕、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中[CFn159] ,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們既不進入經中,也不在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這不是那世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是這位比丘的錯誤把握[CFn160] 。』比丘們!像這樣,你們應該捨棄它。但,比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『學友們!我從世尊的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』比丘們!對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜〔認可〕,也不應該排斥,不歡喜〔認可〕、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們進入經中,也在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這是那世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是這位比丘的正確把握。』比丘們!你們應該憶持這第一大法教。

又,比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『有上座、有上首的僧團住在名叫像那樣的住處,我從那個僧團的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』比丘們!對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜〔認可〕,也不應該排斥,不歡喜〔認可〕、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們既不進入經中,也不在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這不是那世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是那個僧團的錯誤把握。』比丘們!像這樣,你們應該捨棄它。但,比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『有上座、有上首的僧團住在名叫像那樣的住處,我從那個僧團的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜〔認可〕,也不應該排斥,不歡喜〔認可〕、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們進入經中,也在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這是那世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是那個僧團的正確把握。』比丘們!你們應該憶持這第二大法教。

又,比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『眾多多聞、通曉阿含、持法、持律、持論母的上座比丘們住在名叫像那樣的住處,我從那些上座們的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』比丘們!對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜〔認可〕,也不應該排斥,不歡喜〔認可〕、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們既不進入經中,也不在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這不是那世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是那些上座們的錯誤把握。』比丘們!像這樣,你們應該捨棄它。但,比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『眾多多聞、通曉阿含[CFn161] 、持法、持律、持論母的[CFn162] 上座比丘們住在名叫像那樣的住處,我從那些上座們的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜〔認可〕,也不應該排斥,不歡喜〔認可〕、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們進入經中,也在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這是那世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是那些上座們的正確把握。』比丘們!你們應該憶持這第三大法教。

又,比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『某位多聞、通曉阿含、持法、持律、持論母的上座比丘住在名叫像那樣的住處,我從那位上座的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』比丘們!對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜〔認可〕,也不應該排斥,不歡喜〔認可〕、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們既不進入經中,也不在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這不是那世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是那位上座的錯誤把握。』比丘們!像這樣,你們應該捨棄它。但,比丘們!這裡,比丘可能這麼說:『某位多聞、通曉阿含、持法、持律、持論母的上座比丘住在名叫像那樣的住處,我從那位上座的面前聽聞、領受此:「這是法,這是律,這是大師的教導。」』對那位比丘所說既不應該歡喜〔認可〕,也不應該排斥,不歡喜〔認可〕、不排斥後,好好地學習那些文句,它們應該能被進入經中,應該在律中能被對照,如果當進入經中、在律中對照時,它們進入經中,也在律中被看見,你們應該來到結論:『確實,這是那世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之語,這是那位上座的正確把握。』比丘們!你們應該憶持這第四大法教。

比丘們!這些是四大法教。」

在那裡,當世尊住在財富城的阿難塔廟時,他就對比丘們多作這法說:

「像這樣是戒;像這樣是定;像這樣是慧,當已遍修習戒時,定有大果、大效益;當已遍修習定時,慧有大果、大效益;已遍修習慧的心就完全地解脫煩惱,即:欲的煩惱、有的煩惱、無明的煩惱。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 8. “比丘們,如果有一位比丘說: ‘賢友,我曾在佛陀跟前聽聞及受持這些法、這些律、這些導師的教誡。’ 比丘們,首先不要對這位比丘的說話隨喜,也不要排斥,好好地記著這些字句,然後和經核對,和律比較,如果在和經核對、和律比較時不相符,便可得出一個結論:肯定這不是佛陀的說話,這位比丘受持錯誤。因此應該捨棄它。如果在和經核對、和律比較時相符,便可得出一個結論:肯定這是佛陀的說話,這位比丘受持正確。比丘們,這是第一大教法,你們應要受持。
  1. “比丘們,再者,如果有一位比丘說: ‘在某住處有僧團和著名的長老住在那裏。我曾在那個僧團聽聞及受持這些法、這些律、這些導師的教誡。’ 比丘們,首先不要對這位比丘的說話隨喜,也不要排斥,好好地記著這些字句,然後和經核對,和律比較,如果在和經核對、和律比較時不相符,便可得出一個結論:肯定這不是佛陀的說話,那個僧團受持錯誤。因此應該捨棄它。如果在和經核對、和律比較時相符,便可得出一個結論:肯定這是佛陀的說話,那個僧團受持正確。比丘們,這是第二大教法,你們應要受持。
  2. “比丘們,再者,如果有一位比丘說: ‘在某住處有幾位多聞、熟誦阿含[SFn16] 、持法、持律、持論母的長老比丘住在那裏。我曾在那些長老跟前聽聞及受持這些法、這些律、這些導師的教誡。’ 比丘們,首先不要對這位比丘的說話隨喜,也不要排斥,好好地記著這些字句,然後和經核對,和律比較,如果在和經核對、和律比較時不相符,便可得出一個結論:肯定這不是佛陀的說話,那些長老受持錯誤。因此應該捨棄它。如果在和經核對、和律比較時相符,便可得出一個結論:肯定這是佛陀的說話,那些長老受持正確。比丘們,這是第三大教法,你們應要受持。
  3. “比丘們,再者,如果有一位比丘說: ‘在某住處有一位多聞、熟誦阿含、持法、持律、持論母的長老比丘住在那裏。我曾在那位長老跟前聽聞及受持這些法、這些律、這些導師的教誡。’ 比丘們,首先不要對這位比丘的說話隨喜,也不要排斥,好好地記著這些字句,然後和經核對,和律比較,如果在和經核對、和律比較時不相符,便可得出一個結論:肯定這不是佛陀的說話,那位長老受持錯誤。因此應該捨棄它。如果在和經核對、和律比較時相符,便可得出一個結論:肯定這是佛陀的說話,那位長老受持正確。比丘們,這是第四大教法,你們應要受持。

“比丘們,這些就是四大教法了,你們應要受持。”

  1. 世尊住在波伽城阿難廟的時候,常對比丘說的,是有關戒、有關定、有關慧的教法──戒成熟時便得定,是大果報、大利益;定成熟時便得慧,是大果報、大利益;慧成熟時心便能徹底解脫欲漏、有漏、見漏、無明漏。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 08 薄伽梵說:「諸比丘,若有比丘作如是語:『此是法,此是律,此是導師之教言,我從佛親口聞受。』諸比丘對該比丘所言,不應稱讚,也不應藐視,應瞭解其每字與音節,而與經律相比較、相對照;既較對以後,若其不與經律相符,則其結論應為:『誠然,此非佛陀之教言,而是該比丘之誤會。』因此,諸比丘,汝等應拒絕之。若與經律相比較、相對照以後,彼能與之相符,則其結論應為:『誠然,此是佛陀之教言,該比丘善瞭解之。』諸比丘,此是第一大教法,應當學。

09 「復次,諸比丘,若比丘作如是語:『於某寺宇有僧伽及其長老與導師居住,我從其僧團親口聽受:此是法,此是律,此是導師之教言。』諸比丘對該比丘所言不應稱讚,也不應藐視,應瞭解其每字與音節,而與經律相比較、相對照;既較對以後,若其不與經律相符,則其結論應為:『誠然,此非佛陀之教言,而是該比丘之誤會。』因此,諸比丘,汝等應拒絕之。若與經律相比較、相對照以後,彼能與之相符,則其結論應為:『誠然,此是佛陀教言,該比丘善瞭解之。』諸比丘,此是第二大教法,應當學。

10 「復次,諸比丘,若比丘作如是語:『於某寺宇住有眾多博學多聞、深具信仰、深入於法、精嫻毘尼及通曉律尼的僧團長老。我從諸長老親口聽受:此是法,此是律,此是導師之教言。』諸比丘對該比丘所言,不應稱讚,也不應藐視,應瞭解其每字與音節,而與經律相比較、相對照;既較對以後,若其不與經律相符,則其結論應為:『誠然,此非佛陀之教言,而是該比丘之誤會。』因此,諸比丘,汝等應拒絕之。若與經律相比較、相對照以後,彼能與之相符,則其結論應為:『誠然,此是佛陀之教言,該比丘善瞭解之。』諸比丘,此是第三大教法,應當學。

11 「復次,諸比丘,若比丘作如是語:『於某寺宇住有一博學多聞、深具傳統信仰、深入於法、精嫻毘尼及通曉律儀的比丘。我從該長老親口聽受:此是法,此是律,此是導師之教言。』諸比丘對該比丘所言,不應稱讚,也不應藐視,應瞭解其每字與音節,而與經律相比較、相對照;既較對以後,若其不與經律相符,則其結論應為:『誠然,此非佛陀之教言,而是該比丘之誤會。』因此,諸比丘,汝等應拒絕之。若與經律相比較、相對照以後,彼能與之相符,則其結論應為:『誠然,此是佛陀之教言,該比丘善瞭解之。』諸比丘,此是第四大教法,應當學。

「諸比丘,此是四大教法應當學!」

※     ※

12 薄伽梵在波戞城阿難陀神舍住時,亦向諸比丘如是宣說圓滿法語:

「此為戒,此為定,此為慧。修戒則定有很大利益與果報;修定則慧有很大利益與果報;修慧則心從漏得解脫--欲漏,有漏,見漏及無明漏。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. 1) “Here, monks, a monk might speak like this: ‘I have heard this directly from the Gracious One, friends, directly I learned it: “This is the Teaching, this is the Discipline, this is the Teacher's Dispensation.”’ That monk's speech, monks, is not to be rejoiced over, not to be scorned at. Without having rejoiced over it, without having scorned it, after learning those words and syllables well, they should be laid alongside the Discourses, they should be compared with the Discipline.[AFn124]

If, when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline, they do not fit in with the Discourses, they do not compare (well) with the Discipline, you may here come to this conclusion: ‘Certainly this is not the Gracious One's word, it is not well learned by that monk,’ and, monks, you should abandon it. If when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline, they do fit in with the Discourses, they do compare (well) with the Discipline, you may come to this conclusion: ‘Certainly this is the Gracious One's word, it is well-learned by that monk.’ This, monks, is the first Great Referral you should bear in mind.

2) Here, monks, a monk might speak like this: ‘In a certain dwelling place lives a Community with elders and leaders, I have heard this directly from that Community, directly I learned it: “This is the Teaching, this is the Discipline, this is the Teacher's Dispensation.”’ Those monks' speech, monks, is not to be rejoiced over, not to be scorned at. Without having rejoiced over it, without having scorned it, after learning those words and syllables well, they should be laid alongside the Discourses, they should be compared with the Discipline.

If, when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline, they do not fit in with the Discourses, they do not compare (well) with the Discipline, you may here come to this conclusion: ‘Certainly this is not the Gracious One's word, it is not well learned by that Community,’ and, monks, you should abandon it. If when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline, they do fit in with the Discourses, they do compare (well) with the Discipline, you may here come to this conclusion: ‘Certainly this is the Gracious One's word, it is well-learned by that Community.’ This, monks, is the second Great Referral you should bear in mind.

3) Here, monks, a monk might speak like this: ‘In a certain dwelling place live many elders, very learned, who have learned the traditions, who are bearers of the Teaching, bearers of the Discipline, bearers of the Tabulation,[AFn125] I have heard this directly from those elders, directly I learned it: “This is the Teaching, this is the Discipline, this is the Teacher's Dispensation.”’ Those monks' speech, monks, is not to be rejoiced over, not to be scorned at. Without having rejoiced over it, without having scorned it, after learning those words and syllables well, they should be laid alongside the Discourses, they should be compared with the Discipline.

If, when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline, they do not fit in with the Discourses, they do not compare (well) with the Discipline, you may here come to this conclusion: ‘Certainly this is not the Gracious One's word, it is not well learned by those elders,’ and, monks, you should abandon it. If when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline they do fit in with the Discourses, they do compare (well) with the Discipline, you may here come to this conclusion: ‘Certainly this is the Gracious One's word, it is well-learned by those elders.’ This, monks, is the third Great Referral you should bear in mind.

4) Here, monks, a monk might speak like this: ‘In a certain dwelling place lives one elder, very learned, who has learned the traditions, a bearer of the Teaching, a bearer of the Discipline, a bearer of the Tabulation, I have heard this directly from that elder, directly I learned it: “This is the Teaching, this is the Discipline, this is the Teacher's Dispensation.”’ That monk's speech, monks, is not to be rejoiced over, not to be scorned at. Without having rejoiced over it, without having scorned it, after learning those words and syllables well, they should be laid alongside the Discourses, they should be compared with the Discipline.

If, when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline they do not fit in with the Discourses, they do not compare (well) with the Discipline, you may here come to this conclusion: ‘Certainly this is not the Gracious One's word, it is not well learned by that elder,’ and, monks, you should abandon it. If when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline, they do fit in with the Discourses, they do compare (well) with the Discipline, you may here come to this conclusion: ‘Certainly this is the Gracious One's word, it is well-learned by that elder.’ This, monks, is the fourth Great Referral you should bear in mind. These, monks, are the Four Great Referrals you should bear in mind.”

There also the Gracious One, while living near Bhoganagara at the Joyful Shrine, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, (saying):

“Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of (craving for) continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. "In this fashion, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu might speak: 'Face to face with the Blessed One, brethren, I have heard and learned thus: This is the Dhamma and the Discipline, the Master's Dispensation'; or: 'In an abode of such and such a name lives a community with elders and a chief. Face to face with that community, I have heard and learned thus: This is the Dhamma and the Discipline, the Master's Dispensation'; or: 'In an abode of such and such a name live several bhikkhus who are elders, who are learned, who have accomplished their course, who are preservers of the Dhamma, the Discipline, and the Summaries. Face to face with those elders, I have heard and learned thus: This is the Dhamma and the Discipline, the Master's Dispensation'; or: 'In an abode of such and such a name lives a single bhikkhu who is an elder, who is learned, who has accomplished his course, who is a preserver of the Dhamma, the Discipline, and the Summaries. Face to face with that elder, I have heard and learned thus: This is the Dhamma and the Discipline, the Master's Dispensation.'

"In such a case, bhikkhus, the declaration of such a bhikkhu is neither to be received with approval nor with scorn. Without approval and without scorn, but carefully studying the sentences word by word, one should trace them in the Discourses and verify them by the Discipline. If they are neither traceable in the Discourses nor verifiable by the Discipline, one must conclude thus: 'Certainly, this is not the Blessed One's utterance; this has been misunderstood by that bhikkhu — or by that community, or by those elders, or by that elder.' In that way, bhikkhus, you should reject it. But if the sentences concerned are traceable in the Discourses and verifiable by the Discipline, then one must conclude thus: 'Certainly, this is the Blessed One's utterance; this has been well understood by that bhikkhu — or by that community, or by those elders, or by that elder.' And in that way, bhikkhus, you may accept it on the first, second, third, or fourth reference. These, bhikkhus, are the four great references for you to preserve."

  1. And also at Bhoganagara, at the Ananda shrine, the Blessed One often gave counsel to the bhikkhus thus: "Such and such is virtue; such and such is concentration; and such and such is wisdom. Great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of concentration when it is fully developed by virtuous conduct; great becomes the fruit, great is the gain of wisdom when it is fully developed by concentration; utterly freed from the taints of lust, becoming, and ignorance is the mind that is fully developed in wisdom."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 189
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Kammāraputtacundavatthu

  1. Atha kho bhagavā bhoganagare yathābhirantaṃ viharitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘āyāmānanda, yena pāvā tenupasaṅkamissāmā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ yena pāvā tadavasari. Tatra sudaṃ bhagavā pāvāyaṃ viharati cundassa kammāraputtassa ambavane. Assosi kho cundo kammāraputto – ‘‘bhagavā kira pāvaṃ anuppatto, pāvāyaṃ viharati mayhaṃ ambavane’’ti. Atha kho cundo kammāraputto yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho cundaṃ kammāraputtaṃ bhagavā dhammiyā kathāya sandassesi samādapesi samuttejesi sampahaṃsesi. Atha kho cundo kammāraputto bhagavatā dhammiyā kathāya sandassito samādapito samuttejito sampahaṃsito bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘adhivāsetu me, bhante, bhagavā svātanāya bhattaṃ saddhiṃ bhikkhusaṅghenā’’ti. Adhivāsesi bhagavā tuṇhībhāvena. Atha kho cundo kammāraputto bhagavato adhivāsanaṃ viditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā pakkāmi.

Atha kho cundo kammāraputto tassā rattiyā accayena sake nivesane paṇītaṃ khādanīyaṃ bhojanīyaṃ paṭiyādāpetvā pahūtañca sūkaramaddavaṃ bhagavato kālaṃ ārocāpesi – ‘‘kālo, bhante, niṭṭhitaṃ bhatta’’nti. Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya saddhiṃ bhikkhusaṅghena yena cundassa kammāraputtassa nivesanaṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Nisajja kho bhagavā cundaṃ kammāraputtaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘yaṃ te, cunda, sūkaramaddavaṃ paṭiyattaṃ, tena maṃ parivisa. Yaṃ panaññaṃ khādanīyaṃ bhojanīyaṃ paṭiyattaṃ, tena bhikkhusaṅghaṃ parivisā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho cundo kammāraputto bhagavato paṭissutvā yaṃ ahosi sūkaramaddavaṃ paṭiyattaṃ, tena bhagavantaṃ parivisi. Yaṃ panaññaṃ khādanīyaṃ bhojanīyaṃ paṭiyattaṃ , tena bhikkhusaṅghaṃ parivisi. Atha kho bhagavā cundaṃ kammāraputtaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘yaṃ te, cunda, sūkaramaddavaṃ avasiṭṭhaṃ, taṃ sobbhe nikhaṇāhi. Nāhaṃ taṃ, cunda, passāmi sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya, yassa taṃ paribhuttaṃ sammā pariṇāmaṃ gaccheyya aññatra tathāgatassā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho cundo kammāraputto bhagavato paṭissutvā yaṃ ahosi sūkaramaddavaṃ avasiṭṭhaṃ, taṃ sobbhe nikhaṇitvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho cundaṃ kammāraputtaṃ bhagavā dhammiyā kathāya sandassetvā samādapetvā samuttejetvā sampahaṃsetvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

鐵匠之子純陀的事

  1. 那時,世尊如其意住在財富城後,召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!我們去波婆城。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。

那時,世尊與大比丘僧團一起抵達波婆城,在那裡,世尊住在波婆城鐵匠之子純陀的芒果園中。

鐵匠之子純陀聽聞:「世尊已到達波婆城,住在我的芒果園中。」那時,鐵匠之子純陀去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著坐在一旁。在一旁坐好後,世尊以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵鐵匠之子純陀,使之歡喜。那時,鐵匠之子純陀被世尊的法說開示、勸導、鼓勵、使之歡喜後,對世尊這麼說:

「大德!請世尊與比丘僧團一起同意明天我的飲食〔供養〕。」

世尊以沈默同意了。

那時,鐵匠之子純陀知道世尊同意後,起座向世尊問訊,然後作右繞,接著離開。

那時,那夜過後,鐵匠之子純陀在自己的住處準備勝妙的硬食與軟食,以及很多豬喜歡的菇蕈類[CFn163] 後,時候到時通知世尊:

「大德!時候已到,飲食已〔準備〕完成。」

那時,世尊在午前時穿好衣服後,取鉢與僧衣,去鐵匠之子純陀的住處。抵達後,與比丘僧團一起在設置好的座位坐下。坐好後,世尊召喚鐵匠之子純陀:

「純陀!凡這些所準備之豬喜歡的菇蕈類給我吃,而其他硬食與軟食給比丘僧團吃。」

「是的,大德!」鐵匠之子純陀回答世尊後,凡所準備之豬喜歡的菇蕈類給世尊吃,而其他硬食與軟食給比丘僧團吃。

那時,世尊召喚鐵匠之子純陀:

「純陀!凡這些殘餘之豬喜歡的菇蕈類全部埋入坑裡,純陀!在這包括天、魔、梵的世間;包括沙門、婆羅門、天、人的世代中,除了如來以外,我不見任何受用者能來到完全消化它。」

「是的,大德!」鐵匠之子純陀回答世尊後,將殘餘之豬喜歡的菇蕈類全部埋入坑裡,然後去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著坐在一旁。在一旁坐好後,世尊以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵鐵匠之子純陀,使之歡喜,接著起座離開。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 13. 世尊在波伽城住了一段時間後,便對阿難尊者說: “阿難,來吧,我們一起去波婆。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

於是世尊便和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起前往波婆。世尊住在波婆純陀.鐵匠[SFn17] 子的芒果園。

  1. 純陀.鐵匠子聽到世尊到來波婆自己的芒果園的消息。他去到世尊那裏,對世尊作禮,然後坐在一邊。世尊為純陀.鐵匠子說法,對他開示,對他教導,使他景仰,使他歡喜。
  2. 純陀.鐵匠子因世尊的說法而得到開示,得到教導,感到景仰,感到歡喜。他對世尊說: “大德,願世尊和比丘僧團明天接受我的食物。” 世尊保持沈默以表示接受供養。
  3. 純陀.鐵匠子知道世尊接受邀請後,便起座,向世尊作禮,右繞世尊,然後離去。
  4. 純陀.鐵匠子在黎明的時候,吩咐在自己的住所準備美味的硬食物和軟食物,還有很多木耳[SFn18] ,然後使人通知世尊: “大德,現在食物已經準備好了。”
  5. 於是,在上午,世尊穿好衣服,拿著大衣和缽,和比丘僧團一起前往純陀.鐵匠子的住所。世尊去到後,坐在為他預備好的座位上,然後對純陀.鐵匠子說: “純陀,把所有木耳給我,把其餘所有硬食物和軟食物給比丘僧團。”

純陀.鐵匠子回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 於是他把所有木耳給世尊,把其餘所有硬食物和軟食物給比丘僧團。

  1. 世尊對純陀.鐵匠子說: “純陀,把所有剩下的木耳埋入地下。除了如來之外,我看不見在世間上有天、魔、梵、沙門、婆羅門、國王、人等能消受這些食物。”

純陀.鐵匠子回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 他把所有剩下的木耳埋入地下,然後回到世尊那裏,對世尊作禮,然後坐在一邊。世尊為純陀.鐵匠子說法,使他得到開示,得到教導,感到景仰,感到歡喜,然後起座離去。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 13 爾時薄伽梵在波戞城隨宜住已,告尊者阿難說:「來,阿難,我等去波婆。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。於是佛與大比丘僧眾向波婆進行。到已,佛住於鐵匠窮達的杧菓林。

※     ※

14 鐵匠窮達聞佛已到達波婆,且住於彼之杧菓林。於是彼走向如來的住處,向佛作禮,就座其側以後,薄伽梵向其宣示法要,使之歡喜愉快。

15 窮達對佛所開示的法要甚為喜悅,他白佛言:「唯願世尊慈允於明天與大比丘僧眾赴舍間午餐。」佛陀默然受請。

16 窮達知佛已許可,即從座起,向佛作禮,右遶而去。

17 爾時鐵匠窮達於其夜清旦在自己家裹備辦甜粥糕餅及栴檀樹耳[PFn01] , 白佛言:「世尊,諸事已備,唯聖知時。」

18 爾時薄伽梵於清晨著衣持缽,與大比丘僧眾走向鐵匠窮達家裹。到已,坐於敷座後佛告窮達說:「窮達,凡是你所備辦的栴檀樹耳盡奉獻與我,其他食物如甜粥等則分給比丘僧眾。」

「是,世尊。」窮達回答說。於是他將所備辦的栴檀樹耳獻佛,其他食物如甜粥等,則分奉給比丘僧眾。

19 爾時薄伽梵告窮達說:「窮達,所有餘剩的栴檀樹耳應埋藏一小孔裹。窮達,我不見地上任何人、或魔、天、與梵天、或沙門、婆羅門、或神、或人,除如來外,若服食該物能有適宜的消化。」

「是,世尊。」窮達回答說。他將餘剩的栴檀樹耳埋藏一小孔後,走向佛前向佛作禮。他就座其側以後,佛陀向窮達開示法要,使之發心喜悅,即從座起而去。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[29: The Last Meal]

  1. Then the Gracious One, after living near Bhoganagara for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come Ānanda let us approach Pāvā.”[AFn126]

“Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Pāvā. There the Gracious One lived near Pāvā in Cunda the Smith's[AFn127] mango wood.

Cunda the Smith heard: “The Gracious One, it seems, has arrived at Pāvā, and is dwelling near Pāvā, in my mango wood.” Then Cunda the Smith approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side. While Cunda the Smith was sitting on one side the Gracious One instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered him with a talk about the Teaching. Then Cunda the Smith, having been instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered by the Gracious One with a talk about the Teaching, said this to the Gracious One: “May the Gracious One consent, reverend Sir, to me (offering him) a meal on the morrow, together with the Community of monks.”

The Gracious One consented by maintaining silence. Then Cunda the Smith, having understood the Gracious One's consent, after rising from his seat, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, went away.

Then after the night had passed, Cunda the Smith, in his own residence, having had excellent foodstuffs made ready, and an abundance of tender pork,[AFn128] had the time announced to the Gracious One, (saying): “It is time, reverend Sir, the meal is ready.”

Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the morning time, after picking up his bowl and robe, together with the Community of monks, approached Cunda the Smith's residence, and after approaching, he sat down on the prepared seat. Having sat down, the Gracious One addressed Cunda the Smith, (saying):

“Serve me with the tender pork you have prepared, Cunda, but serve the Community of monks with the other foodstuffs which have been prepared.”

“Very well, reverend Sir”, said Cunda the Smith, and after replying to the Gracious One, he served the Gracious One with the tender pork that had been prepared, but served the Community of monks with the other foodstuffs which had been prepared. Then the Gracious One addressed Cunda the Smith, (saying):

“Throw that left over tender pork into a pit, Cunda, (for) I do not see, Cunda, in the world with its Divinities, Māra, and Brahmā, in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, princes and men, one who, having eaten it, could completely digest it, except for a Realised One.”[AFn129]

“Very well, reverend Sir”, said Cunda the Smith, and after replying to the Gracious One, and throwing what was left over of that tender pork into a pit, he approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side.

While sitting on one side Cunda the Smith having been instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered by the Gracious One with a talk about the Teaching, having risen from the seat, went away.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 8. When the Blessed One had stayed at Bhoganagara as long as he pleased, he spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "Come, Ananda, let us go to Pava."

"So be it, Lord." And the Blessed One took up his abode at Pava together with a great community of bhikkhus, and stayed in the Mango Grove of Cunda, who was by family a metalworker.

The Buddha's Last Meal

  1. And Cunda the metalworker came to know: "The Blessed One, they say, has arrived at Pava, and is staying in my Mango Grove." And he went to the Blessed One, and having respectfully greeted him, sat down at one side. And the Blessed One instructed Cunda the metalworker in the Dhamma, and roused, edified, and gladdened him.
  2. Then Cunda spoke to the Blessed One, saying: "May the Blessed One, O Lord, please accept my invitation for tomorrow's meal, together with the community of bhikkhus." And by his silence the Blessed One consented.
  3. Sure, then, of the Blessed One's consent, Cunda the metalworker rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and keeping his right side towards him, took his departure.
  4. And Cunda the metalworker, after the night had passed, had choice food, hard and soft, prepared in his abode, together with a quantity of sukara-maddava,[VFn38] and announced it to the Blessed One, saying: "It is time, O Lord, the meal is ready."
  5. Thereupon the Blessed One, in the forenoon, having got ready, took bowl and robe and went with the community of bhikkhus to the house of Cunda, and there sat down on the seat prepared for him. And he spoke to Cunda, saying: "With the sukara-maddava you have prepared, Cunda, you may serve me; with the other food, hard and soft, you may serve the community of bhikkhus."

"So be it, Lord." And with the sukara-maddava prepared by him, he served the Blessed One; and with the other food, hard and soft, he served the community of bhikkhus.

  1. Thereafter the Blessed One spoke to Cunda, saying: "Whatever, Cunda, is left over of the sukara-maddava, bury that in a pit. For I do not see in all this world, with its gods, Maras, and Brahmas, among the host of ascetics and brahmans, gods and men, anyone who could eat it and entirely digest it except the Tathagata alone."

And Cunda the metalworker answered the Blessed One saying: "So be it, O Lord."And what remained over of the sukara-maddava he buried in a pit.

  1. Then he returned to the Blessed One, respectfully greeted him, and sat down at one side. And the Blessed One instructed Cunda the metalworker in the Dhamma, and roused, edified, and gladdened him. After this he rose from his seat and departed.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 190
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavato cundassa kammāraputtassa bhattaṃ bhuttāvissa kharo ābādho uppajji, lohitapakkhandikā pabāḷhā vedanā vattanti māraṇantikā. Tā sudaṃ bhagavā sato sampajāno adhivāsesi avihaññamāno. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘āyāmānanda, yena kusinārā tenupasaṅkamissāmā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi.
Cundassa bhattaṃ bhuñjitvā, kammārassāti me sutaṃ;
Ābādhaṃ samphusī dhīro, pabāḷhaṃ māraṇantikaṃ.
Bhuttassa ca sūkaramaddavena,
Byādhippabāḷho udapādi satthuno;
Virecamāno viriccamāno (sī. syā. ka.), viriñcamāno (?) bhagavā avoca,
Gacchāmahaṃ kusināraṃ nagaranti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊吃了鐵匠之子純陀的食物後生病了,患血痢病,起激烈的、瀕臨死亡的感受,世尊正念、正知地忍受它,不被惱害。那時,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!我們去拘尸那羅。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。

 「我聽聞:吃了鍛工純陀的食物後,
 堅固者接觸了,激烈的、瀕臨死亡的病,
 因為吃了豬喜歡的菇蕈類,大師激烈的病發作。
 下痢著,世尊說:我們去拘尸那羅城。」
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 20. 世尊吃了純陀.鐵匠子的食物,得了很重的病,他排血,生起強烈的痛楚,有性命危險。世尊保持念和覺知,忍受這些痛楚而不受困擾。

世尊對阿難尊者說: “阿難,來吧,我們一起去拘尸那羅。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

  此是我所聞:
  受純陀食物,
  智者得重病,
  幾近於殞命。
  受用木耳後,
  導師重疾生;
  世尊帶病說:
  “前往拘尸城。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 20 爾時薄伽梵於服食鐵匠窮達所設齋供後,匆患嚴重性血痢,劇痛幾瀕於死。但彼攝心自持,忍受而無怨言。

於是薄伽梵語尊者阿難說:「來,阿難,我等去拘屍那羅。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。

  我聞彼服食鐵匠窮達的齋供以後,
  彼忍受幾瀕於死的劇痛。
  因進用栴檀樹耳,
  慈尊所以患此嚴重性疾病。
  薄伽梵於清瀉後說:
  「我等去拘屍那羅城。」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then for the Gracious One, after eating Cunda the Smith's food, a painful affliction arose, bloody dysentery, and strong feelings occurred, such as end in death. There the Gracious One, mindfully, with full awareness, bore (those pains) without being troubled. Then the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come, Ānanda, let us approach Kusinārā.”

“Very well, reverend Sir”, venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One.

“Having eaten Cunda the Smith's food, so I have heard,
The Firm One experienced a very strong affliction, such as ends in death.
For the Teacher, who had eaten tender pork,
A very strong sickness arose.
While (still) purging the Gracious One said:
‘I (will) go to the town of Kusinārā.’ ”[AFn130]
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 21. And soon after the Blessed One had eaten the meal provided by Cunda the metalworker, a dire sickness fell upon him, even dysentery, and he suffered sharp and deadly pains. But the Blessed One endured them mindfully, clearly comprehending and unperturbed.
  1. Then the Blessed One spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "Come, Ananda, let us go to Kusinara." And the Venerable Ananda answered: "So be it, Lord."

  2. When he had eaten Cunda's food, I heard,
    With fortitude the deadly pains he bore.
    From the sukara-maddava a sore
    And dreadful sickness came upon the Lord.
    But nature's pangs he endured. "Come, let us go
    To Kusinara," was his dauntless word.[VFn39]
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 191
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Pānīyāharaṇaṃ

  1. Atha kho bhagavā maggā okkamma yena aññataraṃ rukkhamūlaṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘iṅgha me tvaṃ, ānanda, catugguṇaṃ saṅghāṭiṃ paññapehi, kilantosmi, ānanda, nisīdissāmī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā catugguṇaṃ saṅghāṭiṃ paññapesi. Nisīdi bhagavā paññatte āsane. Nisajja kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘iṅgha me tvaṃ, ānanda, pānīyaṃ āhara, pipāsitosmi, ānanda, pivissāmī’’ti. Evaṃ vutte āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘idāni, bhante, pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni atikkantāni, taṃ cakkacchinnaṃ udakaṃ parittaṃ luḷitaṃ āvilaṃ sandati. Ayaṃ, bhante, kakudhā kakuthā (sī. pī.) nadī avidūre acchodakā sātodakā sītodakā setodakā setakā (sī.) suppatitthā ramaṇīyā. Ettha bhagavā pānīyañca pivissati, gattāni ca sītī sītaṃ (sī. pī. ka.) karissatī’’ti.

Dutiyampi kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘iṅgha me tvaṃ, ānanda, pānīyaṃ āhara, pipāsitosmi, ānanda, pivissāmī’’ti. Dutiyampi kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘idāni, bhante, pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni atikkantāni, taṃ cakkacchinnaṃ udakaṃ parittaṃ luḷitaṃ āvilaṃ sandati. Ayaṃ, bhante, kakudhā nadī avidūre acchodakā sātodakā sītodakā setodakā suppatitthā ramaṇīyā. Ettha bhagavā pānīyañca pivissati, gattāni ca sītīkarissatī’’ti.

Tatiyampi kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘iṅgha me tvaṃ, ānanda, pānīyaṃ āhara, pipāsitosmi, ānanda, pivissāmī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā pattaṃ gahetvā yena sā nadikā tenupasaṅkami. Atha kho sā nadikā cakkacchinnā parittā luḷitā āvilā sandamānā, āyasmante ānande upasaṅkamante acchā vippasannā anāvilā sandittha sandati (syā.). Atha kho āyasmato ānandassa etadahosi – ‘‘acchariyaṃ vata, bho, abbhutaṃ vata, bho, tathāgatassa mahiddhikatā mahānubhāvatā. Ayañhi sā nadikā cakkacchinnā parittā luḷitā āvilā sandamānā mayi upasaṅkamante acchā vippasannā anāvilā sandatī’’ti. Pattena pānīyaṃ ādāya yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘acchariyaṃ, bhante, abbhutaṃ, bhante, tathāgatassa mahiddhikatā mahānubhāvatā. Idāni sā bhante nadikā cakkacchinnā parittā luḷitā āvilā sandamānā mayi upasaṅkamante acchā vippasannā anāvilā sandittha. Pivatu bhagavā pānīyaṃ pivatu sugato pānīya’’nti. Atha kho bhagavā pānīyaṃ apāyi.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

取水

  1. 那時,世尊離開道路,走向某棵樹下。抵達後,召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!請你為我將大衣摺成四折,阿難!我已疲倦,我要坐下。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊後,將大衣摺成四折,世尊在舖設好的座位坐下。坐好後,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!請你為我取水來,阿難!我已渴,我要喝。」

當這麼說時,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:

「大德!現在,有五百輛之多的貨車駛過,那淺少的水被車輪切過,擾動而混濁地流動,大德!這有清澈的水、令人愉快的水、清涼的水、透明的水、美麗堤岸的、愉快的葛古踏河在不遠處,在那裡,世尊將〔可〕喝水,並作肢體的清涼。」

第二次,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!請你為我取水來,阿難!我已渴,我要喝。」

第二次,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:

「大德!現在,有五百輛之多的貨車駛過,那淺少的水被車輪切過,擾動而混濁地流動,大德!這有清澈的水、令人愉快的水、清涼的水、透明的水、美麗堤岸的、愉快的葛古踏河在不遠處,在那裡,世尊將〔可〕喝水,並作肢體的清涼。」

第三次,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!請你為我取水來,阿難!我已渴,我要喝。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊後,取鉢,接著去那條河,那時,那淺小的河被車輪切過,擾動而混濁地流動著,當尊者阿難抵達時,清澈、清淨、不混濁地流動,那時,尊者阿難這麼想:

「實在不可思議啊,先生!實在未曾有啊,先生!如來的大神通力、大威力狀態,因為這條淺小的河被車輪切過,它擾動而混濁地流動著,當我抵達時,它清澈、清淨、不混濁地流動。」

以鉢取水後,去見世尊。抵達後,對世尊這麼說:

「實在不可思議啊,大德!實在未曾有啊,大德!如來的大神通力、大威力狀態,大德!現在這條淺小的河被車輪切過,它擾動而混濁地流動著,當我抵達時,它清澈、清淨、不混濁地流動。世尊!請喝水,善逝!請喝水。」

那時,世尊喝水。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 21. 世尊離開道路走到一棵樹下,對阿難尊者說: “阿難,過來,替我把大衣摺為四疊。阿難,我很疲倦,要坐下來。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 之後把大衣摺為四疊。

  1. 世尊坐在為他預備好的座位上,然後對阿難尊者說: “阿難,過來,替我取水。阿難,我很口渴,想要喝水。”

世尊說了這番話後,阿難尊者對他說: “大德,現在有大約五百輛牛車過河,這條少水的河被車輪輾得充滿泥濘和混濁。大德,在不遠的地方就是迦俱陀河,河水清淨、清甜、清涼、清澈,有美麗的河岸,十分怡人。世尊可以去那裏喝水,也可以去浸涼肢體。”

  1. 世尊第二次對阿難尊者說: “阿難,過來,替我取水。阿難,我很口渴,想要喝水。”

阿難尊者第二次對世尊說: “大德,現在有大約五百輛牛車過河,這條少水的河被車輪輾得充滿泥濘和混濁。大德,在不遠的地方就是迦俱陀河,河水清淨、清甜、清涼、清澈,有美麗的河岸,十分怡人。世尊可以去那裏喝水,也可以去浸涼肢體。”

  1. 世尊第三次對阿難尊者說: “阿難,過來,替我取水。阿難,我很口渴,想要喝水。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 之後拿起缽去小河。當阿難尊者去到小河的時候,被車輪輾得充滿泥濘和混濁的河水變得清澈、清淨、不再混濁。

  1. 這時候,阿難尊者心想: “真稀奇!從沒有發生過!如來有大能力,大威力;當我來到時,被車輪輾得充滿泥濘和混濁的河水變得清澈、清淨、不再混濁!” 他用缽取了水,回到世尊那裏,之後對世尊說: “大德,真稀奇!大德,從沒有發生過!如來有大能力,大威力;當我去到小河的時候,被車輪輾得充滿泥濘和混濁的河水變得清澈、清淨、不再混濁!讓世尊飲水,讓善逝飲水。”

於是,世尊飲水。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 21 爾時薄伽梵離開大路而去坐於一樹下,告尊者阿難說:「阿難,你將我衣疊為四摺並敷設之。我疲乏已甚,宜稍休息。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。他遂將衣疊為四摺。

22 薄伽梵坐於敷座後語尊者阿難說:「阿難,請取水與我,我甚渴,欲飲水。」

於彼作如是語後,尊者阿難白佛言:「世尊,今有五百牛車渡河,車輪擾水,流水既淺又混濁。不遠即是卡枯塔河,其水清涼淨潔,入水甚易,令人欣悅。佛陀既可飲水,又能涼身。」

23 第二次薄伽梵語尊者阿難說:「阿難,請取水與我,我甚渴,欲飲水。」

第二次尊者阿難白佛言:「世尊,今有五百牛車渡河,車輪擾水,流水既淺又混濁。不遠即是卡枯塔河,其水清涼淨潔,入水甚易,令人欣悅,佛陀既可飲水,又能涼身。」

24 第三次薄伽梵語尊者阿難說:「阿難,請取水與我,我甚渴,欲飲水。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。彼即持缽詣該小河。爾時該小河剛被車輪擾水,流水既淺又混濁。但恰好在尊者阿難抵達時,河水立即變為澄清淨潔。

25 爾時尊者阿難自念:「誠然,如來的大威神力是奇妙不可思議。此小河剛被車輪擾水,流水既淺又混濁;當我到來時,河水立即變為澄清淨潔。」彼遂用缽取水,回到佛陀的住處,白佛言:

「世尊,如來的大威神力是奇妙不可思議。因該小河剛被車輪擾水,流水既淺又混濁;當我到達時,河水立即變為澄清淨潔。世尊,請飲水!慈尊,請飲水!」

薄伽梵遂飲水。

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[30: Bringing Drinking Water]

  1. Then the Gracious One, having gone down from the road, approached the root of a certain tree, and after approaching, he addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come now, Ānanda, prepare the outer robe folded in four for me, I am weary, Ānanda, and will sit down.”

“Very well, reverend Sir”, said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One, he prepared the outer robe folded in four, and the Gracious One sat down on the prepared seat.[AFn131] While sitting the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come now, Ānanda, bring drinking water, I am thirsty, Ānanda, and will drink.”

After that was said, venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: “Just now, reverend Sir, five hundred wagons have passed by, and the little water that flows, having been churned by the wheels, is stirred up and disturbed. The Kakutthā river is not far away, with transparent water, agreeable water, cool water, pure water, with beautiful banks, a delightful (place), there the Gracious One can drink drinking water, and can cool his limbs.”

For a second time the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come now, Ānanda, bring drinking water, I am thirsty, Ānanda, and will drink.”

For a second time venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: “Just now, reverend Sir, five hundred wagons have passed by, and the little water that flows, having been churned by the wheels, is stirred up and disturbed. The Kakutthā river is not far away, with transparent water, agreeable water, cool water, pure water, with beautiful banks, a delightful (place), there the Gracious One can drink drinking water, and can cool his limbs.”

For a third time the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come now, Ānanda, bring drinking water, I am thirsty, Ānanda, and will drink.”

“Very well, reverend Sir”, said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One, and taking the bowl, he approached the little river. Then that little river that was flowing, which had been churned by the wheels, and was stirred up and disturbed, as venerable Ānanda was approaching, flowed transparent, clear, and undisturbed.

Then it occurred to venerable Ānanda: “Surely it is wonderful, surely it is marvellous, the Realised One's great power and great majesty, in that that little river that is flowing, which has been churned by wheels, and is stirred up and disturbed, as I was approaching, flowed transparent, clear, and undisturbed.”

After taking a bowl of drinking water he approached the Gracious One, and after approaching, he said this to the Gracious One: “It is wonderful, reverend Sir, it is marvellous, reverend Sir, the Realised One's great power and great majesty, in that that little river that is flowing, which has been churned by wheels, and is stirred up and disturbed, as I was approaching, flowed transparent, clear, and undisturbed. Please drink the drinking water, Gracious One! Please drink the drinking water, Fortunate One!” Then the Gracious One drank the water.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

The Clearing of the Waters

  1. 24. Now on the way the Blessed One went aside from the highway and stopped at the foot of a tree. And he said to the Venerable Ananda: "Please fold my upper robe in four, Ananda, and lay it down. I am weary and want to rest awhile."

"So be it, Lord." And the Venerable Ananda folded the robe in four and laid it down.

  1. And the Blessed One sat down on the seat prepared for him and said to the Venerable Ananda: "Please bring me some water, Ananda. I am thirsty and want to drink."
  2. And the Venerable Ananda answered the Blessed One: "But just now, Lord, a great number of carts, five hundred carts, have passed over, and the shallow water has been cut through by the wheels, so that it flows turbid and muddy. But the Kakuttha River, Lord, is quite close by, and its waters are clear, pleasant, cool, and translucent. It is easily approachable and delightfully placed. There the Blessed One can quench his thirst and refresh his limbs."

27-29. But a second time the Blessed One made his request, and the Venerable Ananda answered him as before. And then for a third time the Blessed One said: "Please bring me some water, Ananda. I am thirsty and want to drink."

  1. Then the Venerable Ananda answered, saying: "So be it, Lord." And he took the bowl and went to the stream. And the shallow water, which had been cut through by the wheels so that it flowed turbid and muddy, became clear and settled down, pure and pleasant as the Venerable Ananda drew near.
  2. Then the Venerable Ananda thought: "Marvellous and most wonderful indeed is the power and glory of the Tathagata!"
  3. And he took up water in the bowl and carried it to the Blessed One, and said: "Marvellous and most wonderful indeed is the power and glory of the Tathagata! For this shallow water, which had been cut through by the wheels so that it flowed turbid and muddy, became clear and settled down, pure and pleasant as I drew near. Now let the Blessed One drink the water. Let the Happy One drink." And the Blessed One drank the water.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 192
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Pukkusamallaputtavatthu

  1. Tena rokho pana samayena pukkuso mallaputto āḷārassa kālāmassa sāvako kusinārāya pāvaṃ addhānamaggappaṭippanno hoti. Addasā kho pukkuso mallaputto bhagavantaṃ aññatarasmiṃ rukkhamūle nisinnaṃ. Disvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho pukkuso mallaputto bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘acchariyaṃ, bhante, abbhutaṃ, bhante, santena vata, bhante, pabbajitā vihārena viharanti. Bhūtapubbaṃ, bhante , āḷāro kālāmo addhānamaggappaṭippanno maggā okkamma avidūre aññatarasmiṃ rukkhamūle divāvihāraṃ nisīdi. Atha kho, bhante, pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni āḷāraṃ kālāmaṃ nissāya nissāya atikkamiṃsu. Atha kho, bhante, aññataro puriso tassa sakaṭasatthassa sakaṭasatassa (ka.) piṭṭhito piṭṭhito āgacchanto yena āḷāro kālāmo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āḷāraṃ kālāmaṃ etadavoca – ‘api, bhante, pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni atikkantāni addasā’ti? ‘Na kho ahaṃ, āvuso, addasa’nti. ‘Kiṃ pana, bhante, saddaṃ assosī’ti? ‘Na kho ahaṃ, āvuso, saddaṃ assosi’nti. ‘Kiṃ pana, bhante, sutto ahosī’ti? ‘Na kho ahaṃ, āvuso, sutto ahosi’nti. ‘Kiṃ pana, bhante, saññī ahosī’ti? ‘Evamāvuso’ti. ‘So tvaṃ, bhante, saññī samāno jāgaro pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni nissāya nissāya atikkantāni neva addasa, na pana saddaṃ assosi; apisu api hi (sī. syā. pī.) te, bhante, saṅghāṭi rajena okiṇṇā’ti? ‘Evamāvuso’ti. Atha kho, bhante, tassa purisassa etadahosi – ‘acchariyaṃ vata bho, abbhutaṃ vata bho, santena vata bho pabbajitā vihārena viharanti. Yatra hi nāma saññī samāno jāgaro pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni nissāya nissāya atikkantāni neva dakkhati, na pana saddaṃ sossatī’ti! Āḷāre kālāme uḷāraṃ pasādaṃ pavedetvā pakkāmī’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

末羅人之子晡古色的事

192.  當時,阿拉勒-葛拉麼的弟子,末羅人之子晡古色走在從拘尸那羅到波婆城的旅途中。末羅人之子晡古色看見世尊坐在某棵樹下,看見後,去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,末羅人之子晡古色對世尊這麼說:

「實在不可思議啊,大德!實在未曾有啊,大德!大德!出家者們確實以寂靜的住處而住。從前,阿拉勒-葛拉麼走在旅途中,他離開道路,坐在不遠處的某棵樹下作中午的休息。大德!那時,有五百輛之多的貨車一一靠近駛過,大德!那時,走在那些貨車後面的某位男子去見阿拉勒-葛拉麼,抵達後,對阿拉勒-葛拉麼這麼說:『大德!是否看見五百輛之多的貨車駛過?』『不,朋友!我沒看見。』『大德!但,你聽見了什麼聲音嗎?』『不,朋友!我沒聽見聲音。』『大德!但,你在睡覺嗎?』『不,朋友!我沒睡覺。』『大德!但,你有意識嗎?』『是的,朋友!』『大德!你有意識;正醒著,有五百輛之多的貨車一一靠近駛過而既沒看見,也沒聽到聲音,大德!你的大衣是否被灰塵散布呢?』『是的,朋友!』大德!那時,那位男子這麼想:『實在不可思議啊,先生!實在未曾有啊,先生!出家者們確實以寂靜的住處而住,確實因為他有意識;正醒著,有五百輛之多的貨車一一靠近駛過而既沒看見,也沒聽到聲音。』他告知對阿拉勒-葛拉麼偉大的淨信後離開。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 26. 這時候,阿羅邏.迦藍[SFn19] 的弟子畢俱沙.武士子從拘尸那羅前往波婆,他在道路上行走。

畢俱沙.武士子看見世尊坐在樹下,便去到世尊那裏,對世尊作禮,坐在一邊,然後對世尊說: “大德,真稀奇!大德,從沒有發生過!大德,遊方者能夠這樣寂靜地安住下來!

  1. “大德,在以前,阿羅邏.迦藍離開道路走到一棵樹下午休,有大約五百輛牛車接近他身邊經過。那時候,有一個人在那些牛車後面走路,他去到阿羅邏.迦藍那裏,對他說: ‘大德,你看見五百輛牛車經過嗎?’

“ ‘賢友,我沒有看見。’

“ ‘大德,你聽見牛車經過的聲音嗎?’

“ ‘賢友,我沒有聽見那些聲音。’

“ ‘大德,你睡著覺嗎?’

“ ‘賢友,我不是睡著覺。’

“ ‘大德,你有知覺嗎?’

“ ‘賢友,是的。’

“ ‘大德,你有知覺,不是睡著覺,但五百輛牛車接近身邊經過也看不見、聽不見。大德,你的大衣不是染滿了塵土嗎?’

“ ‘賢友,是的。’

“大德,於是這個人心想: ‘真稀奇!從沒有發生過!遊方者能夠這樣寂靜地安住下來;他有知覺,不是睡著覺,五百輛牛車接近身邊經過也看不見、聽不見!’ 他對阿羅邏.迦藍表達深信,然後離去。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 26 爾時有一馬拉少年係阿拉羅﹒卡拉馬的弟子名蒲枯沙者,旅行於從拘屍那羅赴波婆的道上。

馬拉少年蒲枯沙見佛陀坐於樹下,即走到佛前向佛作禮,就座其側以後,白佛言:「世尊,彼諸出家者度時於如是和平心境,此事實為不可思議!」

27 「世尊,往昔阿拉羅﹒卡拉馬是沿路步行,後來在熱氣正盛之際,他坐於路側樹下休息。世尊,爾時有五百牛車逼近阿拉羅﹒卡拉馬絡繹駛過。時有一人尾隨諸車輛之後,走向阿拉羅﹒卡拉馬住處。到已,他向阿拉羅﹒卡拉馬說:

『師尊,你曾見五百牛車駛過?』

『不,我不曾看見。』

『師尊,你曾聞其聲音?』

『不,我不曾聞其聲音。』

『師尊,你是否入睡?』

『不,我不曾入睡。』

『師尊,你是否有知覺?』

『是,我有知覺。』

『師尊,你是清醒而有知覺,對那逼近你絡繹駛過的五百牛車,既不見,又不曾聞其聲音,甚至灰塵飄墜在你的衣服上?』

『正是如此。』

「爾時其人如是思維:『彼諸出家者度時於如是和平心境,此事實為奇妙不可思議。雖然說他是清醒而有知覺,但對那逼近他絡繹駛過的五百牛車,既不見,又不曾聞其聲音,甚至灰塵飄墜在他的衣服上。』於其表示對阿拉羅﹒卡拉馬有甚深信仰以後,即告辭而去。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[31: The Story concerning Pukkusa Mallaputta]

  1. Now at that time Pukkasa Mallaputta, a disciple of Āḷāra Kālāma, was travelling along the highway from Pāvā to Kusinārā. Pukkasa Mallaputta saw the Gracious One sitting at the root of a certain tree. And having seen (him) he approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side. While sitting on one side Pukkasa Mallaputta said this to the Gracious One: “It is wonderful, reverend Sir, it is marvellous, reverend Sir, that those who have gone forth, reverend Sir, live such a peaceful living.

Formerly, reverend Sir, Āḷāra Kālāma[AFn132] descended from the highway he was travelling along, and was dwelling for the day sat not far away at the root of a certain tree. Then, reverend Sir, about five hundred waggons passed by very close to Āḷāra Kālāma. Then, reverend Sir, a certain man who was traveling along behind those waggons approached Āḷāra Kālāma, and after approaching he said this to Āḷāra Kālāma:

‘Did you not see, reverend Sir, about five hundred waggons pass by?’

‘I did not see, friend.’

‘But, reverend Sir, did you not hear the sound?’

‘I did not hear the sound, friend.’

‘But, reverend Sir, were you sleeping?’

‘I was not sleeping, friend.’

‘But, reverend Sir, were you conscious?’

‘Yes, friend.’

‘So you, reverend Sir, though conscious and awake, when about five hundred waggons passed by very close neither saw (them) nor heard a sound! Why, reverend Sir, even your double-robe is covered with dust!’

‘Yes, friend.’

Then this occurred to that man: ‘It is wonderful, it is marvellous, that those who have indeed gone forth live such a peaceful living. Because though conscious and awake, when about five hundred waggons passed by very close he did not see (them) or hear a sound!’[AFn133] And having gained great confidence in Āḷāra Kālāma, he left.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Pukkusa the Malla

  1. 33. Now it so happened that one Pukkusa of the Malla clan, who was a disciple of Alara Kalama, was passing by on his way from Kusinara to Pava.[VFn40]
  1. And when he saw the Blessed One seated at the foot of a tree, he approached him, respectfully greeted him, and sat down at one side. And he spoke to the Blessed One, saying: "Marvellous it is, Lord, most wonderful it is, O Lord, the state of calmness wherein abide those who have gone forth from the world.
  2. "For at one time, Lord, Alara Kalama was on a journey, and he went aside from the highway and sat down by the wayside at the foot of a tree to pass the heat of the day. And it came about, Lord, that a great number of carts, even five hundred carts, passed by him, one by one. And then, Lord, a certain man who was following behind that train of carts, approached and spoke to him, saying: 'Did you, sir, see a great number of carts that passed you by?' And Alara Kalama answered him: 'I did not see them, brother.' 'But the noise, sir, surely you heard?' 'I did not hear it, brother.' Then that man asked him: 'Then, sir, perhaps you slept?' 'No, brother, I was not sleeping.' 'Then, sir, were you conscious?' 'I was, brother.' Then that man said: 'Then, sir, while conscious and awake you still did not see the great number of carts, even five hundred carts, that passed you by one after another, nor heard the noise? Why, sir, your very robe is covered with their dust!' And Alara Kalama replied, saying: 'So it is, brother.'
  3. "And to that man, O Lord, came the thought: 'Marvellous it is, most wonderful indeed it is, the state of calmness wherein abide those who have gone forth from the world!' And there arose in him great faith in Alara Kalama, and he went his way."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 193
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, pukkusa, katamaṃ nu kho dukkarataraṃ vā durabhisambhavataraṃ vā – yo vā saññī samāno jāgaro pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni nissāya nissāya atikkantāni neva passeyya, na pana saddaṃ suṇeyya; yo vā saññī samāno jāgaro deve vassante deve gaḷagaḷāyante vijjullatāsu vijjutāsu (sī. syā. pī.) niccharantīsu asaniyā phalantiyā neva passeyya, na pana saddaṃ suṇeyyā’’ti? ‘‘Kiñhi, bhante, karissanti pañca vā sakaṭasatāni cha vā sakaṭasatāni satta vā sakaṭasatāni aṭṭha vā sakaṭasatāni nava vā sakaṭasatāni nava vā sakaṭasatāni dasa vā sakaṭasatāni (sī.), sakaṭasahassaṃ vā sakaṭasatasahassaṃ vā. Atha kho etadeva dukkarataraṃ ceva durabhisambhavatarañca yo saññī samāno jāgaro deve vassante deve gaḷagaḷāyante vijjullatāsu niccharantīsu asaniyā phalantiyā neva passeyya, na pana saddaṃ suṇeyyā’’ti.

‘‘Ekamidāhaṃ, pukkusa, samayaṃ ātumāyaṃ viharāmi bhusāgāre. Tena kho pana samayena deve vassante deve gaḷagaḷāyante vijjullatāsu niccharantīsu asaniyā phalantiyā avidūre bhusāgārassa dve kassakā bhātaro hatā cattāro ca balibaddā balibaddā (sī. pī.). Atha kho, pukkusa, ātumāya mahājanakāyo nikkhamitvā yena te dve kassakā bhātaro hatā cattāro ca balibaddā tenupasaṅkami. Tena kho panāhaṃ, pukkusa, samayena bhusāgārā nikkhamitvā bhusāgāradvāre abbhokāse caṅkamāmi. Atha kho, pukkusa, aññataro puriso tamhā mahājanakāyā yenāhaṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā maṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṃ ṭhitaṃ kho ahaṃ, pukkusa, taṃ purisaṃ etadavocaṃ – ‘kiṃ nu kho eso, āvuso, mahājanakāyo sannipatito’ti? ‘Idāni , bhante, deve vassante deve gaḷagaḷāyante vijjullatāsu niccharantīsu asaniyā phalantiyā dve kassakā bhātaro hatā cattāro ca balibaddā. Ettheso mahājanakāyo sannipatito. Tvaṃ pana, bhante, kva ahosī’ti? ‘Idheva kho ahaṃ, āvuso, ahosi’nti. ‘Kiṃ pana, bhante, addasā’ti? ‘Na kho ahaṃ, āvuso, addasa’nti. ‘Kiṃ pana, bhante, saddaṃ assosī’ti? ‘Na kho ahaṃ, āvuso, saddaṃ assosi’nti. ‘Kiṃ pana, bhante, sutto ahosī’ti? ‘Na kho ahaṃ, āvuso, sutto ahosi’nti. ‘Kiṃ pana, bhante, saññī ahosī’ti? ‘Evamāvuso’ti. ‘So tvaṃ, bhante, saññī samāno jāgaro deve vassante deve gaḷagaḷāyante vijjullatāsu niccharantīsu asaniyā phalantiyā neva addasa, na pana saddaṃ assosī’ti? ‘‘Evamāvuso’’ti?

‘‘Atha kho, pukkusa, purisassa etadahosi – ‘acchariyaṃ vata bho, abbhutaṃ vata bho, santena vata bho pabbajitā vihārena viharanti. Yatra hi nāma saññī samāno jāgaro deve vassante deve gaḷagaḷāyante vijjullatāsu niccharantīsu asaniyā phalantiyā neva dakkhati, na pana saddaṃ sossatī’ti suṇissati (syā.). Mayi uḷāraṃ pasādaṃ pavedetvā maṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā pakkāmī’’ti.

Evaṃ vutte pukkuso mallaputto bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘esāhaṃ, bhante, yo me āḷāre kālāme pasādo taṃ mahāvāte vā ophuṇāmi sīghasotāya siṅghasotāya (ka.) vā nadiyā pavāhemi. Abhikkantaṃ, bhante, abhikkantaṃ, bhante! Seyyathāpi, bhante, nikkujjitaṃ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṃ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṃ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṃ dhāreyya ‘cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī’ti; evamevaṃ bhagavatā anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṃ, bhante, bhagavantaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Upāsakaṃ maṃ bhagavā dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṃ saraṇaṃ gata’’nti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 「晡古色!你怎麼想:有意識;正醒著,有五百輛之多的貨車一一靠近駛過而既沒看見,也沒聽到聲音,與有意識;正醒著,在天空下著雨、天空打雷並出現閃電、雷電爆裂時,既沒看見,也沒聽到聲音,哪個比較難做到?比較難克服?」

「大德!五百輛貨車或六百輛貨車或七百輛貨車或八百輛貨車或九百輛貨車或一萬輛貨車將如何能比呢?有意識;正醒著,在天空下著雨、天空打雷並出現閃電、雷電爆裂時既沒看見,也沒聽到聲音,這比較難做到,比較難克服。」

「晡古色!有一次,我住在阿都瑪的糠屋中,當時,天空下著雨、天空打雷並出現閃電、雷電爆裂,在糠屋不遠處有二個農夫兄弟與四頭牛被殺害,晡古色!那時,在阿都瑪的大群眾出來,去看被殺害的二個農夫兄弟與四頭牛,晡古色!當時,我從糠屋出來,在糠屋不遠處的屋外經行[CFn164] ,晡古色!某位男子從那個大群眾中來見我。抵達後,向我問訊,接著在一旁站立。在一旁站好後,晡古色!我對那位男子這麼說:『朋友!現在,為何有這大群眾的集合呢?』『大德!現在,在天空下著雨、天空打雷並出現閃電、雷電爆裂時,有二個農夫兄弟與四頭牛被殺害,在這裡,有那大群眾的集合,大德!但,你〔當時〕在哪裡呢?』『朋友!我就在這裡。』『大德!但,你看見什麼嗎?』『不,朋友!我沒看見。』『大德!但,你聽見了什麼聲音嗎?』『不,朋友!我沒聽見聲音。』『大德!但,你在睡覺嗎?』『不,朋友!我沒睡覺。』『大德!但,你有意識嗎?』『是的,朋友!』『大德!你有意識;正醒著,在天空下著雨、天空打雷並出現閃電、雷電爆裂時,既沒看見,也沒聽到聲音嗎?』『是的,朋友!』晡古色!那時,那位男子這麼想:『實在不可思議啊,先生!實在未曾有啊,先生!出家者們確實以寂靜的住處而住,確實因為他有意識;正醒著,在天空下著雨、天空打雷並出現閃電、雷電爆裂時,既沒看見,也沒聽到聲音。』他告知對我偉大的淨信後,對我問訊,然後作右繞,接著離開。」

當這麼說時,末羅人之子晡古色對世尊這麼說:

「大德!凡我對阿拉勒-葛拉麼的淨信,我讓它在大風中吹走,或在湍急的水流中沖走。大德!太偉大了,大德!太偉大了,大德!猶如能扶正顛倒的,能顯現被隱藏的,能告知迷途者的路,能在黑暗中持燈火:『有眼者看得見諸色』。同樣的,法被世尊以種種法門說明。大德!我歸依[CFn122] 世尊、法、比丘僧團[CFn023] ,請世尊記得我為優婆塞,從今天起終生歸依[CFn165] 。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 28. “畢俱沙,你認為哪樣比較難做到呢?一個人有知覺,不是睡著覺,五百輛牛車接近身邊經過也看不見、聽不見;還是一個人有知覺,不是睡著覺,雨下得嘩啦嘩啦作響,閃電和打雷也看不見、聽不見?”
  1. “大德,不要說五百輛牛車看不見、聽不見,即使六百、七百以至十萬輛牛車看不見、聽不見也難不過一個人有知覺,不是睡著覺,雨下得嘩啦嘩啦作響,閃電和打雷也看不見、聽不見。”
  2. “畢俱沙,有一次我住在阿偷摩的打穀場。那時候雨下得嘩啦嘩啦作響,閃電和打雷,雷電劈死了打穀場的農夫兩兄弟和四頭牛。畢俱沙,當時很多人從阿偷摩去到農夫兩兄弟和四頭牛被劈死那裏。
  3. “畢俱沙,那時候我從打穀場出來,在閘口空曠的地方行禪。有一個人從眾人之中走來我那裏,對我作禮,站在一邊,之後我問這個人:
  4. “ ‘賢友,為什麼眾人聚集在一起呢?’

“ ‘大德,之前雨下得嘩啦嘩啦作響,閃電和打雷,雷電劈死了農夫兩兄弟和四頭牛,所以現在眾人在這裏聚集一起。大德,當時你在哪裏呢?’

“ ‘賢友,我就在這裏。’

“ ‘大德,你看見當時的情形嗎?’

“ ‘賢友,我沒有看見。’

“ ‘大德,你聽見那些聲音嗎?’

“ ‘賢友,我沒有聽見那些聲音。’

“ ‘大德,你睡著覺嗎?’

“ ‘賢友,我不是睡著覺。’

“ ‘大德,你有知覺嗎?’

“ ‘賢友,是的。’

“ ‘大德,你有知覺,不是睡著覺,但雨下得嘩啦嘩啦作響,閃電和打雷,雷電劈死了農夫兩兄弟和四頭牛也看不見、聽不見?’

“ ‘賢友,是的。’

  1. “畢俱沙,於是這個人心想: ‘真稀奇!從沒有發生過!遊方者能夠這樣寂靜地安住下來;他有知覺,不是睡著覺,雨下得嘩啦嘩啦作響,閃電和打雷,雷電劈死了農夫兩兄弟和四頭牛也看不見、聽不見!’ 他對我表達深信,向我作禮,對我右繞,然後離去。”
  2. 世尊說了這番話後,畢俱沙.武士子對他說: “大德,所有我對阿羅邏.迦藍的淨信都讓它被大風吹散,都讓它被河水的急流沖走。大德,妙極了!大德,妙極了!世尊能以各種不同的方式來演說法義,就像把倒轉了的東西反正過來;像為受覆蓋的東西揭開遮掩;像為迷路者指示正道;像在黑暗中拿著油燈的人,使其他有眼睛的人可以看見東西。大德,我皈依世尊、皈依法、皈依比丘僧。願世尊接受我為優婆塞,從現在起,直至命終,終生皈依!”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 28 「蒲枯沙,汝意云何?此兩事中誰為較難舉行與應付?是那清醒而有知覺,對那逼近他絡繹駛過的五百牛車,既不見,也不聞其聲音的人,抑是那清醒而有知覺,既不聞驟雨的飄灑,雷霆的震吼,也不見電光的閃灼的人?」

29  「若作一比較,此五百牛車,或六百、七百、八百、九百、一千,甚至百千萬牛車能算什麼!當一人既清醒而有知覺,既不聞驟雨的飄灑,雷霆的震吼,也不見電光的閃灼,實是較困難而不易舉行與應付。」

30 「蒲枯沙,往昔我住於阿吐馬打穀場。當時驟雨的飄灑,雷霆的震吼,和電光的閃灼,打穀場有農夫兄弟二人和四頭牛被擊斃。蒲枯沙,爾時有一人群從阿吐馬赴該農夫兄弟和四頭牛被擊斃之處。」

31 「蒲枯沙,爾時我離開打穀場,只在打穀場門首空地上往來經行及思維。時有一人從該人群中向我走來並行禮。他侍立一面後,我告其人說:『朋友,為何群眾集會?』

32 『世尊,適才有驟雨的飄灑、雷霆的震吼,和電光的閃灼,有農夫兄弟二人和四頭牛被擊斃。因此,群眾聚集。但世尊,您是在何處?』

『我一向在此。』

『世尊,您曾見此事?』

『我不曾看見。』

『世尊,您曾聞其聲音?』

『我不曾聞其聲音。』

『世尊,您是否入睡?』

『我不曾入睡。』

『世尊,您是否有知覺?』

『是,我有知覺。』

『世尊,您是清醒而有知覺,對驟雨的飄灑、雷霆的震吼,和電光的閃灼,是既不見,又不聞其聲音?』

『正是如此』

33 「蒲枯沙,爾時其人如是思維:『彼諸出家者度時於如是和平心境,此事實為奇妙不可思議。雖然說他是清醒而有知覺,但對那驟雨的飄灑、雷霆的震吼,和電光的閃灼,他是既不見,又不曾聞其聲音。於其表示對我有甚深信仰以後,他即向我頂禮,告辭而去。」

34  於彼作如是語後,馬拉少年蒲枯沙白佛言:「世尊,現今我對阿拉羅﹒卡拉馬的信仰如迅風揚塵,如河中急湍的沖洗。世尊之言最為佳善!此正如傾者扶之,晦者顯之。迷途者示以道路,住黑暗者示以明燈,因而有眼者能視外物。佛陀用種種方便對我宣說真理亦復如是。世尊,我今以佛法僧為依歸,請薄伽梵接受我為優婆塞,從今日起至於命終。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. “Now what do you think, Pukkusa, which is the more difficult to do or the more difficult to come by: that someone though conscious and awake, when about five hundred waggons passed by very close should neither see (them) nor hear a sound, or that someone, though conscious and awake, when the Divinities rain down, when the Divinities throw it down, and the lightning flashes, and the thunder crashes forth, should neither see (it) nor hear a sound?”

“Why, reverend Sir, what to make of five-hundred waggons, six-hundred waggons, seven-hundred waggons, eight-hundred waggons, nine-hundred waggons, one thousand waggons, or one-hundred thousand waggons? This is the more difficult to do or the more difficult to come by: that someone, though conscious and awake, when the Divinities rain down, when the Divinities throw it down, and the lightning flashes, and the thunder crashes forth, should neither see (it) nor hear a sound.”

“One day, Pukkusa, I was living near Ātumā at the Decorated House. Now at that time the Divinities rained down, the Divinities threw it down, and the lightning flashed, and the thunder crashed forth, and not far away from the Decorated House two brothers who were farmers died, along with four oxen. Then, Pukkusa, a great crowd of people having departed from Ātumā, went to the place where the brothers who were farmers and the four oxen had died.

Then, Pukkusa, at that time, after leaving the Decorated House, I was walking in the open air near the gate to the Decorated House. Then, Pukkusa, a certain man from that crowd approached me, and after approaching and worshipping me, he stood on one side. While standing there, Pukkusa, I said to that man: ‘Why, friend, has that great crowd of people assembled?’

‘Just now, reverend Sir, the Divinities rained down, the Divinities threw it down, and the lightning flashed, and the thunder crashed forth, and two brothers who were farmers died, along with four oxen, and that great crowd of people assembled here. But where were you, reverend Sir?’

‘I was right here, friend.’

‘But, reverend Sir, did you see (it)?’

‘I did not see, friend.’

‘But, reverend Sir, did you hear the sound?’

‘I did not hear the sound, friend.’

‘But, reverend Sir, were you sleeping?’

‘I was not sleeping, friend.’

‘But, reverend Sir, were you conscious?’

‘Yes, friend.’

‘So, reverend Sir, though conscious and awake when the Divinities rained down, when the Divinities threw it down, and the lightning flashed, and the thunder crashed forth, you neither saw (it), nor heard a sound!’

‘Yes, friend.’

Then, Pukkusa, this occurred to that man: ‘It is wonderful, it is marvellous, that those who have indeed gone forth live such a peaceful living. Because though conscious and awake when the Divinities rained down, when the Divinities threw it down, and the lightning flashed, and the thunder crashed forth, he did not see (it) or hear a sound!’ And after gaining great confidence in me, worshipping and circumamblating me, he left.”

After this was said, Pukkusa Mallaputta said this to the Gracious One: “That faith, reverend Sir, I have in Āḷāra Kālāma, I clear away as with a great wind, I wash (it) away as with a fast-flowing river:

Excellent, reverend Sir! Excellent, reverend Sir! Just as, reverend Sir, one might set upright what has been overturned, or open up what has been closed, or show a path to one who is lost, or bear an oil lamp in the darkness so that one who has eyes can see forms, just so has the Teaching been made clear by the Gracious One in more than one way. I go to the Gracious One, reverend Sir, for refuge, and to the Teaching, and to the Community of monks. Please bear it in mind, Gracious One, that I am a lay disciple who has gone for refuge from today forward for as long as I am furnished with life.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 37. "Now what do you think, Pukkusa? What is more difficult to do, more difficult to meet with — that a man, while conscious and awake, should not see a great number of carts, even five hundred carts, that passed him by one after another, nor hear the noise, or that one conscious and awake, in the midst of a heavy rain, with thunder rolling, lightning flashing, and thunderbolts crashing, should neither see it nor hear the noise?"
  1. "What, O Lord, are five hundred carts — nay, six, seven, eight, nine hundred, or a thousand or even hundreds of thousands of carts — compared with this?"
  2. "Now one time, Pukkusa, I was staying at Atuma, and had my abode in a barn there. And at that time there was a heavy rain, with thunder rolling, lightning flashing, and thunderbolts crashing. And two farmers who were brothers were killed close to the barn, together with four oxen, and a great crowd came forth from Atuma to the spot where they were killed.
  3. "Now at that time, Pukkusa, I had come out of the barn and was walking up and down in thought before the door. And a certain man from the great crowd approached me, respectfully greeted me, and stood at one side.
  4. "And I asked him: 'Why, brother, has this great crowd gathered together?' And he answered me: 'Just now, Lord, there was a heavy rain, with thunder rolling, lightning flashing, and thunderbolts crashing. And two farmers who were brothers were killed close by, together with four oxen. It is because of this that the great crowd has gathered. But where, Lord, were you?'

"'I was here, brother.' 'Yet, Lord, did you not see it?' 'I did not see it, brother.' 'But the noise, Lord, you surely heard?' 'I did not hear it, brother.' Then that man asked me: 'Then, Lord, perhaps you slept?' 'No, brother, I was not sleeping.' 'Then, Lord, you were conscious?' 'I was, brother.' Then that man said: 'Then, Lord, while conscious and awake, in the midst of a heavy rain, with thunder rolling, lightning flashing, and thunderbolts crashing, you neither saw it nor heard the noise?' And I answered him, saying: 'I did not, brother.'

  1. "And to that man, Pukkusa, came the thought: 'Marvellous it is, most wonderful indeed it is, the state of calmness wherein abide those who have gone forth from the world!' And there arose in him great faith in me, and he respectfully saluted me, and keeping his right side towards me, he went his way."
  2. When this had been said, Pukkusa of the Malla clan said to the Blessed One: "The faith, Lord, that I had in Alara Kalama I now scatter to the mighty wind, I let it be carried away as by a flowing stream! Excellent, O Lord, most excellent, O Lord! It is as if, Lord, one were to set upright what had been overthrown, or to reveal what had been hidden, or to show the path to one who had gone astray, or to light a lamp in the darkness so that those having eyes might see — even so has the Blessed One set forth the Dhamma in many ways. And so, O Lord, I take my refuge in the Blessed One, the Dhamma, and the Community of Bhikkhus. May the Blessed One accept me as his disciple, one who has taken refuge until the end of life."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 194
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho pukkuso mallaputto aññataraṃ purisaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘iṅgha me tvaṃ, bhaṇe, siṅgīvaṇṇaṃ yugamaṭṭhaṃ dhāraṇīyaṃ āharā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho so puriso pukkusassa mallaputtassa paṭissutvā taṃ siṅgīvaṇṇaṃ yugamaṭṭhaṃ dhāraṇīyaṃ āhari āharasi (ka.). Atha kho pukkuso mallaputto taṃ siṅgīvaṇṇaṃ yugamaṭṭhaṃ dhāraṇīyaṃ bhagavato upanāmesi – ‘‘idaṃ, bhante, siṅgīvaṇṇaṃ yugamaṭṭhaṃ dhāraṇīyaṃ, taṃ me bhagavā paṭiggaṇhātu anukampaṃ upādāyā’’ti. ‘‘Tena hi, pukkusa, ekena maṃ acchādehi, ekena ānanda’’nti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho pukkuso mallaputto bhagavato paṭissutvā ekena bhagavantaṃ acchādeti, ekena āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ. Atha kho bhagavā pukkusaṃ mallaputtaṃ dhammiyā kathāya sandassesi samādapesi samuttejesi sampahaṃsesi. Atha kho pukkuso mallaputto bhagavatā dhammiyā kathāya sandassito samādapito samuttejito sampahaṃsito uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṃ katvā pakkāmi.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,末羅人之子晡古色召喚某位男子:

「來!某人!你為我取一對光亮的金色衣服來。」

「是的,大德!」那位男子回答末羅人之子晡古色後,取了一對光亮的金色衣服來。那時,末羅人之子晡古色將那一對光亮的金色衣服親手交給世尊:

「大德!這是一對光亮的金色衣服,請世尊出自憐愍[CFn166] 我而接受它。」

「這樣的話,晡古色!一件讓我穿,一件阿難。」

「是的,大德!」末羅人之子晡古色回答世尊後,一件使世尊穿上,一件阿難。

那時,世尊以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵末羅人之子晡古色,使之歡喜。那時,末羅人之子晡古色被世尊以法說開示、勸導、鼓勵,使之歡喜後,起座向世尊問訊,然後作右繞,接著離開。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 35. 畢俱沙.武士子對下人說: “過來,你拿一雙金色的細滑披肩給我。”

下人回答畢俱沙.武士子: “主人,是的。” 之後拿來一雙金色的細滑披肩。

於是畢俱沙.武士子把一雙披肩供養世尊,並說: “大德,世尊悲憫,願大德接受我這雙金色的細滑披肩。”

“畢俱沙,既然這樣,你給我披上一件,給阿難披上一件吧。”

畢俱沙.武士子回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 之後給世尊披上一件,給阿難披上一件。

  1. 世尊為畢俱沙.武士子說法,對他開示,對他教導,使他景仰,使他歡喜。畢俱沙.武士子因世尊的說法而得到開示,得到教導,感到景仰,感到歡喜。他起座,向世尊作禮,右繞世尊,然後離去。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 35 於是蒲枯沙語其從人說:「朋友,請攜取兩件製就的金縷衣來。」

「是,先生。」其人回答說。彼即攜來兩件製就的金縷衣。

蒲枯沙將該兩件金縷衣奉獻與佛說:「世尊,伏維垂愍,請接受此兩件製就的金縷衣!」

「既如此,你給我穿上一件,另一件則給阿難穿上。」

「是,世尊。」蒲枯沙回答說。他即給佛陀披上一件,另一件則給阿難披上。

36 薄伽梵遂向馬拉少年蒲枯沙宣示法要,使之發心喜悅。當其對佛陀所示法要表示發心喜悅後即從座起,向佛作禮,右遶而去。

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then Pukkusa Mallaputta addressed a certain man, (saying): “Come, my man, bring me a pair of polished gold-coloured (robes), ready to wear.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” said that man, and after replying to Pukkusa Mallaputta, he brought a pair of polished gold-coloured (robes), ready to wear. Then Pukkusa Mallaputta offered that pair of polished gold-coloured (robes), ready to wear, to the Gracious One, (saying): “Please accept, reverend Sir, this pair of polished gold-coloured (robes), ready to wear out of compassion for me, Gracious One.”

“Then, Pukkusa, clothe me with one, and Ānanda with the other.”[AFn134]

“Very well, reverend Sir,” said Pukkusa Mallaputta, and after replying to the Gracious One clothed the Gracious One with one, and Ānanda with the other. Then the Gracious One instructed Pukkusa Mallaputta roused, enthused, and cheered (him) with a talk about the Teaching. Then Pukkusa Mallaputta, having been instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered by the Gracious One with a talk about the Teaching, after rising from his seat, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, departed.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 44. Then Pukkusa of the Malla clan spoke to a certain man, saying: "Bring me at once, friend, two sets of golden-hued robes, burnished and ready for wear." And the man answered him: "So be it, sir."
  1. And when the robes were brought, Pukkusa of the Malla clan offered them to the Blessed One, saying: "May the Blessed One, O Lord, out of compassion, accept this from me." And the Blessed One said: "Robe me, then in one, Pukkusa, and in the other robe Ananda."

"So be it, Lord." And he thereupon robed the Blessed One in one, and in the other he robed the Venerable Ananda.

  1. And then the Blessed One instructed Pukkusa of the Malla clan in the Dhamma, and roused, edified, and gladdened him. And after that, Pukkusa rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and keeping his right side towards him, went his way.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 195
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho āyasmā ānando acirapakkante pukkuse mallaputte taṃ siṅgīvaṇṇaṃ yugamaṭṭhaṃ dhāraṇīyaṃ bhagavato kāyaṃ upanāmesi. Taṃ bhagavato kāyaṃ upanāmitaṃ hataccikaṃ viya vītaccikaṃviya (sī. pī.) khāyati. Atha kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘acchariyaṃ, bhante, abbhutaṃ, bhante, yāva parisuddho, bhante, tathāgatassa chavivaṇṇo pariyodāto. Idaṃ, bhante, siṅgīvaṇṇaṃ yugamaṭṭhaṃ dhāraṇīyaṃ bhagavato kāyaṃ upanāmitaṃ hataccikaṃ viya khāyatī’’ti. ‘‘Evametaṃ, ānanda, evametaṃ, ānanda dvīsu kālesu ativiya tathāgatassa kāyo parisuddho hoti chavivaṇṇo pariyodāto. Katamesu dvīsu? Yañca, ānanda, rattiṃ tathāgato anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambujjhati, yañca rattiṃ anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbāyati. Imesu kho, ānanda, dvīsu kālesu ativiya tathāgatassa kāyo parisuddho hoti chavivaṇṇo pariyodāto. ‘‘Ajja kho, panānanda, rattiyā pacchime yāme kusinārāyaṃ upavattane mallānaṃ sālavane antarena antare (syā.) yamakasālānaṃ tathāgatassa parinibbānaṃ bhavissati bhavissatīti (ka.). Āyāmānanda, yena kakudhā nadī tenupasaṅkamissāmā’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi.
Siṅgīvaṇṇaṃ yugamaṭṭhaṃ, pukkuso abhihārayi;
Tena acchādito satthā, hemavaṇṇo asobhathāti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,在末羅人之子晡古色離開不久,尊者阿難將那一對光亮的金色衣服親手交給(穿到)世尊的身體。當世尊的身體被它穿上時,它看起來顯得失色。那時,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:

「實在不可思議啊,大德!實在未曾有啊,大德!大德!所有如來的膚色都是清淨的、皎潔的,大德!當世尊的身體被這一對光亮的金色衣服穿上時,它看起來顯得失色。」

「正是這樣,阿難!正是這樣,阿難!在二種時候如來身體的膚色成為極度清淨的、皎潔的,哪二種呢?如來現正覺無上遍正覺[CFn167] 之夜與如來般涅槃於無餘涅槃界之夜,阿難!這是二種時候如來身體的膚色成為極度清淨的、皎潔的。阿難!今日,在後夜,在末羅拘尸那羅附近的沙羅樹林中的雙沙羅樹中間,將有如來的般涅槃。來!阿難!我們去葛古踏河。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。

 「一對金色的衣服,晡古色令人帶來,
 被大師穿上,它失去輝耀。」
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 37.37. 畢俱沙.武士子離去不久,阿難尊者把自己的披肩披在世尊身上。這時候,在世尊身上一雙金色的細滑披肩似乎變得失去光澤。

於是阿難尊者對世尊說: “大德,真稀奇!大德,從沒有發生過!大德,如來的膚色這麼清淨、這麼明晰,在世尊身上一雙金色的細滑披肩似乎變得失去光澤!”

“阿難,正是這樣。阿難,有兩次如來的膚色是特別清淨、特別明晰的。哪兩次呢?阿難,一次是如來覺悟無上正等正覺的時候,一次是如來進入無餘湼槃界的時候。阿難,這兩次如來的膚色是特別清淨、特別明晰的。

  1. “阿難,今天後夜時分,如來將會在拘尸那羅武士子的優波跋多那娑羅林雙樹中間入滅。阿難,來吧,我們一起去迦俱陀河。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

披上金披肩,
畢俱沙所供;

導師金色身,
散發明亮光。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 37 爾時尊者阿難於馬拉少年蒲枯沙去後不久,即將該兩件製就的金縷衣披上佛身。當佛披上後該衣即失去光彩。

爾時尊者阿難白佛言:「世尊,如來的膚色是如此明皙!此誠奇妙不可思議!當兩件製就的金縷衣披上佛身後,該衣即失去光彩。」

「阿難,誠然,如來的膚色有兩次是異常明皙。何為兩次?一次為如來證無上正等覺之夜,另一次則為如來證無餘涅槃界之夜。阿難,此兩次如來的膚色是異常明皙。」

38 「阿難,今夜三更時分,在拘屍那羅之鳥帕瓦塔那,馬拉之娑羅樹林,娑羅雙樹間,如來將取涅槃。來,阿難,我等去卡古塔河。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。

  兩件製就之金縷衣,
  為蒲枯沙所攜來;
  慈尊披上後,
  放光如金色。

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then, venerable Ānanda, not long after Pukkusa Mallaputta had departed, offered that pair of polished gold-coloured (robes), ready to wear, to the Gracious One, and when placed on the Gracious One's body they appeared to have lost their gleam.

Then venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: “It is wonderful, reverend Sir, it is marvellous, reverend Sir, how pure and clean is the Realised One's skin-colour, reverend Sir! This pair of polished gold-coloured (robes), ready to wear, reverend Sir, when placed on the Gracious One's body have lost their gleam!”

“Just so, Ānanda, on two occasions, Ānanda, the Realised One's skin-colour becomes exceedingly pure and clean.

On which two occasions?

That night, Ānanda, the Realised One perfectly awakens to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening, and that night the Realised One is Finally Emancipated in the Emancipation-element which has no basis for attachment remaining. On these two occasions the Realised One's skin-colour is exceedingly pure and clean. Today, Ānanda, during the last watch of the night, near to Kusinārā, in the Mallas' Sal Wood at Upavattana, between a pair of Sal trees will be the Realised One's Final Emancipation.

“Come Ānanda let us approach River Kakutthā.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One.

“A pair of polished gold-coloured (robes) was offered by Pukkusa,
Once clothed with it the Teacher's golden (skin) colour shone forth.”[AFn135]
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 44. And soon after Pukkusa of the Malla clan had departed, the Venerable Ananda arranged the set of golden-hued robes, burnished and ready for wear, about the body of the Blessed One. But when the set of robes was arranged upon the body of the Blessed One, it became as though faded, and its splendor dimmed.
  1. And the Venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One: "Marvellous it is, O Lord, most wonderful indeed it is, how clear and radiant the skin of the Tathagata appears! This set of golden-hued robes, burnished and ready for wear, Lord, now that it is arranged upon the body of the Blessed One seems to have become faded, its splendor dimmed."

  2. "It is so, Ananda. There are two occasions, Ananda, when the skin of the Tathagata appears exceedingly clear and radiant. Which are these two? The night, Ananda, when the Tathagata becomes fully enlightened in unsurpassed, supreme Enlightenment, and the night when the Tathagata comes to his final passing away into the state of Nibbana in which no element of clinging remains. These, Ananda, are the two occasions on which the skin of the Tathagata appears exceedingly clear and radiant.

  3. "And now today, in the last watch of this very night, Ananda, in the Mallas' Sala Grove, in the vicinity of Kusinara, between two sala trees, the Tathagata will come to his Parinibbana. So now, Ananda, let us go to the Kakuttha River."

  4. Clad in Pukkusa's gift, the robes of gold,
    The Master's form was radiant to behold.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 196
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ yena kakudhā nadī tenupasaṅkami ; upasaṅkamitvā kakudhaṃ nadiṃ ajjhogāhetvā nhatvā ca pivitvā ca paccuttaritvā yena ambavanaṃ tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṃ cundakaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘iṅgha me tvaṃ, cundaka, catugguṇaṃ saṅghāṭiṃ paññapehi, kilantosmi, cundaka, nipajjissāmī’’ti.

‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā cundako bhagavato paṭissutvā catugguṇaṃ saṅghāṭiṃ paññapesi. Atha kho bhagavā dakkhiṇena passena sīhaseyyaṃ kappesi pāde pādaṃ accādhāya sato sampajāno uṭṭhānasaññaṃ manasikaritvā. Āyasmā pana cundako tattheva bhagavato purato nisīdi.

Gantvāna buddho nadikaṃ kakudhaṃ,
Acchodakaṃ sātudakaṃ vippasannaṃ;
Ogāhi satthā akilantarūpo sukilantarūpo (sī. pī.),
Tathāgato appaṭimo ca appaṭimodha (pī.) loke.

Nhatvā ca pivitvā cudatāri satthā pivitvā cundakena, pivitvā ca uttari (ka.),
Purakkhato bhikkhugaṇassa majjhe;
Vattā satthā (sī. syā. pī.) pavattā bhagavā idha dhamme,
Upāgami ambavanaṃ mahesi.

Āmantayi cundakaṃ nāma bhikkhuṃ,
Catugguṇaṃ santhara me nipajjaṃ;
So codito bhāvitattena cundo,
Catugguṇaṃ santhari khippameva.

Nipajji satthā akilantarūpo,
Cundopi tattha pamukhe samukhe (ka.) nisīdīti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊與大比丘僧團去葛古踏河。抵達後,入葛古踏河沐浴、喝飲再出來,接著去芒果園。抵達後,召喚尊者純陀葛:

「來!純陀葛!請你為我將大衣摺成四折,純陀葛!我已疲倦,我要躺下。」

「是的,大德!」尊者純陀葛回答世尊後,將大衣摺成四折。那時,世尊以右脅[CFn168] 作獅子臥,將〔左〕腳放在〔右〕腳上,正念、正知,意念作起身想[CFn169] ,而在那裡,尊者純陀葛就坐在世尊前面。

 「佛陀去葛古踏小河,清澈的水、令人愉快的水、明淨的,
 形色非常疲倦的[CFn170] 大師進入,如來在世間中是無比肩的。
 大師沐浴與喝飲後再出來,在比丘眾中被置於首,
 這法被世尊打開、轉起,大仙去芒果園。
 他召喚名叫純陀葛的比丘:四折成為我躺下的墊子,
 純陀〔葛?〕以自我修習督促,就急速地四折成為墊子,
 形色非常疲倦的大師躺下,在那裡,純陀〔葛?〕坐在面前。」
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 39. 於是世尊便和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起前往迦俱陀河。世尊去到迦俱陀河後,走進河裏沐浴和喝水,之後上岸去到一個芒果園,他對純陀迦尊者說: “純陀迦,過來,替我把大衣摺為四疊。純陀迦,我很疲倦,要躺下來。”

純陀迦尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 之後把大衣摺為四疊。

  1. 世尊右側睡獅子臥,一隻腳比另一隻腳高些[SFn20] ,有念和覺知,心裏知道什麼時候要起來。純陀迦尊者在世尊前面坐下來。
  41. 佛陀大導師,
  前往迦俱河;
  河水清又甜,
  兼且甚清澈。
  導師疲憊身,
  浸入於水中;
  如來在世間,
  最勝無倫匹。
  沐浴飲水已,
  導師從水出;
  旁有比丘眾,
  導師在其中。
  世尊大導師,
  宣講正法者,
  世尊大仙人,
  前往芒果園。
  世尊大導師,
  吩咐純陀迦,
  將衣摺四疊,
  欲躺臥休息。
  純陀迦比丘,
  聞佛吩咐已,
  隨即為世尊,
  將衣摺四疊。
  導師疲憊身,
  躺下來休息;
  純陀迦比丘,
  坐在世尊前。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 39 爾時薄伽梵與大比丘僧眾走向卡古塔河。到已,他入河洗浴和飲水。既達彼岸,他走向杧菓林並語尊者窮達卡說:「窮達卡,請將衣疊為四摺,我甚倦,欲躺下。」

「是,世尊。」尊者窮達卡回答說。彼遂將衣疊為四摺。

40 爾時薄伽梵偃臥右側,將雙足疊併。彼靜寂入定,存念將再起來。尊者窮達卡即坐於佛前。

41 佛陀既到卡古塔河,
  其水清鮮澄靜地流着。
  彼投身入河流,疲倦已甚,
  如來是世間無比。
  洗浴及飲水後,
  導師達於彼岸,
  比丘眾追隨其後。
  時薄伽梵宣轉大法,
  聖尊遂抵達杧菓林。
  彼語窮達卡比丘說:
  「將衣疊為四摺,我欲臥。」
  窮達卡為聖尊所敦促,
  遂迅速疊衣四摺於地上;
  慈尊偃臥甚為疲乏,
  窮達卡亦坐於其前。

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[32: Cunda's Great Gain ]

  1. Then the Gracious One with a great Community of monks went to the river Kakutthā, and after going, and entering into the river Kakutthā, bathing, and drinking, and coming back out, he approached the mango wood, and after approaching, he addressed venerable Cundaka, (saying): “Come now, Cundaka, prepare the outer robe folded in four for me, I am weary, Cundaka, and will lie down.”[AFn136]

“Very well, reverend Sir”, said venerable Cundaka, and after replying to the Gracious One, he prepared the outer robe folded in four. Then the Gracious One, lay down on his right side in the lion's posture, after placing one foot on the top of the other, mindfully, with full awareness, having applied his mind to the thought of rising. And venerable Cundaka sat down right there in front of the Gracious One.

“The Awakened One, having gone to the little river Kakutthā,
Which had water that was transparent, pleasant, and clear,
The Teacher, very weary, entered (the river),
the Realised One, who is unmatched here in the world.
After washing and drinking, the Teacher came out,
And in the middle of the Community of monks, at the front,
The Teacher, the Gracious One, having taught the Teaching here,
The Great Sage went to the mango wood.

He addressed the monk called Cundaka, (saying):
“Spread out (the robe) folded in four for me to lie down on,”
Cunda, urged by the One with Developed Mind,
Very quickly spread (the robe) folded in four.
The Teacher, very weary, lay down,
With Cunda sat right there at the front.”[AFn137]
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

At the Kakuttha River

  1. 52. Then the Blessed One went to the Kakuttha River together with a great community of bhikkhus.
  1. And he went down into the water and bathed and drank. And coming forth from the water again, he went to the Mango Grove, and there spoke to the Venerable Cundaka, saying: "Please fold my upper robe in four, Cundaka, and lay it down. I am weary and would rest awhile."

"So be it, Lord." And Cundaka folded the robe in four and laid it down.

  1. And the Blessed One lay down on his right side, in the lion's posture, resting one foot upon the other, and so disposed himself, mindfully and clearly comprehending, with the time for rising held in mind. And the Venerable Cundaka sat down right in front of the Blessed One.

  2. The Buddha to Kakuttha's river came,
    Where cool and limpid flows the pleasant stream;
    There washed in water clear his weary frame
    The Buddha — he in all the world supreme!
    And having bathed and drank, the Teacher straight
    Crossed over, the bhikkhus thronging in his wake.

    Discoursing holy truths, the Master great
    Towards the Mango Grove his path did take.
    There to the elder Cundaka he spoke:
    "Lay down my robe, please, folded into four."
    Then the elder, swift as lightning stroke,
    Hastened the Teacher's bidding to obey.
    Weary, the Lord then lay down on the mat,
    And Cunda on the ground before him sat.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 197
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘siyā kho yo kho (ka.), panānanda, cundassa kammāraputtassa koci vippaṭisāraṃ uppādeyya – ‘tassa te, āvuso cunda, alābhā tassa te dulladdhaṃ, yassa te tathāgato pacchimaṃ piṇḍapātaṃ paribhuñjitvā parinibbuto’ti. Cundassa, ānanda, kammāraputtassa evaṃ vippaṭisāro paṭivinetabbo – ‘tassa te, āvuso cunda, lābhā tassa te suladdhaṃ, yassa te tathāgato pacchimaṃ piṇḍapātaṃ paribhuñjitvā parinibbuto. Sammukhā metaṃ, āvuso cunda, bhagavato sutaṃ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṃ – dve me piṇḍapātā samasamaphalā samā samaphalā (ka.) samavipākā samasamavipākā (sī. syā. pī.), ativiya aññehi piṇḍapātehi mahapphalatarā ca mahānisaṃsatarā ca. Katame dve? Yañca piṇḍapātaṃ paribhuñjitvā tathāgato anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambujjhati, yañca piṇḍapātaṃ paribhuñjitvā tathāgato anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbāyati. Ime dve piṇḍapātā samasamaphalā samavipākā , ativiya aññehi piṇḍapātehi mahapphalatarā ca mahānisaṃsatarā ca. Āyusaṃvattanikaṃ āyasmatā cundena kammāraputtena kammaṃ upacitaṃ, vaṇṇasaṃvattanikaṃ āyasmatā cundena kammāraputtena kammaṃ upacitaṃ, sukhasaṃvattanikaṃ āyasmatā cundena kammāraputtena kammaṃ upacitaṃ, yasasaṃvattanikaṃ āyasmatā cundena kammāraputtena kammaṃ upacitaṃ, saggasaṃvattanikaṃ āyasmatā cundena kammāraputtena kammaṃ upacitaṃ, ādhipateyyasaṃvattanikaṃ āyasmatā cundena kammāraputtena kammaṃ upacita’nti. Cundassa, ānanda, kammāraputtassa evaṃ vippaṭisāro paṭivinetabbo’’ti. Atha kho bhagavā etamatthaṃ viditvā tāyaṃ velāyaṃ imaṃ udānaṃ udānesi –
‘‘Dadato puññaṃ pavaḍḍhati,
Saṃyamato veraṃ na cīyati;
Kusalo ca jahāti pāpakaṃ,
Rāgadosamohakkhayā sanibbuto’’ti.

Catuttho bhāṇavāro.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「阿難!〔有人〕可能會使鐵匠之子純陀的追悔生出:『純陀學友!那是你的損失,那是你的惡獲得,因為如來食用你的最後施食[CFn171] 後,般涅槃。』阿難!鐵匠之子純陀的追悔應該這麼被排除:『純陀學友!那是你的獲得,那是你的好獲得,因為如來食用你的最後施食後,般涅槃。純陀學友!我在世尊面前曾聽到這樣;當面領受:『這二種正果[CFn172] 、正果報的施食比起其它施食有極更大果、更大效益,哪二種呢?如來食用施食後現正覺無上遍正覺、如來食用施食後般涅槃於無餘涅槃界,這二種正果、正果報的施食比起其它施食有極更大果、更大效益。導向壽命的業被尊者鐵匠之子純陀累積;導向美貌的業被尊者鐵匠之子純陀累積;導向安樂的業被尊者鐵匠之子純陀累積;導向名聲的業被尊者鐵匠之子純陀累積;導向天界的業被尊者鐵匠之子純陀累積;導向統治權的業被尊者鐵匠之子純陀累積。』阿難!鐵匠之子純陀的追悔應該這麼被排除。」

那時,世尊知道這個義理後,那時候自說優陀那:

 「施與者增大福德,〔自我〕抑制者怨恨不被累積,
 善者捨斷惡的,以貪瞋癡的滅盡而有涅槃。」

第四誦品〔終了〕。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 42. 這時候世尊對阿難尊者說: “阿難,可能有人會對純陀.鐵匠子說這樣的話而使他生起懊悔: ‘純陀賢友,你沒有得著,這是你的錯失,如來最後吃了你的食物便入滅。’

“阿難,應這樣清除純陀.鐵匠子的懊悔,為他說: ‘賢友,你有得著,這是你的得益,如來最後吃了你的食物便入滅。純陀賢友,我曾在世尊跟前聽聞及受持,有兩次食物布施同樣有很大的果、很大的報,比起其他的食物布施有更大的果報、更大的利益。哪兩次呢?一次是吃了那些食物,如來覺悟無上正等正覺;一次是吃了那些食物,如來進入無餘湼槃界。這兩次食物布施同樣有很大的果、很大的報,比起其他的食物布施有更大的果報、更大的利益。賢者純陀.鐵匠子所造的業能帶來長壽、美貌、快樂、名聲、生天、為王。’

“阿難,應這樣清除純陀.鐵匠子的懊悔。”

  1. 這時世尊有感而發,說出感興偈:
  “布施積福德,
  節制息怨對,
  善人捨惡法,
  息滅貪瞋癡。”

第四阿羅邏方廣誦完

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 42 爾時薄伽梵告尊者阿難說:「阿難,若有人向鐵匠窮達引起悔憾說:『窮達,此是對你不吉及遭受損失。當如來用過彼之最後一餐飯遂入涅槃。』阿難,此種悔憾於鐵匠窮達應如此糾正說:『窮達,此對你甚善及有利益。當如來用過彼之最後一餐飯遂入涅槃。窮達,我從佛親口聞受:此兩次的齋供有同樣果報、同樣利益,比其他大果報、大利益為更大。云何為兩次?一次是當如來進餐後成無上正等正覺,另一次是當彼進餐後入無餘涅槃界而取涅槃。這兩次齋供有同樣果報、同樣利益,比其他大果報、大利益為更大。鐵匠窮達已種下了得長壽、得端正相貌、得幸福、得美譽、得生天、得為君冑的善業。』

「阿難,若有此種悔憾於鐵匠窮達應如此糾正之。」

43 爾時薄伽梵念及此事,以偈頌曰:

     佈施者其福德增長,
     自製者忿怒不能起,
     行善者捐棄一切惡。
     滅盡貪瞋癡,彼得證涅槃。

第四章竟

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “It may be, Ānanda, that someone might cause remorse for the smith Cunda, (saying): ‘There is no gain for you, friend Cunda, it is a poor gain for you, in that the Realised One, after eating his last almsfood from you, attained Final Emancipation.’

If there is remorse for Cunda the Smith, Ānanda, drive it out in this way, (saying): ‘There is a gain for you, friend Cunda, it is a good gain for you, in that the Realised One, after eating his last almsfood from you, attained Final Emancipation. I heard this face to face with the Gracious One, friend Cunda, I learned it face to face: ‘There are these two almsfoods which have the very same excellent fruit, have the very same excellent result, that is a greater fruit, a greater result than other almsfood.

Which two?

That almsfood which, after eating, the Realised One awakens to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening; and that almsfood which, after eating, the Realised One attains Final Emancipation in the Emancipation-element which has no basis for attachment remaining. These are the two almsfoods which have the same fruit, have the same result, that is an exceedingly greater fruit, a greater result than other almsfood.

Friend Cunda the Smith has accumulated a (good) deed that is conducive to long life, friend Cunda the Smith has accumulated a (good) deed that is conducive to beauty, friend Cunda the Smith has accumulated a (good) deed that is conducive to happiness, friend Cunda the Smith has accumulated a (good) deed that is conducive to fame, friend Cunda the Smith has accumulated a (good) deed that is conducive to heaven, friend Cunda the Smith has accumulated a (good) deed that is conducive to sovereignty.’ (If) there is remorse for Cunda the Smith, Ānanda, it should be driven out in this way!”

Then the Gracious One, having understood the significance of it, on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance:

“For the one who gives merit is increased,
From restraint hatred is not accumulated.
The skilful one gives up what is bad,
Through the destruction of passion, hatred, and delusion, he is emancipated.”

The Fourth Chapter for Recital (is Finished).

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Relieving Cunda's Remorse

  1. 56. Then the Blessed One spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "It may come to pass, Ananda, that someone will cause remorse to Cunda the metalworker, saying: 'It is no gain to you, friend Cunda, but a loss, that it was from you the Tathagata took his last alms meal, and then came to his end.' Then, Ananda, the remorse of Cunda should be dispelled after this manner: 'It is a gain to you, friend Cunda, a blessing that the Tathagata took his last alms meal from you, and then came to his end. For, friend, face to face with the Blessed One I have heard and learned: "There are two offerings of food which are of equal fruition, of equal outcome, exceeding in grandeur the fruition and result of any other offerings of food. Which two? The one partaken of by the Tathagata before becoming fully enlightened in unsurpassed, supreme Enlightenment; and the one partaken of by the Tathagata before passing into the state of Nibbana in which no element of clinging remains. By his deed the worthy Cunda has accumulated merit which makes for long life, beauty, well being, glory, heavenly rebirth, and sovereignty."' Thus, Ananda, the remorse of Cunda the metalworker should be dispelled."
  1. Then the Blessed One, understanding that matter, breathed forth the solemn utterance:
Who gives, his virtues shall increase;
Who is self-curbed, no hatred bears;
Whoso is skilled in virtue, evil shuns,
And by the rooting out of lust and hate
And all delusion, comes to be at peace.

  • 第五頌(第五章)
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 198
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Yamakasālā

  1. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘āyāmānanda, yena hiraññavatiyā nadiyā pārimaṃ tīraṃ, yena kusinārā upavattanaṃ mallānaṃ sālavanaṃ tenupasaṅkamissāmā’’ti . ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṃ yena hiraññavatiyā nadiyā pārimaṃ tīraṃ, yena kusinārā upavattanaṃ mallānaṃ sālavanaṃ tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘iṅgha me tvaṃ, ānanda, antarena yamakasālānaṃ uttarasīsakaṃ mañcakaṃ paññapehi, kilantosmi, ānanda, nipajjissāmī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā antarena yamakasālānaṃ uttarasīsakaṃ mañcakaṃ paññapesi. Atha kho bhagavā dakkhiṇena passena sīhaseyyaṃ kappesi pāde pādaṃ accādhāya sato sampajāno.

Tena kho pana samayena yamakasālā sabbaphāliphullā honti akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

雙沙羅樹

  1. 那時,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!我們去希連禪河對岸,去末羅拘尸那羅附近的沙羅樹林。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。

那時,世尊與大比丘僧團一起去希連禪河對岸,去末羅拘尸那羅附近的沙羅樹林。抵達後,召喚尊者阿難:

「來!阿難!請你為我在雙沙羅樹林間頭朝北鋪設臥床,阿難!我已疲倦,我要躺下。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊後,在雙沙羅樹林間頭朝北鋪設臥床。那時,世尊以右脅作獅子臥,將〔左〕腳放在〔右〕腳上,正念、正知。

當時,雙沙羅樹以非時節之花盛開,它們為了對如來的尊敬而飄落、散布、撒滿如來的身體;天的曼陀羅花也從空中落下,它們為了對如來的尊敬而飄落、散布、撒滿如來的身體;天的栴檀粉末也從空中落下,它們為了對如來的尊敬而飄落、散布、撒滿如來的身體;天的樂器也為了對如來的尊敬在空中被演奏;天的合唱也為了對如來的尊敬在空中轉起。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]

198. 1. 世尊對阿難尊者說: “阿難,來吧,我們一起渡過熙連禪河,去拘尸那羅武士子的優波跋多那娑羅林。” 阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

於是世尊便和人數眾多的比丘僧團一起渡過熙連禪河,前往拘尸那羅武士子的優波跋多那娑羅林。世尊對阿難尊者說: “阿難,過來,替我在雙娑羅樹中間舖床,頭向北方[SFn21] 。阿難,我很疲倦,要躺下來。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

之後在雙娑羅樹中間舖床,頭向北方。於是世尊右側睡獅子臥,一隻腳比另一隻腳高些,有念和覺知。

  1. 這時不是開花的時候,但雙娑羅樹充滿了盛開的花,紛紛散落在如來身上以供養如來;天上的曼陀羅花在天空中飄下,紛紛散落在如來身上以供養如來;天上的檀香粉在天空中飄下,紛紛散落在如來身上以供養如來;天上的音樂在天空中響起以供養如來;天上的歌聲在天空中響起以供養如來。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

第 五 章

  1. 01 爾時薄伽梵告尊者阿難說:「來,阿難,我等去醯連尼耶瓦提河之彼岸,拘屍那羅的烏帕瓦塔那,馬拉之娑羅樹林。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說。於是佛與大比丘僧眾向醯連尼耶瓦提河之彼岸,拘屍那羅的烏帕瓦塔那,馬拉之娑羅樹林進行。到已,語尊者阿難說:「阿難,請為我敷設床具於娑羅雙樹間,其頭北向,我倦甚,欲偃臥。」

「是,世尊。」尊者阿難回答說,即於娑羅樹間敷陳床具,其頭北向。時世尊心境安穩,偃臥右側,將其雙足疊並,作獅子睡。

※     ※

02 爾時娑羅雙樹忽於非時鮮花開發,繽紛散落在如來身上以供養如來。天上的曼陀羅華亦從天下降,繽紛散落在如來身上以供養如來。天上的旃陀羅香屑亦從天下降繽紛散落在如來身上以供養如來。天上的音樂亦從天演奏以供養如來。天上的歌唱亦從天發出以供養如來。

03 於是世尊告尊者阿難說:「阿難,娑羅雙樹忽於非時鮮花開發,繽紛散落在如來身上以供養如來。天上的曼陀羅華亦從天下降繽紛散落在如來身上以供養如來。天上的旃陀羅香屑亦從天下降繽紛散落在如來身上以供養如來。天上的音樂亦從天演奏以供養如來。天上的歌唱亦從天發出以供養如來。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[The Fifth Chapter for Recitation] [33: Worshipping the Realised One]

  1. Then the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come Ānanda, let us approach the further shore of the Golden river, to Kusinārā, and to the Mallas' Sal Wood at Upavattana.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks went to the further shore of the Golden river, to Kusinārā, and the Mallas' Sal Wood at Upavattana, and after going he addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Come, Ānanda, prepare a couch with the head facing north between the Twin Sal Trees for me, I am weary, Ānanda, and will lie down.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One, he prepared a couch with the head facing north between the Twin Sal Trees. Then the Gracious One, lay down on his right side in the lion's posture, after placing one foot on the top of the other, mindfully, with full awareness.

Now at that time the Twin Sal Trees were full of flowering blossoms, outside of flowering time,[AFn138] and they were sprinkling down on the Realised One's body, showering down, pouring down on the Realised One in worship. Also the Divine Coral Tree flowers were falling from the sky, and they were sprinkling down on the Realised One's body, showering down, pouring down on the Realised One in worship. Also Divine sandalwood powder was falling from the sky, and was sprinkling down on the Realised One's body, showering down, pouring down on the Realised One in worship. Also Divine music played in the sky in worship of the Realised One. Also Divine songs played in the sky in worship of the Realised One.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Part Five: At Kusinara

Last Place of Rest

  1. 1. Then the Blessed One addressed the Venerable Ananda, saying: "Come, Ananda, let us cross to the farther bank of the Hiraññavati, and go to the Mallas' Sala Grove, in the vicinity of Kusinara."

"So be it, Lord."

  1. And the Blessed One, together with a large company of bhikkhus, went to the further bank of the river Hiraññavati, to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, in the vicinity of Kusinara. And there he spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying:
  2. "Please, Ananda, prepare for me a couch between the twin sala trees, with the head to the north. I am weary, Ananda, and want to lie down."[VFn41]

"So be it, Lord." And the Venerable Ananda did as the Blessed One asked him to do.

Then the Blessed One lay down on his right side, in the lion's posture, resting one foot upon the other, and so disposed himself, mindfully and clearly comprehending.

  1. At that time the twin sala trees broke out in full bloom, though it was not the season of flowering. And the blossoms rained upon the body of the Tathagata and dropped and scattered and were strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial mandarava flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rained down upon the body of the Tathagata, and dropped and scattered and were strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly instruments made music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 199
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘sabbaphāliphullā kho, ānanda, yamakasālā akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṃ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Na kho, ānanda, ettāvatā tathāgato sakkato vā hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo kho, ānanda, bhikkhu vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so tathāgataṃ sakkaroti garuṃ karoti māneti pūjeti apaciyati idaṃ padaṃ sīsyāipotthakesu na dissati, paramāya pūjāya. Tasmātihānanda, dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārinoti. Evañhi vo, ānanda, sikkhitabba’’nti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「阿難!雙沙羅樹以非時節之花盛開,它們為了對如來的尊敬而飄落、散布、撒滿如來的身體;天的曼陀羅花也從空中落下,它們為了對如來的尊敬而飄落、散布、撒滿如來的身體;天的栴檀粉末也從空中落下,它們為了對如來的尊敬而飄落、散布、撒滿如來的身體;天的樂器也為了對如來的尊敬在空中被演奏;天的合唱也為了對如來的尊敬在空中轉起,阿難!迄今為止,如來沒被[這樣]恭敬、尊重、尊敬、禮拜、崇拜,阿難!凡比丘或比丘尼或優婆塞或優婆夷住於法隨法行、如法而行、隨法行者,他以最高的尊敬而恭敬、尊重、尊敬、禮拜、崇拜如來,阿難!因此,在這裡,『我們要住於法隨法行、如法而行、隨法行。』阿難!你們確實應該這麼學。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 3. 這時候世尊對阿難尊者說: “阿難,這時不是開花的時候,但雙娑羅樹充滿了盛開的花,紛紛散落在如來身上以供養如來;天上的曼陀羅花在天空中飄下,紛紛散落在如來身上以供養如來;天上的檀香粉在天空中飄下,紛紛散落在如來身上以供養如來;天上的音樂在天空中響起以供養如來;天上的歌聲在天空中響起以供養如來。

“阿難,以上不算是最高的照料、恭敬、尊重、供養或禮敬如來,如果一位比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞或優婆夷進入正法,方向正確地進入正道,依法而行,他就是對如來作出最高的照料、恭敬、尊重、供養。阿難,所以應這樣修學:進入正法,方向正確地進入正道,依法而行。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 03 於是世尊告尊者阿難說:「阿難,娑羅雙樹忽於非時鮮花開發,繽紛散落在如來身上以供養如來。天上的曼陀羅華亦從天下降繽紛散落在如來身上以供養如來。天上的旃陀羅香屑亦從天下降繽紛散落在如來身上以供養如來。天上的音樂亦從天演奏以供養如來。天上的歌唱亦從天發出以供養如來。

「阿難,並非如此是對如來有適宜的恭敬供養。若比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞、優婆夷繼續擔負大小責任,持身端正,依止戒律--如是,其人是對如來有適宜的恭敬供養和最有價值的敬禮。是以阿難,汝應繼續負擔大小責任,持身端正,依止戒律。阿難,應如此教化。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then the Gracious One said this to venerable Ānanda: “The Twin Sal Trees are full of flowering blossoms, outside of flowering time, and they are sprinkling down on the Realised One's body, showering down, pouring down on the Realised One in worship. Also the Divine Coral Tree flowers are falling from the sky, and they are sprinkling down on the Realised One's body, showering down, pouring down on the Realised One in worship. Also Divine sandalwood powder is falling from the sky, and is sprinkling down on the Realised One's body, showering down, pouring down on the Realised One in worship. Also Divine music plays in the sky in worship of the Realised One. Also Divine songs play in the sky in worship of the Realised One.

But it is not in this way, Ānanda, that the Realised One is honoured, respected, revered, worshipped, or esteemed. But that monk, nun, layman, or laywoman, Ānanda, who lives practising the Teaching in accordance with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, he honours, respects, reveres, worships, and esteems the Realised One with the highest worship. Therefore, Ānanda, thinking: ‘Let us live practising the Teaching in accordance with the Teaching, correct in our practice, living in conformity with the Teaching,’ this is how you are to train, Ānanda.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 5. And the Blessed One spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "Ananda, the twin sala trees are in full bloom, though it is not the season of flowering. And the blossoms rain upon the body of the Tathagata and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And celestial coral flowers and heavenly sandalwood powder from the sky rain down upon the body of the Tathagata, and drop and scatter and are strewn upon it in worship of the Tathagata. And the sound of heavenly voices and heavenly instruments makes music in the air out of reverence for the Tathagata.
  1. "Yet it is not thus, Ananda, that the Tathagata is respected, venerated, esteemed, worshipped, and honored in the highest degree. But, Ananda, whatever bhikkhu or bhikkhuni, layman or laywoman, abides by the Dhamma, lives uprightly in the Dhamma, walks in the way of the Dhamma, it is by such a one that the Tathagata is respected, venerated, esteemed, worshipped, and honored in the highest degree. Therefore, Ananda, thus should you train yourselves: 'We shall abide by the Dhamma, live uprightly in the Dhamma, walk in the way of the Dhamma.'"
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 200
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Upavāṇatthero

  1. Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā upavāṇo bhagavato purato ṭhito hoti bhagavantaṃ bījayamāno. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ upavāṇaṃ apasāresi – ‘‘apehi, bhikkhu, mā me purato aṭṭhāsī’’ti. Atha kho āyasmato ānandassa etadahosi – ‘‘ayaṃ kho āyasmā upavāṇo dīgharattaṃ bhagavato upaṭṭhāko santikāvacaro samīpacārī. Atha ca pana bhagavā pacchime kāle āyasmantaṃ upavāṇaṃ apasāreti – ‘apehi bhikkhu, mā me purato aṭṭhāsī’ti. Ko nu kho hetu, ko paccayo, yaṃ bhagavā āyasmantaṃ upavāṇaṃ apasāreti – ‘apehi, bhikkhu, mā me purato aṭṭhāsī’ti? Atha kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘ayaṃ, bhante, āyasmā upavāṇo dīgharattaṃ bhagavato upaṭṭhāko santikāvacaro samīpacārī. Atha ca pana bhagavā pacchime kāle āyasmantaṃ upavāṇaṃ apasāreti – ‘‘apehi, bhikkhu, mā me purato aṭṭhāsī’’ti. Ko nu kho, bhante, hetu, ko paccayo, yaṃ bhagavā āyasmantaṃ upavāṇaṃ apasāreti – ‘‘apehi, bhikkhu, mā me purato aṭṭhāsī’’ti? ‘‘Yebhuyyena, ānanda, dasasu lokadhātūsu devatā sannipatitā tathāgataṃ dassanāya. Yāvatā, ānanda, kusinārā upavattanaṃ mallānaṃ sālavanaṃ samantato dvādasa yojanāni, natthi so padeso vālaggakoṭinitudanamattopi mahesakkhāhi devatāhi apphuṭo. Devatā, ānanda, ujjhāyanti – ‘dūrā ca vatamha āgatā tathāgataṃ dassanāya. Kadāci karahaci tathāgatā loke uppajjanti arahanto sammāsambuddhā. Ajjeva rattiyā pacchime yāme tathāgatassa parinibbānaṃ bhavissati. Ayañca mahesakkho bhikkhu bhagavato purato ṭhito ovārento, na mayaṃ labhāma pacchime kāle tathāgataṃ dassanāyā’’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

優波哇那上座

200. 當時,尊者優波哇那站在世尊前面為世尊搧著風,那時,世尊拒絕尊者優波哇那:

「比丘!請你離開,不要站在我前面。」

那時,尊者阿難這麼想:

「這位尊者優波哇那長時間為世尊的隨侍、近侍者、近從者,而世尊在最後的時機〔卻〕拒絕尊者優波哇那:『比丘!請你離開,不要站在我前面。』什麼因、什麼緣使世尊拒絕尊者優波哇那:『比丘!請你離開,不要站在我前面。』呢?」

那時,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:

「大德!這位尊者優波哇那長時間為世尊的隨侍、近侍者、近從者,而世尊在最後的時機〔卻〕拒絕尊者優波哇那:『比丘!請你離開,不要站在我前面。』大德!什麼因、什麼緣使世尊拒絕尊者優波哇那:『比丘!請你離開,不要站在我前面。』呢?」

「阿難!在十個世間界中的大部分天神,為了見如來而集合,阿難!所有在末羅拘尸那羅附近的沙羅樹林周圍十二由旬[CFn173] 之所及沒有毛尖點可貫穿大小的地方未被有大力量的天神佈滿,阿難!天神們譏嫌:『我們為了見如來而從遠處來,如來、阿羅漢、遍正覺者很少出現於世間,就在今日後夜,如來將般涅槃,而這位有大力量的比丘〔卻〕站在世尊的前面阻擋,〔使〕我們不得在最後的時機看見如來。』」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 4. 這時候優波婆那尊者站在世尊前面為世尊扇涼。世尊著他離去,對他說: “比丘,離去。不要站在我前面。”

阿難尊者心想: “這位優波婆那尊者長期做世尊的侍者,常在世尊跟前,常在世尊附近,但世尊在最後的時刻竟然著他離去,對他說: ‘比丘,離去。不要站在我前面。’ 是什麼原因和條件使世尊著優波婆那尊者離去呢?”

  1. 於是阿難尊者對世尊說: “大德,這位優波婆那尊者長期做世尊的侍者,常在世尊跟前,常在世尊附近,但世尊在最後的時刻竟然著他離去,對他說: ‘比丘,離去。不要站在我前面。’ 是什麼原因和條件使世尊著優波婆那尊者離去呢?”

“阿難,幾乎所有十方世界的天神都來看如來。在娑羅林方圓十二由旬這個範圍之內連馬毛端也放不下,都被大勢力的天神所擠滿。阿難,天神叫嚷: ‘我們從很遠的地方來看如來。如來.阿羅漢.等正覺在世間出現是很稀有的事情,在今天晚上後夜時分,如來將會入滅,但這位大勢力的比丘站在世尊前面遮擋著,使我們看不見如來最後的時刻。’ 阿難,天神在叫嚷。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 04 爾時尊者烏帕宛那立於佛前以扇扇佛。世尊對他不悅並告之曰:「汝退出,比丘,不用立在我面前。」

尊者阿難自念:「此尊者烏帕宛那親身奉侍如來已為時很久。現在於臨終之際,世尊對之不悅並告之曰:『汝退出,比丘,不用立在我面前。』究竟是何因緣,世尊對他不悅而發出此語?」

05 爾時尊者阿難白佛言:「世尊,此尊者鳥帕宛那親身奉侍如來為時已久。現在於臨終之際對他不悅並向他說:『汝退出,比丘,不用立在我面前。』究竟是何因緣,世尊對他不悅而發出此語?」

「阿難,十方世界無數天神雲集來瞻仰如來。環遶拘屍那羅的烏帕瓦塔那,馬拉之娑羅雙樹林十二由旬的附近,無一容髮尖之縫隙沒有被具大威神的天神所佔據。阿難,此諸天神埋怨說:『我等自遠道來瞻視如來,正等正覺阿羅漢如來之出世是甚為稀有。在今晚更末如來將取涅槃,而這位有名的比丘立於其前遮蔽之,我等不得於臨終之際瞻仰如來!』阿難,諸天神如此埋怨說。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[34: The Visit of the Divinities]

  1. Now at that time venerable Upavāṇa was standing in front of the Gracious One, fanning the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One dismissed venerable Upavāṇa, (saying): “Depart, monk, do not stand in front of me.”

Then venerable Ānanda thought: “This venerable Upavāṇa has been the Gracious One's attendant for a long time,[AFn139] living near to him, within proximity. Then at the last moment the Gracious One dismisses venerable Upavāṇa, (saying): ‘Depart, monk, do not stand in front of me.’ What was the reason, what was the cause, for the Gracious One dismissing venerable Upavāṇa, (saying): ‘Depart, monk, do not stand in front of me’?”

Then venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: “This venerable Upavāṇa has been the Gracious One's attendant for a long time, living near to him, within proximity. Then at the last moment the Gracious One dismisses venerable Upavāṇa, (saying): ‘Depart, monk, do not stand in front of me.’ What is the reason, reverend Sir, what is the cause, for the Gracious One dismissing venerable Upavāṇa, (saying): ‘Depart, monk, do not stand in front of me’?”

“Almost all of the Divinities,[AFn140] Ānanda, from the ten world-elements[AFn141] have assembled to see the Realised One, everywhere around Kusinārā and the Mallas' Sal Wood at Upavattana for as far as twelve leagues there is no place, even so much as a tip of a pricking hair, unpervaded by powerful Divinities, and the Divinities, Ānanda, are complaining, (saying): ‘We have come from afar to see the Realised One, only occasionally, infrequently, do Realised Ones, Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas arise in the world, and today during the last watch of the night will be the Realised One's Final Emancipation, and this powerful monk is stood in front concealing the Realised One,[AFn142] and we are not able to see the Realised One at the last moment.’ ”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

The Grief of the Gods

  1. 7.At that time the Venerable Upavana was standing before the Blessed One, fanning him. And the Blessed One rebuked him, saying: "Move aside, bhikkhu, do not stand in front of me."
  1. And to the Venerable Ananda came the thought: "This Venerable Upavana has been in attendance on the Blessed One for a long time, closely associating with him and serving him. Yet now, right at the end, the Blessed One rebukes him. What now could be the reason, what the cause for the Blessed One to rebuke the Venerable Upavana, saying: 'Move aside, bhikkhu, do not stand in front of me'?"

9-10. And the Venerable Ananda told his thought to the Blessed One. The Blessed One said: "Throughout the tenfold world-system, Ananda, there are hardly any of the deities that have not gathered together to look upon the Tathagata. For a distance of twelve yojanas around the Sala Grove of the Mallas in the vicinity of Kusinara there is not a spot that could be pricked with the tip of a hair that is not filled with powerful deities. And these deities, Ananda, are complaining: 'From afar have we come to look upon the Tathagata. For rare in the world is the arising of Tathagatas, Arahants, Fully Enlightened Ones. And this day, in the last watch of the night, the Tathagata's Parinibbana will come about. But this bhikkhu of great powers has placed himself right in front of the Blessed One, concealing him, so that now, at the very end, we are prevented from looking upon him.' Thus, Ananda, the deities complain."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 201
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Kathaṃbhūtā pana, bhante, bhagavā devatā manasikarotī’’ti manasi karontīti (syā. ka.)? ‘‘Santānanda, devatā ākāse pathavīsaññiniyo kese pakiriya kandanti, bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṃ papatanti chinnaṃpādaṃviya papatanti (syā.), āvaṭṭanti, vivaṭṭanti – ‘atikhippaṃ bhagavā parinibbāyissati, atikhippaṃ sugato parinibbāyissati, atikhippaṃ cakkhuṃ cakkhumā (syā. ka.) loke antaradhaṃāyissatī’ti.

‘‘Santānanda, devatā pathaviyaṃ pathavīsaññiniyo kese pakiriya kandanti, bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṃ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti, vivaṭṭanti – ‘atikhippaṃ bhagavā parinibbāyissati, atikhippaṃ sugato parinibbāyissati, atikhippaṃ cakkhuṃ loke antaradhāyissatī’’’ti.

‘‘Yā pana tā devatā vītarāgā, tā satā sampajānā adhivāsenti – ‘aniccā saṅkhārā, taṃ kutettha labbhā’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 「大德!但,世尊注意到有什麽種類的天神呢?」

「阿難!有在虛空而有地想的天神散髮號泣、揮舞手臂號泣、倒下打滾〔而說〕:『太快了,世尊將般涅槃,太快了,善逝將般涅槃,太快了,世間之眼將滅沒。』

阿難!有在地上而有地想的天神散髮號泣、揮舞手臂號泣、倒下打滾〔而說〕:『太快了,世尊將般涅槃,太快了,善逝將般涅槃,太快了,世間之眼將滅沒。』

但,凡那些已離貪的天神,他們正知正念地忍受〔而說〕:『諸行是無常的,〔除此之外,〕在這裡,這如何可得。』」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 2.6. “大德,在世尊心裏所看見的天神是怎麼樣的呢?”

“阿難,一些在天空的天神,以天空為地想。有的弄亂頭髮在痛泣;有的緊抱雙臂在痛泣;有的從石上跳下,在地上滾來滾去。他們叫嚷: ‘世尊太快入滅了!善逝太快入滅了!世間的眼睛太快消失了!’

“阿難,一些在地上的天神,以地為地想。有的弄亂頭髮在痛泣;有的緊抱雙臂在痛泣;有的從石上跳下,在地上滾來滾去。他們叫嚷: ‘世尊太快入滅了!善逝太快入滅了!世間的眼睛太快消失了!’ 一些離了貪著的天神,他們具有念和覺知,明白到行是無常的,要世尊不入滅是不可能的。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 06 「但世尊認彼等為何等樣的天神?」

「阿難,在天上的神祗還有塵世意念,彼等或披髮而哭,或挺臂而哭,或自投地宛 轉而哭,當一念及:『薄伽梵取涅槃何如是其迅速,慈尊取涅槃何如是其迅速!世界之光熄滅何如是其迅速!』

「阿難,在地上的神祗還有塵世意念,彼等或披髮而哭,或挺臂而哭,或自投地宛轉而哭,當一念及:『薄伽梵取涅槃何如是其迅速,慈尊取涅槃何如是其迅速!世界之光熄滅何如是其迅速!』

「但諸離欲的神祗泰然自攝忍受之,並憶念及:『緣會諸法實是無常,若不如此,實不可能。』

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. “But what beings and Divinities is the Gracious One thinking of?”

“There are, Ānanda, Divinities in the sky, perceiving the Earth, who, having dishevelled hair, are weeping, throwing up their arms, falling down (as though) cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, they are crying: ‘Too quickly the Gracious One will attain Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One will attain Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world will disappear!’

There are, Ānanda, Divinities on the Earth, perceiving the Earth, who, having dishevelled hair, are weeping, throwing up their arms, falling down (as though) cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, they are crying: ‘Too quickly the Gracious One will attain Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One will attain Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world will disappear!’ ”

But those Divinities who have cut off passion, mindfully, with full awareness, they endure, (thinking): ‘Impermanent are (all) processes, how can it be otherwise?’ ”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 11. "Of what kind of deities, Lord, is the Blessed One aware?"

12-13. "There are deities, Ananda, in space and on earth, who are earthly-minded; with dishevelled hair they weep, with uplifted arms they weep; flinging themselves on the ground, they roll from side to side, lamenting: 'Too soon has the Blessed One come to his Parinibbana! Too soon has the Happy One come to his Parinibbana! Too soon will the Eye of the World vanish from sight!'

  1. "But those deities who are freed from passion, mindful and comprehending, reflect in this way: 'Impermanent are all compounded things. How could this be otherwise?'"
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 202
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Catusaṃvejanīyaṭṭhānāni

  1. ‘‘Pubbe , bhante, disāsu vassaṃ vuṭṭhā vassaṃvutthā (sī. syā. kaṃ. pī.) bhikkhū āgacchanti tathāgataṃ dassanāya. Te mayaṃ labhāma manobhāvanīye bhikkhū dassanāya, labhāma payirupāsanāya. Bhagavato pana mayaṃ, bhante, accayena na labhissāma manobhāvanīye bhikkhū dassanāya, na labhissāma payirupāsanāyā’’ti.

‘‘Cattārimāni, ānanda, saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyāni saṃvejanīyāni ṭhānāni. Katamāni cattāri? ‘Idha tathāgato jāto’ti, ānanda, saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyaṃ saṃvejanīyaṃ ṭhānaṃ. ‘Idha tathāgato anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’ti, ānanda, saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyaṃ saṃvejanīyaṃ ṭhānaṃ. ‘Idha tathāgatena anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavattita’nti, ānanda, saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyaṃ saṃvejanīyaṃ ṭhānaṃ. ‘Idha tathāgato anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbuto’ti, ānanda, saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyaṃ saṃvejanīyaṃ ṭhānaṃ. Imāni kho , ānanda, cattāri saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyāni saṃvejanīyāni ṭhānāni.

‘‘Āgamissanti kho, ānanda, saddhā bhikkhū bhikkhuniyo upāsakā upāsikāyo – ‘idha tathāgato jāto’tipi, ‘idha tathāgato anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisambuddho’tipi, ‘idha tathāgatena anuttaraṃ dhammacakkaṃ pavattita’ntipi, ‘idha tathāgato anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbuto’tipi. Ye hi keci, ānanda, cetiyacārikaṃ āhiṇḍantā pasannacittā kālaṅkarissanti, sabbe te kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjissantī’’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

四個能激起宗教信仰心之處

  1. 「大德!以前,在四方雨季安居的比丘為了見如來而來,我們得見、得親近那些值得尊敬的比丘,大德!但,世尊去逝後,我們不得見、不得親近那些值得尊敬的比丘了。」

「阿難!有這四個有信的善男子[CFn174] 能見、能激起宗教信仰心[CFn175] 之處,哪四個呢?『在這裡,如來出生。』阿難!這是有信善男子的能見、能激起宗教信仰心之處;『在這裡,如來現正覺無上遍正覺。』阿難!這是有信善男子的能見、能激起宗教信仰心之處;『在這裡,無上法輪被如來轉起。』阿難!這是有信善男子的能見、能激起宗教信仰心之處;『在這裡,如來般涅槃於無餘涅槃界。』〔之處〕阿難!這是有信善男子的能見、能激起宗教信仰心之處,阿難!這些是四個有信的善男子能見、能激起宗教信仰心之處。

阿難!信〔仰型〕的比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞、優婆夷們將到:『在這裡,如來出生。』『在這裡,如來現正覺無上遍正覺。』『在這裡,無上法輪被如來轉起。』『在這裡,如來般涅槃於無餘涅槃界。』阿難!凡任何塔廟[CFn014] 巡禮者在來回〔巡禮〕時以明淨心[CFn176] 死了,他們全部以身體的崩解,死後將往生到善趣、天界。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 7. “大德,以前各方的比丘在雨季安居之後,有機會來看如來及受人敬重的大比丘。大德,世尊離去後,我們便沒有這個機會了。”
  1. “阿難,有四個使人敬仰的地方,有敬信的人應去朝禮。這四個是什麼地方呢?

“阿難,如來出生之處是使人敬仰的地方,有敬信的人應去朝禮。

“阿難,如來覺悟無上正等正覺之處是使人敬仰的地方,有敬信的人應去朝禮。

“阿難,如來轉無上法輪之處是使人敬仰的地方,有敬信的人應去朝禮。

“阿難,如來進入無餘湼槃界之處是使人敬仰的地方,有敬信的人應去朝禮。

“阿難,這些就是四個使人敬仰的地方了。有敬信的人應去朝禮。阿難,有敬信的比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞、優婆夷去到這四個地方,心裏便會想起: ‘這就是如來出生之處了。’ ‘這就是如來覺悟無上正等正覺之處了。’ ‘這就是如來轉無上法輪之處了。’ ‘這就是如來進入無餘湼槃界之處了。’

“阿難,任何人以淨信心來朝禮塔寺,他們在身壞命終之後,將會投生在善趣、天界之中。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 07 「世尊,往昔諸比丘於各地坐夏後皆來覲見如來。我等接待諸長老,使晤見及侍候如來。但於如來去世後,我等不能接待諸長老使晤見及侍候如來。」

 ※     ※

08 「阿難,有四處,具信仰之族姓王子應朝禮致敬,何者為四?

「(1)阿難,信仰者於一處能說:『此是如來降生處』,則為應朝禮及致敬之處。」

「(2)阿難,信仰者於一處能說:『此是如來證無上正等正覺處』,則為應朝禮及致敬之處。」

「(3)阿難,信仰者於一處能說:『此是如來轉法輪處』,則為應朝禮及致敬之處。」

「(4)阿難,信仰者於一處能說:『此是如來入無餘涅槃界處』,則為應朝禮及致敬之處。」

「阿難,此為四處,具信仰之族姓子應朝禮致敬。阿難,信仰者--比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞、優婆夷等將赴上列各處並說:『此是如來降生處』、或『此是如來證無上正等覺處』、或『此是如來轉法輪處』、或『此是如來入無餘涅槃界處』。

「阿難,當彼等朝禮諸聖地,其有信心而死去時,彼等於身壞命終將上生快樂的天界。」

 ※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[35: The Four Places that Produce Enthusiasm]

  1. “Formerly, reverend Sir, the monks, having dwelt for the Rains Retreat used to come to see the Realised One, and we would receive those meditating monks for assembling and seeing (the Realised One).[AFn143] But after the Gracious One has passed way, reverend Sir, we will not receive those meditating monks for assembling and seeing (the Realised One).”

“There are these four places that can be seen, that produce enthusiasm, Ānanda, for a faithful man of good family.

Which four?

1) (Thinking): ‘Here the Realised One was born’,[AFn144] Ānanda, (that) is a place to be seen that produces enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.

2) (Thinking): ‘Here the Realised One awoke to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening’,[AFn145] Ānanda, (that) is a place to be seen that produces enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.

3) (Thinking): ‘Here the Realised One set rolling the Wheel of the Teaching’,[AFn146] Ānanda, (that) is a place to be seen that produces enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.

4) (Thinking): ‘Here the Realised One was completely Emancipated in the Emancipation-element which has no basis for attachment remaining’,[AFn147] Ānanda, (that) is a place to be seen that produces enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.

These are the four places, Ānanda, that are to be seen that produce enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.

Faithful monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen will come, (thinking): ‘Here the Realised One was born’, ‘Here the Realised One awoke to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening’, ‘Here the Realised One set rolling the Wheel of the Teaching’, ‘Here the Realised One was Finally Emancipated in the Emancipation-element which has no basis for attachment remaining’, and whoever, Ānanda, will die while on pilgrimage to the Shrines with a confident mind they will all, at the break-up of the body, after death, re-arise in a fortunate destiny, in a heavenly world.”[AFn148]

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Ananda's Concern

  1. 15. "Formerly, Lord, on leaving their quarters after the rains, the bhikkhus would set forth to see the Tathagata, and to us there was the gain and benefit of receiving and associating with those very revered bhikkhus who came to have audience with the Blessed One and to wait upon him. But, Lord, after the Blessed One has gone, we shall no longer have that gain and benefit."

Four Places of Pilgrimage

  1. "There are four places, Ananda, that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence.[VFn42] What are the four?
  2. "'Here the Tathagata was born!'[VFn43] This, Ananda, is a place that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence.
  3. "'Here the Tathagata became fully enlightened in unsurpassed, supreme Enlightenment!'[VFn44] This, Ananda, is a place that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence.
  4. "'Here the Tathagata set rolling the unexcelled Wheel of the Dhamma!'[VFn45] This, Ananda, is a place that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence.
  5. "'Here the Tathagata passed away into the state of Nibbana in which no element of clinging remains!' This, Ananda, is a place that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence.
  6. "These, Ananda, are the four places that a pious person should visit and look upon with feelings of reverence. And truly there will come to these places, Ananda, pious bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, laymen and laywomen, reflecting: 'Here the Tathagata was born! Here the Tathagata became fully enlightened in unsurpassed, supreme Enlightenment! Here the Tathagata set rolling the unexcelled Wheel of the Dhamma! Here the Tathagata passed away into the state of Nibbana in which no element of clinging remains!'
  7. "And whoever, Ananda, should die on such a pilgrimage with his heart established in faith, at the breaking up of the body, after death, will be reborn in a realm of heavenly happiness."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 203
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Ānandapucchākathā

  1. ‘‘Kathaṃ mayaṃ, bhante, mātugāme paṭipajjāmā’’ti? ‘‘Adassanaṃ, ānandā’’ti. ‘‘Dassane, bhagavā, sati kathaṃ paṭipajjitabba’’nti? ‘‘Anālāpo, ānandā’’ti . ‘‘Ālapantena pana, bhante, kathaṃ paṭipajjitabba’’nti? ‘‘Sati, ānanda, upaṭṭhāpetabbā’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

阿難問題的談說

203.  「大德!對婦女,我們應該如何行動?」

「阿難!不見。」

「大德!當看見了時,我們應該如何行動?」

「阿難!不交談。」

「大德!但,當被交談時,我們應該如何行動?」

「阿難!正念應該被建立。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 9. “大德,對於婦女,我們應怎樣做呢?”

“阿難,不要看她們。”

“大德[SFn22] ,在看見她們的時候,我們應怎樣做呢?”

“阿難,不要和她們談話。”

“大德,在和她們談話的時候,我們應怎樣做呢?”

“阿難,應要保持念。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 09 「世尊,我們對於婦女將何以自處?」

「阿難,不要看她們。」

「若見了她們,我們將何以自處?」

「阿難,不要交談。」

「世尊,若她們向我們攀談又將如何?」

「阿難,當自警惕!」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. “How, reverend Sir, are we to act in regard to women?”

“(As though they were) not seen, Ānanda.”

“(But) when seeing them, reverend Sir, how are we to act?”

“Without conversing, Ānanda.”

“(But) when conversing, reverend Sir, how are we to act?”

“You should attend to mindfulness, Ānanda.”[AFn149]

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 23. Then the Venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One: "How, Lord, should we conduct ourselves towards women?"

"Do not see them, Ananda."

"But, Lord, if we do see them?"

"Do not speak, Ananda."

"But, Lord, if they should speak to us?"

"Then, Ananda, you should establish mindfulness."


D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 204
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Kathaṃ mayaṃ, bhante, tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjāmā’’ti? ‘‘Abyāvaṭā tumhe, ānanda, hotha tathāgatassa sarīrapūjāya. Iṅgha tumhe, ānanda, sāratthe ghaṭatha anuyuñjatha sadatthe anuyuñjatha (sī. syā.), sadatthaṃ anuyuñjatha (pī.), sāratthe anuyuñjatha (ka.), sāratthe appamattā ātāpino pahitattā viharatha. Santānanda, khattiyapaṇḍitāpi brāhmaṇapaṇḍitāpi gahapatipaṇḍitāpi tathāgate abhippasannā, te tathāgatassa sarīrapūjaṃ karissantī’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 「大德!對如來的遺體,我們應該如何行動?」

「阿難!對如來的遺體供養,你們應該是不作為的,來!阿難!你們應該在核心利益上努力,應該在核心利益上實踐,應該住於不放逸、熱心、自我努力,阿難!有對如來有淨信的賢智剎帝利、賢智婆羅門、賢智屋主,他們將作如來的遺體供養。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 10. “大德,對於如來舍利,我們應怎樣做呢?”

“阿難,供養如來舍利的事情不用你們操心,你們應為最高的目標而努力,為最高的目標而修習,為最高的目標而不放逸、勤奮、專心一意。阿難,有智慧的剎帝利、有智慧的婆羅門、有智慧的居士對如來有很深的淨信,他們將會做供養如來舍利的事情。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 10 「世尊,我們對於如來的遺體將如何處理?」

「阿難,你們向如來的遺體致敬不必顧慮,我請求你們當自勉、當專重於自善、當自精勤不懈及注法於自善。在剎帝利、婆羅門、居士中有智者,他們對如來有堅固信仰;他們將對如來的遺體致敬。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. “How should we act, reverend Sir, in regard to the Realised One's body?”

“Do not worry, Ānanda, about how you are to worshipfully (dispose of) the Realised One's body. Come, Ānanda, live striving for the highest good, being devoted to the highest good, being heedful of the highest good, ardent, and resolute. There are, Ānanda, wise Nobles, wise brahmins, wise householders who have faith in the Realised One. They will worshipfully (dispose of) the Realised One's body.”[AFn150]

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 24. Then the Venerable Ananda said: "How should we act, Lord, respecting the body of the Tathagata?"

"Do not hinder yourselves, Ananda, to honor the body of the Tathagata. Rather you should strive, Ananda, and be zealous on your own behalf,[VFn46] for your own good. Unflinchingly, ardently, and resolutely you should apply yourselves to your own good. For there are, Ananda, wise nobles, wise brahmans, and wise householders who are devoted to the Tathagata, and it is they who will render the honor to the body of the Tathagata."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 205
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Kathaṃ pana, bhante, tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjitabba’’nti? ‘‘Yathā kho, ānanda, rañño cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjanti, evaṃ tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjitabba’’nti. ‘‘Kathaṃ pana, bhante, rañño cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjantī’’ti? ‘‘Rañño, ānanda, cakkavattissa sarīraṃ ahatena vatthena veṭhenti, ahatena vatthena veṭhetvā vihatena kappāsena veṭhenti, vihatena kappāsena veṭhetvā ahatena vatthena veṭhenti. Etenupāyena pañcahi yugasatehi rañño cakkavattissa sarīraṃ sarīre (syā. ka.) veṭhetvā āyasāya teladoṇiyā pakkhipitvā aññissā āyasāya doṇiyā paṭikujjitvā sabbagandhānaṃ citakaṃ karitvā rañño cakkavattissa sarīraṃ jhāpenti. Cātumahāpathe cātummahāpathe (sī. syā. kaṃ. pī.) rañño cakkavattissa thūpaṃ karonti . Evaṃ kho, ānanda, rañño cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjanti. Yathā kho, ānanda, rañño cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjanti, evaṃ tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjitabbaṃ. Cātumahāpathe tathāgatassa thūpo kātabbo. Tattha ye mālaṃ vā gandhaṃ vā cuṇṇakaṃ vaṇṇakaṃ (sī. pī.) vā āropessanti vā abhivādessanti vā cittaṃ vā pasādessanti tesaṃ taṃ bhavissati dīgharattaṃ hitāya sukhāya.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 「大德!對如來的遺體,應該如何行動?」

「阿難!對如來的遺體應該如對轉輪王[CFn179] 遺體那樣行動。」

「大德!對轉輪王的遺體,應該如何行動?」

「阿難!轉輪王的遺體以新的衣服包捲,以新的衣服包捲後,以毛已被梳立的棉布包捲,以毛已被梳立的棉布包捲後,以新的衣服包捲,……以這方式成對包捲轉輪王的遺體五百次後,放進鐵油槽,然後以另一個鐵槽覆蓋,〔以〕所有芳香木作火葬用柴堆,然後火化轉輪王的遺體,在十字路口建轉輪王的塔,阿難!對轉輪王的遺體,應該這樣行動,阿難!對如來的遺體應該如對轉輪王遺體那樣行動,阿難!應該在十字路口建如來的塔,在那裡,凡給與花環或香料或香粉,或問訊,或使心變得淨信者,則對他們將有長久的利益與安樂。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 11. “大德,如來舍利怎樣處理呢?”

“阿難,處理如來舍利就跟處理轉輪王舍利那樣。”

“大德,轉輪王舍利是怎樣處理的呢?”

“阿難,先用潔淨的布包裹轉輪王舍利,再用綿布來包裹,再用潔淨的布來包裹,就是這樣用五百層潔淨的布和五百層綿布來包裹轉輪王舍利,然後把它放進一個盛滿油的鐵棺之中,蓋上鐵棺蓋,用各種香木來火化,最後在繁盛的大路興建轉輪王塔。阿難,這就是處理轉輪王舍利的方法了。

“阿難,處理如來舍利就跟處理轉輪王舍利那樣。在繁盛的大路興建如來塔,人們在那裏獻花環、燃香、髹漆、作禮或生起淨信心,他們將會長期得到利益和快樂。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 11 「世尊,對於如來的遺體當如何處理?」

「阿難,如人處理轉輪聖王的遺體,對如來的遺體亦應如此。」

「世尊,如何處理轉輪聖王的遺體?」

「他們以新布包裹轉輪聖王的遺體,繼以親淨棉,再以新細布,如是一層布、一層棉,至各有五百層為止。然後將其安放在有油之金[PFn02] 棺內,復以另一金棺蓋之,用諸種香𧂐作火葬場以焚燒轉輪聖王的遺體;於十字街頭為之建塔。此為人們處理轉輪聖王的遺體之法。

「阿難,人們如此處理轉輪聖王的遺體,對如來的遺體亦應如此;也應在十字街頭為如來建塔。若有人對之奉獻花香、圖繪或禮拜,其人將獲永久福利及快樂。」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. “How should we act, reverend Sir, in regard to the Realised One's body?”

“As you act in regard to the Universal Monarch's body, so you should act in regard to the Realised One's body.”

“But how do they act, reverend Sir, in regard to the Universal Monarch's body?”

“They wrap the Universal Monarch's body, Ānanda, with clean cloth, and after wrapping with clean cloth, they wrap with carded cotton, and after wrapping with carded cotton, they wrap with clean cloth, by this means after wrapping the Universal Monarch's body with five-hundred pairs (of cloth and cotton), enclosing it in an oil tub made of iron,[AFn151] and enclosing it in another iron tub, and putting it on a scented funeral pyre, they burn the Universal Monarch's body, and they build a Shrine for the Universal Monarch at the crossroads.

So they act in regard to a Universal Monarch's body, and as they act in regard to a Universal Monarch's body so should they act in regard to a Realised One's body, and a Shrine should be made for the Realised One at the crossroads. Whoever there prepares flowers, incense, or powder, or worships or establishes confidence in his mind, that will be for their benefit and happiness for a long time.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 25. Then the Venerable Ananda said: "But how, Lord, should they act respecting the body of the Tathagata?"

"After the same manner, Ananda, as towards the body of a universal monarch."[VFn47]

"But how, Lord, do they act respecting the body of a universal monarch?"

  1. "The body of a universal monarch, Ananda, is first wrapped round with new linen, and then with teased cotton wool, and so it is done up to five hundred layers of linen and five hundred of cotton wool. When that is done, the body of the universal monarch is placed in an iron[VFn48] oil vessel, which is enclosed in another iron vessel, a funeral pyre is built of all kinds of perfumed woods, and so the body of the universal monarch is burned; and at a crossroads a stupa is raised for the universal monarch. So it is done, Ananda, with the body of a universal monarch. And even, Ananda, as with the body of a universal monarch, so should it be done with the body of the Tathagata; and at a crossroads also a stupa should be raised for the Tathagata. And whosoever shall bring to that place garlands or incense or sandalpaste, or pay reverence, and whose mind becomes calm there — it will be to his well being and happiness for a long time.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 206
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Thūpārahapuggalo

  1. ‘‘Cattārome, ānanda, thūpārahā. Katame cattāro? Tathāgato arahaṃ sammāsambuddho thūpāraho, paccekasambuddho thūpāraho, tathāgatassa sāvako thūpāraho, rājā cakkavattī cakkavatti (syā. ka.) thūpārahoti.

‘‘Kiñcānanda, atthavasaṃ paṭicca tathāgato arahaṃ sammāsambuddho thūpāraho? ‘Ayaṃ tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa thūpo’ti, ānanda, bahujanā cittaṃ pasādenti. Te tattha cittaṃ pasādetvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjanti. Idaṃ kho, ānanda, atthavasaṃ paṭicca tathāgato arahaṃ sammāsambuddho thūpāraho.

‘‘Kiñcānanda, atthavasaṃ paṭicca paccekasambuddho thūpāraho? ‘Ayaṃ tassa bhagavato paccekasambuddhassa thūpo’ti, ānanda, bahujanā cittaṃ pasādenti. Te tattha cittaṃ pasādetvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjanti. Idaṃ kho, ānanda, atthavasaṃ paṭicca paccekasambuddho thūpāraho.

‘‘Kiñcānanda, atthavasaṃ paṭicca tathāgatassa sāvako thūpāraho? ‘Ayaṃ tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa sāvakassa thūpo’ti ānanda, bahujanā cittaṃ pasādenti. Te tattha cittaṃ pasādetvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjanti. Idaṃ kho, ānanda, atthavasaṃ paṭicca tathāgatassa sāvako thūpāraho.

‘‘Kiñcānanda, atthavasaṃ paṭicca rājā cakkavattī thūpāraho? ‘Ayaṃ tassa dhammikassa dhammarañño thūpo’ti, ānanda, bahujanā cittaṃ pasādenti. Te tattha cittaṃ pasādetvā kāyassa bhedā paraṃ maraṇā sugatiṃ saggaṃ lokaṃ upapajjanti. Idaṃ kho, ānanda, atthavasaṃ paṭicca rājā cakkavattī thūpāraho. Ime kho, ānanda cattāro thūpārahā’’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

值得領受塔的人

  1. 阿難!有這四種值得領受塔者,哪四種呢?如來、阿羅漢、遍正覺者是值得領受塔者;辟支佛[CFn180] 是值得領受塔者;如來的弟子是值得領受塔者;轉輪王是值得領受塔者。

阿難!緣於什麼理由如來、阿羅漢、遍正覺者是值得領受塔者呢?『這是那位世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者的塔。』阿難!眾人使心變得淨信,在那裡,他們使心變得淨信後,以身體的崩解,死後往生到善趣、天界,阿難!緣於這個理由如來、阿羅漢、遍正覺者是值得領受塔者。

阿難!緣於什麼理由辟支佛是值得領受塔者呢?『這是那位世尊辟支佛的塔。』阿難!眾人使心變得淨信,在那裡,他們使心變得淨信後,以身體的崩解,死後往生到善趣、天界,阿難!緣於這個理由辟支佛是值得領受塔者。

阿難!緣於什麼理由如來的弟子是值得領受塔者呢?『這是那位世尊、阿羅漢、遍正覺者之弟子的塔。』阿難!眾人使心變得淨信,在那裡,他們使心變得淨信後,以身體的崩解,死後往生到善趣、天界,阿難!緣於這個理由如來的弟子是值得領受塔者。

阿難!緣於什麼理由轉輪王是值得領受塔者呢?『這是那位如法之法王的塔。』阿難!眾人使心變得淨信,在那裡,他們使心變得淨信後,以身體的崩解,死後往生到善趣、天界,阿難!緣於這個理由轉輪王是值得領受塔者。

阿難!這些是四種值得領受塔者。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 12. “阿難,有四種人應要為他興建塔。哪四種人呢?

“如來.阿羅漢.等正覺、辟支佛、如來的弟子、轉輪王。

“阿難,是什麼原因應為如來.阿羅漢.等正覺興建塔呢?阿難,人們看見塔後,心想: ‘這就是世尊.阿羅漢.等正覺的塔了。’ 他們會生起淨信心。他們對塔有了淨信心,在身壞命終之後,會投生在善趣、天界之中。阿難,這就是應為如來.阿羅漢.等正覺興建塔的原因了。

“阿難,是什麼原因應為辟支佛興建塔呢?阿難,人們看見塔後,心想: ‘這就是辟支佛的塔了。’ 他們會生起淨信心。他們對塔有了淨信心,在身壞命終之後,會投生在善趣、天界之中。阿難,這就是應為辟支佛興建塔的原因了。

“阿難,是什麼原因應為如來的弟子興建塔呢?阿難,人們看見塔後,心想: ‘這就是如來弟子的塔了。’ 他們會生起淨信心。他們對塔有了淨信心,在身壞命終之後,會投生在善趣、天界之中。阿難,這就是應為如來的弟子興建塔的原因了。

“阿難,是什麼原因應為轉輪王興建塔呢?阿難,人們看見塔後,心想: ‘這就是轉輪王的塔了。’ 他們會生起淨信心。他們對塔有了淨信心,在身壞命終之後,會投生在善趣、天界之中。阿難,這就是應為轉輪王興建塔的原因了。

“阿難,這些就是四種應要為他興建塔的人了。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 12 「阿難,有四種人應值得為之造塔,何者為四?

「(1)正等正覺如來應值得造塔。(2)辟支佛應值得造塔。(3)如來的聲聞弟子應值得造塔。(4)轉輪聖王應值得造塔。

「阿難,云何正等正覺如來應值得造塔?若人念及:『此為正等正覺如來的塔』之時,那將使很多人內心平靜及愉快。他們既得內心平靜快慰,於身壞命終之後能轉生快樂的天界。

阿難,此為正等正覺如來應值得造塔的理由。

「阿難,云何辟支佛應值得造塔?若人念及:『此為辟支佛的塔』之時,那將使很多人內心平靜及愉快。他們既得內心平靜快慰,於身壞命終之後能轉生快樂的天界。阿難,此為辟支佛應值得造塔的理由。

「阿難,云何如來之聲聞弟子應值得造塔?若人念及:『此為如來聲聞弟子的塔』之時,那將使很多的人內心平靜及愉快。他們既得內心平靜快慰,於身壞命終之後能轉生快樂的天界。阿難,此為如來的聲聞弟子應值得造塔的理由。

「阿難,云何轉輪聖王應值得造塔?若人念及:『此為公平正值轉輪王的塔』之時,那將使很多人內心平靜及愉快。他們既得內心平靜快慰,於身壞命終之後能轉生快樂的天界。阿難,此為轉輪聖王應值得造塔的理由。

「阿難,此為四種人應值得為之造塔。」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. These four (persons), Ānanda, are worthy of a Shrine.

Which four?

1) A Realised One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha is worthy of a Shrine,

2) an Individual Sambuddha is worthy of a Shrine,

3) a Realised One's disciple is worthy of a Shrine,[AFn152]

4) a Universal Monarch is worthy of a Shrine.

And for what reason or cause is a Realised One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha worthy of a Shrine? (Thinking): ‘This is the Shrine of a Realised One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha’, Ānanda, many people purify their mind, and after purifying their mind, at the break-up of the body, after death, they arise in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world. This is the reason or cause, Ānanda, why a Realised One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha is worthy of a Shrine.

And for what reason or cause is an Individual Sambuddha worthy of a Shrine? (Thinking): ‘This is the Shrine of a Gracious One, an Individual Sambuddha’, Ānanda, many people purify their mind, and after purifying their mind, at the break-up of the body, after death, they arise in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world. This is the reason or cause, Ānanda, why an Individual Sambuddha is worthy of a Shrine.

And for what reason or cause is a Realised One's disciple worthy of a Shrine? (Thinking): ‘This is the Shrine of a disciple of a Gracious One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha’, Ānanda, many people purify their mind, and after purifying their mind, at the break-up of the body, after death, they arise in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world. This is the reason or cause, Ānanda, why a Realised One's disciple is worthy of a Shrine.

And for what reason or cause is a Universal Monarch worthy of a Shrine? (Thinking): ‘This is the Shrine of a Righteous Monarch, a Righteous King’, Ānanda, many people purify their mind, and after purifying their mind, at the break-up of the body, after death, they arise in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world. This is the reason or cause, Ānanda, why a Universal Monarch is worthy of a Shrine. These, Ānanda, are the four (persons) worthy of a Shrine.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 27. "There are four persons, Ananda, who are worthy of a stupa. Who are those four? A Tathagata, an Arahant, a Fully Enlightened One is worthy of a stupa; so also is a Paccekabuddha,[VFn49] and a disciple of a Tathagata, and a universal monarch.

28-31. "And why, Ananda, is a Tathagata, an Arahant, a Fully Enlightened One worthy of a stupa? Because, Ananda, at the thought: 'This is the stupa of that Blessed One, Arahant, Fully Enlightened One!' the hearts of many people will be calmed and made happy; and so calmed and with their minds established in faith therein, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they will be reborn in a realm of heavenly happiness. And so also at the thought: 'This is the stupa of that Paccekabuddha!' or 'This is the stupa of a disciple of that Tathagata, Arahant, Fully Enlightened One!' or 'This is the stupa of that righteous monarch who ruled according to Dhamma!' — the hearts of many people are calmed and made happy; and so calmed and with their minds established in faith therein, at the breaking up of the body, after death, they will be reborn in a realm of heavenly happiness. And it is because of this, Ananda, that these four persons are worthy of a stupa."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 207
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Ānandaacchariyadhammo

  1. Atha kho āyasmā ānando vihāraṃ pavisitvā kapisīsaṃ ālambitvā rodamāno aṭṭhāsi – ‘‘ahañca vatamhi sekho sakaraṇīyo, satthu ca me parinibbānaṃ bhavissati, yo mama anukampako’’ti. Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘kahaṃ nu kho, bhikkhave, ānando’’ti? ‘‘Eso, bhante, āyasmā ānando vihāraṃ pavisitvā kapisīsaṃ ālambitvā rodamāno ṭhito – ‘ahañca vatamhi sekho sakaraṇīyo, satthu ca me parinibbānaṃ bhavissati, yo mama anukampako’’’ti. Atha kho bhagavā aññataraṃ bhikkhuṃ āmantesi – ‘‘ehi tvaṃ, bhikkhu, mama vacanena ānandaṃ āmantehi – ‘satthā taṃ, āvuso ānanda, āmantetī’’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ , bhante’’ti kho so bhikkhu bhagavato paṭissutvā yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘satthā taṃ, āvuso ānanda, āmantetī’’ti. ‘‘Evamāvuso’’ti kho āyasmā ānando tassa bhikkhuno paṭissutvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ bhagavā etadavoca – ‘‘alaṃ, ānanda, mā soci mā paridevi, nanu etaṃ, ānanda, mayā paṭikacceva akkhātaṃ – ‘sabbeheva piyehi manāpehi nānābhāvo vinābhāvo aññathābhāvo’; taṃ kutettha, ānanda, labbhā. Yaṃ taṃ jātaṃ bhūtaṃ saṅkhataṃ palokadhammaṃ, taṃ vata tathāgatassāpi sarīraṃ mā palujjī’ti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati. Dīgharattaṃ kho te, ānanda, tathāgato paccupaṭṭhito mettena kāyakammena hitena sukhena advayena appamāṇena, mettena vacīkammena hitena sukhena advayena appamāṇena, mettena manokammena hitena sukhena advayena appamāṇena. Katapuññosi tvaṃ, ānanda, padhānamanuyuñja, khippaṃ hohisi anāsavo’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

阿難的未曾有法

  1. 那時,尊者阿難進入住處後,靠著門柱站立哭泣:

「我還是個有應該要作的有學[CFn181] ,而我的大師將般涅槃,誰是對我憐愍者呢?」

那時,世尊召喚某位比丘:

「來!比丘!你以我的名義召喚阿難:『阿難學友!大師召喚你。』」

「是的,大德!」那位比丘回答世尊後,就去見尊者阿難。抵達後,對尊者阿難這麼說:

「阿難學友!大師召喚你。」

「是的,學友!」尊者阿難回答那位比丘後,就去見世尊。抵達後,向世尊問訊,接著在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,世尊對尊者阿難這麼說:

「夠了,阿難!不要憂愁,不要悲泣,阿難!以前這不是被我說過嗎?與一切所愛的、合意的分離、別離、異離。阿難!在這裡,這如何可得:『凡那被生的、存在的、有為[CFn182] 的、敗壞之法都不要被破壞。』這是不可能的!阿難!如來被你長時間以慈身業有益地、安樂地、無二〔心〕地、無量地;以慈語業有益地、安樂地、無二〔心〕地、無量地;以慈意業有益地、安樂地、無二〔心〕地、無量地侍奉,阿難!你已作了福德,精勤實踐,你將急速地成為無煩惱[CFn046] 者。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 13. 這時候阿難尊者走進住所,依著門楣,站著來哭泣,心想: “我的導師對我有悲憫心,他將入滅了,但我還是一個學人,還需要修學。”

這時候世尊問比丘: “比丘們,阿難在哪裏呢?”

“大德,阿難尊者走進住所,依著門楣,站著來哭泣。”

於是世尊對一位比丘說: “比丘,你過來,用我的名義對阿難說: ‘阿難賢友,導師叫你。’ ”

這位比丘回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 之後去到阿難尊者那裏,對阿難尊者說: “阿難賢友,導師叫你。”

阿難尊者回答這位比丘: “賢友,是的。” 之後去到世尊那裏,對世尊作禮,然後坐在一邊。

  1. 世尊對阿難尊者說: “阿難,不。不要憂愁,不要悲傷。阿難,我不是曾經對你說過嗎,所有我們的至親和喜愛的事物都會變化,都會消逝,都會和我們分離;要這些事物不變化,不消逝,不和我們分離是沒有可能的。阿難,任何生、有、眾緣和合的事物都是敗壞法,要它不敗壞是沒有可能的。阿難,你長期為如來的利益和快樂著想,一心一意,以無量的慈心作身業、口業、意業來侍奉如來。阿難,你有功德。作出努力,不久你便會得到無漏。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 13 爾時尊者阿難走入精舍,立於門楣,哭泣自念:『現在我還是一個聲聞,未獲道果,而慈愍的導師即將入涅槃!」

爾時薄伽梵告諸比丘說:「諸比丘,阿難在何處?」

「世尊,尊者阿難走入精舍,立於門楣,哭泣自念:『現在我還是一個聲聞,未獲道果,而慈愍的導師即將入涅槃!』

於是薄伽梵語某一比丘說:「比丘,你稱我名告阿難說:『阿難師兄,導師喚你。』」

「是,世尊。」該比丘回答說,遂走向尊者阿難所在處。到已,他告尊者阿難說:「阿難師兄,導師喚你。」

「是,師弟。」尊者阿難回答說,遂走向佛陀所在處。到已,向佛作禮,退坐一面。

14 當尊者阿難就座後,薄伽梵向他說:「止止,阿難,不要自苦,也不要哭!是否我於往昔曾告訴你萬物實性如此,其與我們最親近者將要與我們分別隔離?當一物既生而成形,即具分離的必然性,不要其解離,此何可能?且必無此理。阿難,很久以來,以你的慈而善的愛行、愛語、愛念親近於我,永不更變及莫可計算,甚堪嘉獎。阿難,當自精勤,不久你也將獲得漏竟。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[36: Ānanda's Marvellous Qualities]

  1. Then venerable Ānanda, after entering the living place,[AFn153] and leaning against the door-lintel, stood there crying: “The Teacher will attain Final Emancipation while I am still a Trainee with much to do,[AFn154] he who has compassion for me!”

Then the Gracious One addressed the monks, (saying): “Where, monks, is Ānanda?”

“This venerable Ānanda, reverend Sir, after entering the living place, and leaning against the door-lintel, stands there crying: ‘The Teacher will attain Final Emancipation while I am still a Trainee with much to do, he who has compassion for me!’ ”

Then the Gracious One addressed a certain monk, (saying): “Go, monk, and in my name address Ānanda, (saying): ‘The Teacher, friend Ānanda, is calling you.’ ”

“Very well, reverend Sir, and after replying to the Gracious One, he approached venerable Ānanda, and after approaching he said this to venerable Ānanda: “The Teacher, friend Ānanda, is calling you.”

“Very well, friend,” said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to that monk, he approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side. While sitting on one side the Gracious One said this to venerable Ānanda:

“Enough, Ānanda, don't grieve, don't lament, were you not warned by me when I declared: ‘There is alteration in, separation from, and changeability in all that is dear and appealing.’ How can it be otherwise, Ānanda, for that which is obtained, born, become, conditioned, subject to dissolution? It is not possible (to say) this: ‘The Realised One’s body should not dissolve’.

For a long time, Ānanda, you dwelt near to the Realised One with beneficial, pleasant, trustworthy,[AFn155] and limitlessly friendly bodily actions, with beneficial, pleasant, trustworthy, and limitlessly friendly speech actions, with beneficial, pleasant, trustworthy, and limitlessly friendly mental actions, you have done meritorious deeds, Ānanda, you should devote yourself to quickly striving to be one who is pollutant-free!”

* * *

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Ananda's Grief

  1. 32. Then the Venerable Ananda went into the vihara[VFn50] and leaned against the doorpost and wept: "I am still but a learner,[VFn51] and still have to strive for my own perfection. But, alas, my Master, who was so compassionate towards me, is about to pass away!"
  1. And the Blessed One spoke to the bhikkhus, saying: "Where, bhikkhus, is Ananda?"

"The Venerable Ananda, Lord, has gone into the vihara and there stands leaning against the door post and weeping: 'I am still but a learner, and still have to strive for my own perfection. But, alas, my Master, who was so compassionate towards me, is about to pass away!'"

  1. Then the Blessed One asked a certain bhikkhu to bring the Venerable Ananda to him, saying: "Go, bhikkhu, and say to Ananda, 'Friend Ananda, the Master calls you.'"

"So be it, Lord." And that bhikkhu went and spoke to the Venerable Ananda as the Blessed One had asked him to. And the Venerable Ananda went to the Blessed One, bowed down to him, and sat down on one side.

  1. Then the Blessed One spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "Enough, Ananda! Do not grieve, do not lament! For have I not taught from the very beginning that with all that is dear and beloved there must be change, separation, and severance? Of that which is born, come into being, compounded, and subject to decay, how can one say: 'May it not come to dissolution!'? There can be no such state of things. Now for a long time, Ananda, you have served the Tathagata with loving-kindness in deed, word, and thought, graciously, pleasantly, with a whole heart and beyond measure. Great good have you gathered, Ananda! Now you should put forth energy, and soon you too will be free from the taints."[VFn52]
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 208
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘yepi te, bhikkhave, ahesuṃ atītamaddhānaṃ arahanto sammāsambuddhā, tesampi bhagavantānaṃ etapparamāyeva upaṭṭhākā ahesuṃ, seyyathāpi mayhaṃ ānando. Yepi te, bhikkhave, bhavissanti anāgatamaddhānaṃ arahanto sammāsambuddhā, tesampi bhagavantānaṃ etapparamāyeva upaṭṭhākā bhavissanti, seyyathāpi mayhaṃ ānando. Paṇḍito, bhikkhave, ānando; medhāvī, bhikkhave, ānando. Jānāti ‘ayaṃ kālo tathāgataṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamituṃ bhikkhūnaṃ, ayaṃ kālo bhikkhunīnaṃ, ayaṃ kālo upāsakānaṃ , ayaṃ kālo upāsikānaṃ, ayaṃ kālo rañño rājamahāmattānaṃ titthiyānaṃ titthiyasāvakāna’nti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊召喚比丘們:

「比丘們!凡那些存在於過去世的阿羅漢、遍正覺者,都有那些世尊的這第一隨侍,猶如我的阿難;凡那些存在於未來世的阿羅漢、遍正覺者,也都有那些世尊的這第一隨侍,猶如我的阿難;比丘們!阿難是賢智者,比丘們!阿難是有智慧者,他知道:『這是比丘們為了見如來的前往時機;這是比丘尼的時機;這是優婆塞的時機;這是優婆夷的時機;這是國王、國王大臣們、外道們、外道弟子們的時機。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 15. 世尊對比丘說:

“比丘們,過去所有的阿羅漢.等正覺.世尊都有一位最好的侍者,正如我有阿難那樣。將來所有的阿羅漢.等正覺.世尊都有一位最好的侍者,正如我有阿難那樣。

“比丘們,阿難是一位智者,他知道什麼是適當的時候讓比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞、優婆夷、國王、大臣、外道、外道的弟子去見如來。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 15  爾時薄伽梵告諸比丘說:「諸比丘,於過去世正等正覺阿羅漢諸佛有忠誠的侍者為諸如來服務,正如阿難之對於我。而未來世若有人作正等正覺阿羅漢諸佛,亦有忠誠的侍者為諸如來服務,也正如阿難之對於我。

「諸比丘,阿難為一智者,他知何時為比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞、優婆夷、國王、大臣、外道及其信徒等去覲見如來是最為適宜。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then the Gracious One addressed the monks, (saying): “Whoever were Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas in the past, monks, for those Gracious Ones also there were such superior attendants, just as Ānanda is for me; whoever will be Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas in the future, monks, for those Gracious Ones also there will be such superior attendants, just as Ānanda is for me.

Ānanda is wise, monks, Ānanda is intelligent, monks, he knows: ‘This is the time for monks to approach and see the Realised One, this is the time for monks, this is the time for nuns, this is the time for laymen, this is the time for laywomen, this is the time for kings, for kings' ministers, for outside teachers, for the disciples of outside teachers.’

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Praise of Ananda

  1. 36. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus, saying: "Bhikkhus, the Blessed Ones, Arahants, Fully Enlightened Ones of times past also had excellent and devoted attendant bhikkhus, such as I have in Ananda. And so also, bhikkhus, will the Blessed Ones, Arahants, Fully Enlightened Ones of times to come.
  1. "Capable and judicious is Ananda, bhikkhus, for he knows the proper time for bhikkhus to have audience with the Tathagata, and the time for bhikkhunis, the time for laymen and for laywomen; the time for kings and for ministers of state; the time for teachers of other sects and for their followers.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 209
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Cattārome, bhikkhave, acchariyā abbhutā dhammā abbhutadhammā (syā. ka.) ānande. Katame cattāro? Sace, bhikkhave, bhikkhuparisā ānandaṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce ānando dhammaṃ bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, bhikkhuparisā hoti, atha kho ānando tuṇhī hoti. Sace, bhikkhave, bhikkhunīparisā ānandaṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce ānando dhammaṃ bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, bhikkhunīparisā hoti, atha kho ānando tuṇhī hoti. Sace, bhikkhave, upāsakaparisā ānandaṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce ānando dhammaṃ bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, upāsakaparisā hoti, atha kho ānando tuṇhī hoti. Sace, bhikkhave, upāsikāparisā ānandaṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce, ānando, dhammaṃ bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, upāsikāparisā hoti, atha kho ānando tuṇhī hoti. Ime kho, bhikkhave, cattāro acchariyā abbhutā dhammā ānande.

‘‘Cattārome, bhikkhave, acchariyā abbhutā dhammā raññe cakkavattimhi. Katame cattāro ? Sace, bhikkhave, khattiyaparisā rājānaṃ cakkavattiṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce rājā cakkavattī bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, khattiyaparisā hoti. Atha kho rājā cakkavattī tuṇhī hoti. Sace bhikkhave, brāhmaṇaparisā…pe… gahapatiparisā…pe… samaṇaparisā rājānaṃ cakkavattiṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce rājā cakkavattī bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, samaṇaparisā hoti, atha kho rājā cakkavattī tuṇhī hoti. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, cattārome acchariyā abbhutā dhammā ānande. Sace, bhikkhave, bhikkhuparisā ānandaṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce ānando dhammaṃ bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, bhikkhuparisā hoti. Atha kho ānando tuṇhī hoti. Sace, bhikkhave bhikkhunīparisā…pe… upāsakaparisā…pe… upāsikāparisā ānandaṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce ānando dhammaṃ bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, upāsikāparisā hoti. Atha kho ānando tuṇhī hoti. Ime kho, bhikkhave, cattāro acchariyā abbhutā dhammā ānande’’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 比丘們!有這四種關於阿難的不可思議之未曾有法,哪四種呢?比丘們!如果比丘眾為了見阿難而前往,他們經由看見而成為悅意的,在那裡,如果阿難說法,他們經由所說而成為悅意的,比丘們!當阿難沈默時,比丘眾就成為不滿足的。比丘們!如果比丘尼眾為了見阿難而前往,她們經由看見而成為悅意的,在那裡,如果阿難說法,她們經由所說而成為悅意的,比丘們!當阿難沈默時,比丘尼眾就成為不滿足的。比丘們!如果優婆塞眾為了見阿難而前往,他們經由看見而成為悅意的,在那裡,如果阿難說法,他們經由所說而成為悅意的,比丘們!當阿難沈默時,優婆塞眾就成為不滿足的。比丘們!如果優婆夷眾為了見阿難而前往,她們經由看見而成為悅意的,在那裡,如果阿難說法,她們經由所說而成為悅意的,比丘們!當阿難沈默時,優婆夷眾就成為不滿足的。比丘們!這些是四種關於阿難的不可思議之未曾有法。

比丘們!有這四種關於轉輪王的不可思議之未曾有法,哪四種呢?比丘們!如果剎帝利眾為了見轉輪王而前往,他們經由看見而成為悅意的,在那裡,如果轉輪王講說,他們經由所說而成為悅意的,比丘們!當轉輪王沈默時,剎帝利眾就成為不滿足的。比丘們!如果婆羅門眾……(中略)比丘們!如果屋主眾……(中略)比丘們!如果沙門眾為了見轉輪王而前往,他們經由看見而成為悅意的,在那裡,如果轉輪王講說,他們經由所說而成為悅意的,比丘們!當轉輪王沈默時,沙門眾就成為不滿足的。同樣的,比丘們!有〔這〕四種關於阿難的不可思議之未曾有法,〔哪四種呢?〕比丘們!如果比丘眾為了見阿難而前往,他們經由看見而成為悅意的,在那裡,如果阿難說法,他們經由所說而成為悅意的,比丘們!當阿難沈默時,比丘眾就成為不滿足的。比丘們!如果比丘尼眾……(中略)優婆塞眾……(中略)優婆夷眾為了見阿難而前往,她們經由看見而成為悅意的,在那裡,如果阿難說法,她們經由所說而成為悅意的,比丘們!當阿難沈默時,優婆夷眾就成為不滿足的。比丘們!這些是四種關於阿難的不可思議之未曾有法。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 16. “比丘們,阿難有四種稀有、難得的特質。這四種特質是什麼呢?

“比丘們,如果比丘眾去見阿難,他們看見阿難時會感到高興;如果阿難對他們說法,他們會對阿難所說的法感到高興;當阿難說完法,靜默下來時,他們會想阿難再說多些。

“比丘們,如果比丘尼眾去見阿難……

“比丘們,如果優婆塞眾去見阿難……

“比丘們,如果優婆夷眾去見阿難,她們看見阿難時會感到高興;如果阿難對她們說法,她們會對阿難所說的法感到高興;當阿難說完法,靜默下來時,她們會想阿難再說多些。

“比丘們,轉輪王有四種稀有、難得的特質。

“比丘們,如果剎帝利眾去見轉輪王,他們看見轉輪王時會感到高興;如果轉輪王對他們說話,他們會對轉輪王所說的話感到高興;當轉輪王說完話,靜默下來時,他們會想轉輪王再說多些。

“比丘們,如果婆羅門眾去見轉輪王……

“比丘們,如果居士眾去見轉輪王……

“比丘們,如果沙門眾去見轉輪王,他們看見轉輪王時會感到高興;如果轉輪王對他們說話,他們會對轉輪王所說的話感到高興;當轉輪王說完話,靜默下來時,他們會想轉輪王再說多些。

“比丘們,就像轉輪王那樣,阿難有四種稀有、難得的特質。

“比丘們,如果比丘眾去見阿難,他們看見阿難時會感到高興;如果阿難對他們說法,他們會對阿難所說的法感到高興;當阿難說完法,靜默下來時,他們會想阿難再說多些。

“比丘們,如果比丘尼眾去見阿難……

“比丘們,如果優婆塞眾去見阿難……

“比丘們,如果優婆夷眾去見阿難,她們看見阿難時會感到高興;如果阿難對她們說法,她們會對阿難所說的法感到高興;當阿難說完法,靜默下來時,她們會想阿難再說多些。

“比丘們,這些就是阿難四種稀有、難得的特質了。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 16  「諸比丘,阿難有四種稀有特質。何者為四?」諸比丘,若有(1)比丘眾往訪阿難,謁見後他們充滿欣悅,彼遂向之開示法要。他們對其所說充滿欣喜;當阿難默然不語,則諸比丘殊覺不安。

「諸比丘,若有(2)比丘尼、(3)優婆塞、(4)優婆夷往訪阿難,謁見後他們充滿欣悅,彼遂向之開示法要。他們對其所說也充滿欣喜;當阿難默然不語,則諸比丘尼等殊覺不安。

「諸比丘,轉輪聖王有四種稀有特質。何者為四?

「諸比丘,若(1)剎帝利、(2)婆羅門、(3)居士、(4)沙門等眾往謁轉輪聖王,覲見後他們充滿欣悅,彼遂向之開示法要。他們對其所說充滿欣喜;當轉輪聖王默然不語,則他們殊覺不安。

「諸比丘,正如此,阿難有此四種稀有特質。若比丘、比丘尼、優婆塞、優婆夷眾往訪阿難,謁見後他們充滿欣悅,彼遂向之開示法要。他們對其所說充滿欣喜;當阿難默然不語,則彼等殊覺不安。

「諸比丘,此為阿難的四種稀有特質。」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. There are four wonderful and marvellous things, monks, about Ānanda.

Which four?

1) If, monks, a group of monks approach to see Ānanda their minds are uplifted through seeing (him), and if Ānanda speaks words of welcome,[AFn156] their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of monks are dissatisfied if at that time Ānanda remains silent.

2) If, monks, a group of nuns approach to see Ānanda their minds are uplifted through seeing (him), and if Ānanda speaks words of welcome, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of nuns are dissatisfied if at that time Ānanda remains silent.

3) If, monks, a group of laymen approach to see Ānanda their minds are uplifted through seeing (him), and if Ānanda speaks words of welcome, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of laymen are dissatisfied if at that time Ānanda remains silent.

4) If, monks, a group of laywomen approach to see Ānanda their minds are uplifted through seeing (him), and if Ānanda speaks words of welcome, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of laywomen are dissatisfied if at that time Ānanda remains silent.

These are the four wonderful and marvellous things about Ānanda.

There are four wonderful and marvellous things, monks, about the Universal Monarch.

Which four?

1) If, monks, a group of Nobles approach to see the Universal Monarch their minds are uplifted through seeing (him), and if the Universal Monarch speaks, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of nobles are dissatisfied if then the Universal Monarch remains silent.

2) If, monks, a group of brahmins approach to see the Universal Monarch their minds are uplifted through seeing (him), and if the Universal Monarch speaks, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of brahmins are dissatisfied if then the Universal Monarch remains silent.

3) If, monks, a group of householders approach to see the Universal Monarch their minds are uplifted through seeing (him), and if the Universal Monarch speaks, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of householders are dissatisfied if then the Universal Monarch remains silent.

4) If, monks, a group of ascetics approach to see the Universal Monarch their minds are uplifted through seeing (him), and if the Universal Monarch speaks, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of ascetics are dissatisfied if then the Universal Monarch remains silent.

In the same way there are four wonderful and marvellous things, monks, about Ānanda.

1) If, monks, a group of monks approach to see Ānanda their minds are uplifted through seeing (him), and if Ānanda speaks words of welcome, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of monks are dissatisfied if at that time Ānanda remains silent.

2) If, monks, a group of nuns approach to see Ānanda their minds are uplifted through seeing (him), and if Ānanda speaks words of welcome, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of nuns are dissatisfied if at that time Ānanda remains silent.

3) If, monks, a group of laymen approach to see Ānanda their minds are uplifted through seeing (him), and if Ānanda speaks words of welcome, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of laymen are dissatisfied if at that time Ānanda remains silent.

4) If, monks, a group of laywomen approach to see Ānanda their minds are uplifted through seeing (him), and if Ānanda speaks words of welcome, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of laywomen are dissatisfied if at that time Ānanda remains silent.

There are the four wonderful and marvellous things, monks, about Ānanda.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 38. "In Ananda, bhikkhus, are to be found four rare and superlative qualities. What are the four? If, bhikkhus, a company of bhikkhus should go to see Ananda, they become joyful on seeing him; and if he then speaks to them of the Dhamma, they are made joyful by his discourse; and when he becomes silent, they are disappointed. So it is also when bhikkhunis, laymen, or laywomen go to see Ananda: they become joyful on seeing him; and if he then speaks to them of the Dhamma, they are made joyful by his discourse; and when he becomes silent, they are disappointed.
  1. "In a universal monarch, bhikkhus, are to be found four rare and superlative qualities. What are those four? If, bhikkhus, a company of nobles should go to see the universal monarch, they become joyful on seeing him; and if he then speaks, they are made joyful by his talk; and when he becomes silent, they are disappointed. So it is also when a company of brahmans, of householders, or of ascetics goes to see a universal monarch.
  2. "And in just the same way, bhikkhus, in Ananda are to be found these four rare and superlative qualities."
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 210
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Mahāsudassanasuttadesanā

  1. Evaṃ vutte āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘mā, bhante, bhagavā imasmiṃ khuddakanagarake ujjaṅgalanagarake sākhānagarake parinibbāyi. Santi, bhante, aññāni mahānagarāni, seyyathidaṃ – campā rājagahaṃ sāvatthī sāketaṃ kosambī bārāṇasī; ettha bhagavā parinibbāyatu. Ettha bahū khattiyamahāsālā, brāhmaṇamahāsālā gahapatimahāsālā tathāgate abhippasannā. Te tathāgatassa sarīrapūjaṃ karissantī’’ti ‘‘māhevaṃ, ānanda, avaca; māhevaṃ, ānanda, avaca – ‘khuddakanagarakaṃ ujjaṅgalanagarakaṃ sākhānagaraka’nti.

‘‘Bhūtapubbaṃ, ānanda, rājā mahāsudassano nāma ahosi cakkavattī dhammiko dhammarājā cāturanto vijitāvī janappadatthāvariyappatto sattaratanasamannāgato. Rañño, ānanda, mahāsudassanassa ayaṃ kusinārā kusāvatī nāma rājadhānī ahosi, puratthimena ca pacchimena ca dvādasayojanāni āyāmena; uttarena ca dakkhiṇena ca sattayojanāni vitthārena. Kusāvatī, ānanda, rājadhānī iddhā ceva ahosi phītā ca bahujanā ca ākiṇṇamanussā ca subhikkhā ca. Seyyathāpi, ānanda, devānaṃ āḷakamandā nāma rājadhānī iddhā ceva hoti phītā ca bahujanā ca ākiṇṇayakkhā ca subhikkhā ca; evameva kho, ānanda, kusāvatī rājadhānī iddhā ceva ahosi phītā ca bahujanā ca ākiṇṇamanussā ca subhikkhā ca. Kusāvatī, ānanda, rājadhānī dasahi saddehi avivittā ahosi divā ceva rattiñca, seyyathidaṃ – hatthisaddena assasaddena rathasaddena bherisaddena mudiṅgasaddena vīṇāsaddena gītasaddena saṅkhasaddena sammasaddena pāṇitāḷasaddena ‘asnātha pivatha khādathā’ti dasamena saddena.

‘‘Gaccha tvaṃ, ānanda, kusināraṃ pavisitvā kosinārakānaṃ mallānaṃ ārocehi – ‘ajja kho, vāseṭṭhā, rattiyā pacchime yāme tathāgatassa parinibbānaṃ bhavissati. Abhikkamatha vāseṭṭhā, abhikkamatha vāseṭṭhā. Mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha – amhākañca no gāmakkhette tathāgatassa parinibbānaṃ ahosi, na mayaṃ labhimhā pacchime kāle tathāgataṃ dassanāyā’’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya attadutiyo kusināraṃ pāvisi.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

大善見經的教導

  1. 當這麼說時,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:

「大德!世尊不要在這小城市、貧瘠城市的市郊般涅槃,大德!有其他大城市,即:瞻波城、王舍城、舍衛城、娑雞多城、憍賞彌城、波羅奈城,請世尊在那裡般涅槃,在那裡,有許多對如來有淨信的富裕剎帝利、富裕婆羅門、富裕屋主們,他們將作如來的遺體供養。」

「阿難!不要這麼說,阿難!不要這麼說:『這是小城市、貧瘠城市的市郊。』

阿難!從前,名叫大善見王是征服四天下、達成國土安定、具備七寶的如法法王。阿難!大善見王的王都是這拘尸那羅名叫咕薩瓦帝,東西有十二由旬長,南北有七由旬寬。阿難!咕薩瓦帝王都是成功的、繁榮的、人多的、豊饒的,阿難!猶如名叫阿勒葛曼大的天之王都是成功的、繁榮的、人多的、豊饒的。同樣的,阿難!咕薩瓦帝王都是成功的、繁榮的、人多的、豊饒的。阿難!咕薩瓦帝王都日夜不離十種聲音,即:象聲、馬聲、車聲、大鼓聲、小鼓聲、琵琶琴聲、歌聲、法螺聲、鐃鈸聲、手銅鑼聲,『請吃!請喝!請嚼!』為第十種聲音。

去!阿難!你進入拘尸那羅後,請召喚拘尸那羅的末羅人:『襪謝德們!今天後夜如來將般涅槃,襪謝德們!請你們前進,襪謝德們!請你們前進,不要以後成為後悔者:如來的般涅槃是在我們的村落區,我們在最後機會〔卻〕不得見如來。』」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊後,穿好衣服,取鉢與僧衣,自己與同伴進入拘尸那羅。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 17. 世尊說了這番話後,阿難尊者對他說: “大德,請世尊不要在這個小城市、荒蕪的城市、不重要的城市入滅。大德,有其他大城市如瞻波、王舍城、舍衛城、沙祇多、拘睒彌、波羅奈等,請世尊在那裏入滅,那裏有很多富有的剎帝利、富有的婆羅門、富有的居士對如來有很深的淨信,他們會供養如來舍利。”

“阿難,不要這樣說。阿難,不要說這裏是個小城市、荒蕪的城市、不重要的城市。

  1. “阿難,從前有個轉輪法王稱為大善見。法王征服四方國土,擁有七寶。阿難,拘尸那羅這裏就是當時大善見王的國都,稱為拘舍婆提。國都由東至西闊十二由旬,由南至北長七由旬。

“阿難,拘舍婆提國都富庶、繁榮、人口眾多、食物充足。阿難,天神有一個稱為阿荼槃多的國都,那裏富庶、繁榮、夜叉眾多、食物充足。阿難,就像阿荼槃多那樣,拘舍婆提國都富庶、繁榮、人口眾多、食物充足。

“阿難,拘舍婆提國都日夜離不開十種聲音:象聲、馬聲、車聲、大鼓聲、小鼓聲、琴聲、歌聲、鈸聲、鑼聲、喚人飲食聲。

  1. “阿難,你入去拘尸那羅,通知拘尸那羅的武士子: ‘婆舍多 [SFn23] ,今天後夜時分如來將會入滅。婆舍多,趕快去!婆舍多,趕快去!不要過後因在自己的地方看不見如來最後一刻而懊悔。’ ”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 於是穿好衣服,拿著大衣和缽,和另一人[SFn24] 入拘尸那羅。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 17 當其作如是語已,尊者阿難白佛言:「世尊,請不要在此鄙陋小城,荒毀之地,證取涅槃。因為更有大城如:瞻波、王舍、舍衛、薩克陀、柯善必、波羅奈等,請薄伽梵於其中之一證取涅槃,彼處多諸富有的剎帝利、婆羅門、長者居士--信佛弟子。他們對如來的遺體將致敬仰。」

18 「止止,阿難,不應作如是語:此是一鄙陋小城,荒毀之地。阿難,往昔有一王名大善見。他是一正直之人,以正直禦世,擁有七寶,征服全球,為四天下之主,並為人民保護者。此大善見王之首都名拘舍婆提,即在此拘屍那羅城。其城東西長十二由旬,南北寬七由旬。

「阿難,此拘舍婆提首都甚為廣闊繁榮,人民匯集,充滿各種食品,正如諸天之首都阿拉卡曼達,廣闊繁榮,民眾及諸天神薈集,各種食品充滿。阿難,拘舍婆提首都亦復如是。

「阿難,此拘舍婆提首都日夜發出十種聲音,如:象聲、馬聲、車聲、鼓聲、手鼓聲、琵琶聲、歌聲、缽鐃缽聲、鑼聲及「吃、喝、嬉笑聲」。

19 「阿難,你去拘屍那羅通知該地的馬拉說:『瓦舍塔們,今晚更末如來將取涅槃,你們請自便,不要後來自責說:『如來在我們的鄉村圓寂,而我們失去最後覲見的機會。』

「是,世尊,」尊者阿難回答說。他遂著衣持缽,有另一比丘作伴,走向拘屍那羅。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[37: Kusinārā's History] [AFn157]

  1. After this was said, venerable Ānanda addressed the Gracious One, (saying): “Reverend Sir, may the Gracious One not attain Final Emancipation in this small town, this barren town, this branch town. There are, reverend Sir, other great towns, such as: Campā, Rājagaha, Sāvatthī, Sāketa, Kosambī, Bārāṇasī[AFn158] - let the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation there. There are many wealthy Nobles there, wealthy brahmins, wealthy householders, who are devoted to the Realised One, and will worshipfully (dispose of) the Realised One's body.”

“Do not say that, Ānanda, do not say that, Ānanda: ‘(This) small town, this barren town, this branch town’. Formerly, Ānanda, there was a King by the name of Mahāsudassana, a Righteous Monarch, a Righteous King, who was victorious over the four quarters, one who had established a stable country, endowed with the seven jewels.[AFn159]

This Kusinārā, was then named Kusāvatī, and was King Mahāsudassana's capital city. Stretching for twelve leagues from East to West, and seven leagues from North to South, the capital city Kusāvatī was prosperous, Ānanda, successful, populous, full of people, with much food, just as, Ānanda, the capital city of the Divinities named Āḷakamandā is prosperous, successful, populous, full of people, with much food, so the capital city Kusāvatī was prosperous, Ānanda, successful, populous, full of people, with much food.

The capital city Kusāvatī was never separated from the ten sounds, by day or by night, that is to say: the sound of elephants, the sound of horses, the sound of chariots, the sound of drums, the sound of tabours, the sound of lutes, the sound of songs, the sound of cymbals, the sound of hand bells, (and with) ‘eat, drink, chew!’ as the tenth sound.

[38: The Mallas Worship the Gracious One]

“Go, Ānanda, and after entering into Kusinārā, announce to the Mallas: ‘Today, Vāseṭṭhas,[AFn160] in the last watch of the night, will be the Realised One's attainment of Final Emancipation, come along, Vāseṭṭhas, come along, Vāseṭṭhas, do not regret it afterwards (thinking): “In the area of our village, was the Realised One's attainment of Final Emancipation, and we did not, in the last watch of the night, get to see the Realised One”’.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One, dressing, and taking his robes and bowl, he entered Kusinārā with a companion.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

The Past Glory of Kusinara

  1. 41. When this had been said, the Venerable Ananda spoke to the Blessed One, saying: "Let it not be, Lord, that the Blessed One should pass away in this mean place, this uncivilized township in the midst of the jungle, a mere outpost of the province. There are great cities, Lord, such as Campa, Rajagaha, Savatthi, Saketa, Kosambi, and Benares — let the Blessed One have his final passing away in one of those. For in those cities dwell many wealthy nobles and brahmans and householders who are devotees of the Tathagata, and they will render due honor to the remains of the Tathagata."
  1. "Do not say that, Ananda! Do not say: 'This mean place, this uncivilized township in the midst of the jungle, a mere outpost of the province.' In times long past, Ananda, there was a king by the name of Maha Sudassana, who was a universal monarch, a king of righteousness, a conqueror of the four quarters of the earth, whose realm was established in security, and who was endowed with the seven jewels.[VFn53] And that King Maha Sudassana, Ananda, had his royal residence here at Kusinara, which was then called Kusavati, and it extended twelve yojanas from east to west, and seven from north to south.
  2. "And mighty, Ananda, was Kusavati, the capital, prosperous and well populated, much frequented by people, and abundantly provided with food. Just as the royal residence of the deities, Alakamanda, is mighty, prosperous, and well populated, much frequented by deities and abundantly provided with food, so was the royal capital of Kusavati.
  3. "Kusavati, Ananda, resounded unceasingly day and night with ten sounds — the trumpeting of elephants, the neighing of horses, the rattling of chariots, the beating of drums and tabours, music and song, cheers, the clapping of hands, and cries of 'Eat, drink, and be merry!'

Lamentation of the Mallas

  1. "Go now, Ananda, to Kusinara and announce to the Mallas: 'Today, Vasetthas, in the last watch of the night, the Tathagata's Parinibbana will take place. Approach, O Vasetthas, draw near! Do not be remorseful later at the thought: "In our township it was that the Tathagata's Parinibbana took place, but we failed to see him at the end!"'"

"So be it, Lord." And the Venerable Ananda prepared himself, and taking bowl and robe, went with a companion to Kusinara.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 211
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Mallānaṃ vandanā

  1. Tena kho pana samayena kosinārakā mallā sandhāgāre santhāgāre (sī. syā. pī.) sannipatitā honti kenacideva karaṇīyena. Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena kosinārakānaṃ mallānaṃ sandhāgāraṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā kosinārakānaṃ mallānaṃ ārocesi – ‘‘ajja kho, vāseṭṭhā, rattiyā pacchime yāme tathāgatassa parinibbānaṃ bhavissati. Abhikkamatha vāseṭṭhā abhikkamatha vāseṭṭhā. Mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha – ‘amhākañca no gāmakkhette tathāgatassa parinibbānaṃ ahosi, na mayaṃ labhimhā pacchime kāle tathāgataṃ dassanāyā’’’ti. Idamāyasmato ānandassa vacanaṃ sutvā mallā ca mallaputtā ca mallasuṇisā ca mallapajāpatiyo ca aghāvino dummanā cetodukkhasamappitā appekacce kese pakiriya kandanti, bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṃ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti vivaṭṭanti – ‘atikhippaṃ bhagavā parinibbāyissati, atikhippaṃ sugato parinibbāyissati, atikhippaṃ cakkhuṃ loke antaradhāyissatī’ti. Atha kho mallā ca mallaputtā ca mallasuṇisā ca mallapajāpatiyo ca aghāvino dummanā cetodukkhasamappitā yena upavattanaṃ mallānaṃ sālavanaṃ yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkamiṃsu. Atha kho āyasmato ānandassa etadahosi – ‘‘sace kho ahaṃ kosinārake malle ekamekaṃ bhagavantaṃ vandāpessāmi, avandito bhagavā kosinārakehi mallehi bhavissati, athāyaṃ ratti vibhāyissati. Yaṃnūnāhaṃ kosinārake malle kulaparivattaso kulaparivattaso ṭhapetvā bhagavantaṃ vandāpeyyaṃ – ‘itthannāmo, bhante, mallo saputto sabhariyo sapariso sāmacco bhagavato pāde sirasā vandatī’ti. Atha kho āyasmā ānando kosinārake malle kulaparivattaso kulaparivattaso ṭhapetvā bhagavantaṃ vandāpesi – ‘itthannāmo, bhante, mallo saputto sabhariyo sapariso sāmacco bhagavato pāde sirasā vandatī’’’ti. Atha kho āyasmā ānando etena upāyena paṭhameneva yāmena kosinārake malle bhagavantaṃ vandāpesi.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

末羅人的禮拜

  1. 當時,拘尸那羅的末羅人以某些必須作的事在集會所集合。那時,尊者阿難去拘尸那羅末羅人的集會所。抵達後,召喚拘尸那羅的末羅人:

「襪謝德們!今天後夜如來將般涅槃,襪謝德們!請你們前進,襪謝德們!請你們前進,不要以後成為後悔者:如來的般涅槃是在我們的村落區,我們在最後機會〔卻〕不得見如來。」

聽了尊者阿難的這言語後,末羅人與末羅人的兒子、末羅人的媳婦、末羅人的夫人們成為痛苦的、悲傷的、具備心苦的,有些散髮號泣、揮舞手臂號泣、倒下打滾〔而說〕:

「太快了,世尊將般涅槃,太快了,善逝將般涅槃,太快了,世間之眼將滅沒。」

那時,痛苦的、悲傷的、具備心苦的末羅人的兒子、末羅人的媳婦、末羅人的夫人們去末羅附近的沙羅樹林見尊者阿難。那時,尊者阿難這麼想:

「如果我讓拘尸那羅的末羅人一個一個禮拜世尊,世尊還沒被拘尸那羅的末羅人禮拜完,此夜將已天亮了,讓我安排拘尸那羅的末羅人每回一家族禮拜世尊:『大德!像這樣名字的末羅人,還有兒子、妻子、眾人一起以頭禮拜世尊的足。』」

那時,尊者阿難安排拘尸那羅的末羅人每回一家族禮拜世尊:

「大德!像這樣名字的末羅人,還有兒子、妻子、眾人一起以頭禮拜世尊的足。」

那時,尊者阿難以這個方法就在初夜使拘尸那羅的末羅人禮拜世尊〔完畢〕。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 20. 這時候,拘尸那羅的武士子聚集在聚集堂裏處理一些事務。阿難去到拘尸那羅武士子的聚集堂,通知拘尸那羅的武士子: “婆舍多,今天後夜時分如來將會入滅。婆舍多,趕快去!婆舍多,趕快去!不要過後因在自己的地方看不見如來最後一刻而懊悔。”
  1. 聽了阿難尊者的說話後,武士子和他們的妻子、兒子、媳婦都感到痛惜和傷心,內心充滿苦惱。他們有些人弄亂頭髮在痛泣;有些人緊抱雙臂在痛泣;有些人從石上跳下,在地上滾來滾去。他們叫嚷: “世尊太快入滅了!善逝太快入滅了!世間的眼睛太快消失了!”

武士子和他們的妻子、兒子、媳婦帶著痛惜和傷心,內心充滿苦惱地前往優波跋多那娑羅林,去到阿難尊者那裏。

  1. 阿難尊者心想: “如果我讓拘尸那羅的武士子一個跟一個地頂禮世尊,到這晚完結時他們也不能頂禮完。不如我安排拘尸那羅的武士子一家人跟一家人地頂禮世尊吧。”

於是阿難尊者安排拘尸那羅的武士子一家人跟一家人地頂禮世尊。他逐一稱喚: “大德,這是某某姓名的武士子,跟他的妻子、兒女、親友等眾人一起頂禮世尊雙足。”

阿難尊者用這個方法,拘尸那羅的武士子在初夜時分頂禮完世尊。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 20 爾時拘屍那羅的馬拉正集於會廳商議公事。尊者阿難走向該會廳。到已,他告訴馬拉說:『瓦舍塔們,今晚更末如來將取涅槃。你們請自便!不要後來自責說:『如來在我們的鄉村圓寂,而我們失去最後覲見的機會。』

21 聞尊者阿難如是語已,馬拉們與其少年、少女及妻子皆悲哀慘悽,中心憂傷,當一念及:「薄伽梵取涅槃何如是其迅速!慈尊取涅槃何如是其迅速!世界之光熄滅何如是其迅速!」他們或披頭散髮而哭,或伸臂而哭,或自投地宛轉而哭。

爾時馬拉們與其少年、少女及妻子皆悲哀慘悽,中心憂傷走向烏帕瓦塔那、馬拉的娑羅樹林尊者阿難的所在處。

22 爾時尊者阿難如是思維:「若我許拘屍那羅的馬拉們一一向佛作禮,恐全部禮佛未畢即將天明。今且令彼等分隊站立,每家為一隊向世尊引見說:『世尊,今有某某馬拉與其妻子,侍從,親友等頂禮佛足。』」

尊者阿難遂將拘屍那羅的馬拉們每家組成一隊向薄伽梵敬禮說:「世尊,今有某某馬拉與其妻子侍從親友等頂禮佛足。」

採用如此方法,尊者阿難於一更時分已令拘屍那羅的全部馬拉進前禮佛。

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Now at that time the Mallas from Kusinārā were assembled in the Council Hall having some business or other. Then venerable Ānanda went to where the Mallas from Kusinārā were assembled in the Council Hall, and after approaching he said this to the Mallas: “Today, Vāseṭṭhas, in the last watch of the night, will be the Realised One's attainment of Final Emancipation, come along, Vāseṭṭhas, come along, Vāseṭṭhas, do not regret it afterwards (thinking): ‘In the area of our village, was the Realised One's attainment of Final Emancipation, and we did not, in the last watch of the night, get to see the Realised One.’ ”

After hearing this from venerable Ānanda, the Mallas, the sons of the Mallas, the daughters-in-law of the Mallas, and the wives of the Mallas became miserable, depressed, with their minds given over to suffering. Some, having dishevelled hair, were weeping, throwing up their arms, falling down (as though) cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, they were crying: “Too quickly the Gracious One will attain Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One will attain Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world will disappear!”

Then the Mallas, the sons of the Mallas, the daughters-in-law of the Mallas, and the wives of the Mallas, miserable, depressed, with their minds given over to suffering, approached the Mallas' Sal Wood at Upavattana, and approached venerable Ānanda.

Then this occurred to venerable Ānanda: “If I make the Mallas of Kusinārā worship the Gracious One one by one before the Gracious One has been worshipped by the Mallas of Kusinārā the night will end.[AFn161] Now what if I, having segregated the Mallas family by family, made them worship the Gracious One, (saying): ‘A Malla named so and so, together with his children, wife, dependents, and councillors worships the Gracious One's feet with his head’?”

Then venerable Ānanda having segregated the Mallas family by family, made them worship the Gracious One, (saying): “A Malla named so and so, together with his children, wife, dependents, and councillors worships the Gracious One's feet with his head.”

Then venerable Ānanda, in this way, during the first watch of the night, made the Mallas of Kusinārā worship the Gracious One.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 46. Now at that time the Mallas had gathered in the council hall for some public business. And the Venerable Ananda approached them and announced: "Today, Vasetthas, in the last watch of the night, the Tathagata's Parinibbana will take place. Approach, Vasetthas, draw near! Do not be remorseful later at the thought: 'In our township it was that the Tathagata's Parinibbana took place, but we failed to see him at the end.'"
  1. When they heard the Venerable Ananda speak these words, the Mallas with their sons, their wives, and the wives of their sons, were sorely grieved, grieved at heart and afflicted; and some, with their hair all dishevelled, with arms uplifted in despair, wept; flinging themselves on the ground, they rolled from side to side, lamenting: "Too soon has the Blessed One come to his Parinibbana! Too soon has the Happy One come to his Parinibbana! Too soon will the Eye of the World vanish from sight!"
  2. And thus afflicted and filled with grief, the Mallas, with their sons, their wives, and the wives of their sons, went to the Sala Grove, the recreation park of the Mallas, to the place where the Venerable Ananda was.
  3. And the thought arose in the Venerable Ananda: "If I were to allow the Mallas of Kusinara to pay reverence to the Blessed One one by one, the night will have given place to dawn before they are all presented to him. Therefore let me divide them up according to clan, each family in a group, and so present them to the Blessed One thus: 'The Malla of such and such a name, Lord, with his wives and children, his attendants and his friends, pays homage at the feet of the Blessed One.'"
  4. And the Venerable Ananda divided the Mallas up according to clan, each family in a group, and presented them to the Blessed One. So it was that the Venerable Ananda caused the Mallas of Kusinara to be presented to the Blessed One by clans, each family in a group, even in the first watch of the night.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 212
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Subhaddaparibbājakavatthu

  1. Tena kho pana samayena subhaddo nāma paribbājako kusinārāyaṃ paṭivasati. Assosi kho subhaddo paribbājako – ‘‘ajja kira rattiyā pacchime yāme samaṇassa gotamassa parinibbānaṃ bhavissatī’’ti. Atha kho subhaddassa paribbājakassa etadahosi – ‘‘sutaṃ kho pana metaṃ paribbājakānaṃ vuḍḍhānaṃ mahallakānaṃ ācariyapācariyānaṃ bhāsamānānaṃ – ‘kadāci karahaci tathāgatā loke uppajjanti arahanto sammāsambuddhā’ti. Ajjeva rattiyā pacchime yāme samaṇassa gotamassa parinibbānaṃ bhavissati. Atthi ca me ayaṃ kaṅkhādhammo uppanno, evaṃ pasanno ahaṃ samaṇe gotame, ‘pahoti me samaṇo gotamo tathā dhammaṃ desetuṃ, yathāhaṃ imaṃ kaṅkhādhammaṃ pajaheyya’’’nti. Atha kho subhaddo paribbājako yena upavattanaṃ mallānaṃ sālavanaṃ, yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘sutaṃ metaṃ, bho ānanda, paribbājakānaṃ vuḍḍhānaṃ mahallakānaṃ ācariyapācariyānaṃ bhāsamānānaṃ – ‘kadāci karahaci tathāgatā loke uppajjanti arahanto sammāsambuddhā’ti. Ajjeva rattiyā pacchime yāme samaṇassa gotamassa parinibbānaṃ bhavissati. Atthi ca me ayaṃ kaṅkhādhammo uppanno – evaṃ pasanno ahaṃ samaṇe gotame ‘pahoti me samaṇo gotamo tathā dhammaṃ desetuṃ, yathāhaṃ imaṃ kaṅkhādhammaṃ pajaheyya’nti. Sādhāhaṃ, bho ānanda, labheyyaṃ samaṇaṃ gotamaṃ dassanāyā’’ti. Evaṃ vutte āyasmā ānando subhaddaṃ paribbājakaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘alaṃ, āvuso subhadda, mā tathāgataṃ viheṭhesi, kilanto bhagavā’’ti. Dutiyampi kho subhaddo paribbājako…pe… tatiyampi kho subhaddo paribbājako āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘sutaṃ metaṃ, bho ānanda, paribbājakānaṃ vuḍḍhānaṃ mahallakānaṃ ācariyapācariyānaṃ bhāsamānānaṃ – ‘kadāci karahaci tathāgatā loke uppajjanti arahanto sammāsambuddhā’ti. Ajjeva rattiyā pacchime yāme samaṇassa gotamassa parinibbānaṃ bhavissati. Atthi ca me ayaṃ kaṅkhādhammo uppanno – evaṃ pasanno ahaṃ samaṇe gotame, ‘pahoti me samaṇo gotamo tathā dhammaṃ desetuṃ, yathāhaṃ imaṃ kaṅkhādhammaṃ pajaheyya’nti. Sādhāhaṃ, bho ānanda, labheyyaṃ samaṇaṃ gotamaṃ dassanāyā’’ti. Tatiyampi kho āyasmā ānando subhaddaṃ paribbājakaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘alaṃ, āvuso subhadda, mā tathāgataṃ viheṭhesi, kilanto bhagavā’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

遊行者須跋陀的事

  1. 當時,名叫須跋陀的遊行者住在拘尸那羅。

遊行者須跋陀聽聞:

「聽說在今夜的後夜,沙門喬達摩將般涅槃。」

遊行者須跋陀心想:

「我曾聽遊行者的耆宿大老們;老師與老師的老師說:『如來、阿羅漢、遍正覺者很少出現於世間。』而就在今夜的後夜,沙門喬達摩將般涅槃,我有這個困惑法生起,我對沙門喬達摩有這樣的淨信:『沙門喬達摩能教導我這樣的法,這樣,我應該能捨斷這個困惑法。』」

那時,遊行者須跋陀到烏玻瓦達那,末羅族人的沙羅樹林,去見尊者阿難。抵達後,對尊者阿難這麼說:

「阿難先生!我曾聽遊行者的耆宿大老們;老師與老師的老師說:『如來、阿羅漢、遍正覺者很少出現於世間。』而就在今夜的後夜,沙門喬達摩將般涅槃,我有這個困惑法生起,我對沙門喬達摩有這樣的淨信:『沙門喬達摩能教導我這樣的法,這樣,我應該能捨斷這個困惑法。』阿難先生!如果我得以見沙門喬達摩,那就好了[CFn183] !」

「夠了!須跋陀道友[CFn158] !不要打擾如來!世尊已疲累。」

第二次,遊行者須跋陀……(中略)。

第三次,遊行者須跋陀對尊者阿難這麼說:

「阿難先生!我曾聽遊行者的耆宿大老們;老師與老師的老師說:『如來、阿羅漢、遍正覺者很少出現於世間。』而就在今夜的後夜,沙門喬達摩將般涅槃,我有這個困惑法生起,我對沙門喬達摩有這樣的淨信:『沙門喬達摩能教導我這樣的法,這樣,我應該能捨斷這個困惑法。』阿難先生!如果我得以見沙門喬達摩,那就好了!」

第三次,尊者阿難對遊行者須跋陀這麼說:

「夠了!須跋陀道友!不要打擾如來!世尊已疲累。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 23. 這時候有一位稱為須跋陀的遊方者住在拘尸那羅。他聽到喬答摩沙門將會在當天後夜時分入滅的消息,於是心想:

“我曾經聽過一些年長、祖師輩的遊方者交談,他們說如來.阿羅漢.等正覺在世間出現是很罕有的。喬答摩沙門將會在今天後夜時分入滅。我的心裏有一個疑團,而我對喬答摩沙門有淨信,喬答摩沙門能夠幫助我,為我說法,驅除我心裏的疑團。”

  1. 於是須跋陀遊方者前往武士子的優波跋多那娑羅林,去到阿難尊者那裏,對阿難尊者說:

“阿難賢者,我曾經聽過一些年長、祖師輩的遊方者交談,他們說如來.阿羅漢.等正覺在世間出現是很罕有的。喬答摩沙門將會在今天後夜時分入滅。我的心裏有一個疑團,而我對喬答摩沙門有淨信,喬答摩沙門能夠幫助我,為我說法,驅除我心裏的疑團。阿難賢者,我可否去見喬答摩沙門呢?”

須跋陀遊方者說了這番話後,阿難尊者對他說: “須跋陀賢友,不。不要煩擾如來,世尊很疲倦。”

須跋陀遊方者第二次……

須跋陀遊方者第三次對阿難尊者說: “阿難賢者,我曾經聽過一些年長、祖師輩的遊方者交談,他們說如來.阿羅漢.等正覺在世間出現是很罕有的。喬答摩沙門將會在今天後夜時分入滅。我的心裏有一個疑團,而我對喬答摩沙門有淨信,喬答摩沙門能夠幫助我,為我說法,驅除我心裏的疑團。阿難賢者,我可否去見喬答摩沙門呢?”

須跋陀遊方者說了這番話後,阿難尊者第三次對他說: “須跋陀賢友,不。不要煩擾如來,世尊很疲倦。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 23 爾時有一遊行者蘇跋陀抵達拘屍那羅。彼聽說:「今晚三更時分沙門喬達摩將入無餘涅槃。」

於是遊行者蘇跋陀如是思維:「我曾從諸長老、師父與弟子遊行者處聞來:『正等正覺阿羅漢如來之出世是甚為希罕。』但在今夜三更時分沙門喬達摩即將入涅槃。今我心有疑。然我對沙門喬達摩有信心;我想他能揭示真理,用釋我之疑惑。」

24 於是遊行者蘇跋陀走向烏帕瓦塔那﹒馬拉的娑羅樹林,尊者阿難的所在處。到已,他向尊者阿難說:「尊者阿難,我曾從諸耆宿長老、師父與弟子遊行者處聞來:『正等正覺阿羅漢如來之出世是甚為希罕。』但在今夜三更時分沙門喬達摩即將入涅槃。今我心有疑。然我對喬達摩有信心;我想他能揭示真理,用釋我之疑惑。尊者阿難,或者我也被許可去見沙門喬達摩?」

「止止,朋友蘇跋陀,請不用勞擾如來,他很倦乏。」

第二第三次遊行者蘇跋陀向尊者阿難說:(其詳見上)

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[39: Subhadda, the Last Direct Disciple]

  1. Now at that time a wanderer named Subhadda[AFn162] had arrived at Kusinārā. The wanderer Subhadda heard: “Today, it seems, in the last watch of the night, will be the ascetic Gotama's attainment of Final Emancipation.”

Then this occurred to the wanderer Subhadda: “I have heard this from old, elderly wanderers, who are teachers and teachers' teachers, when they said: ‘Only occasionally, rarely, do Realised Ones, Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas arise in the world.’ Today, in the last watch of the night, will be the ascetic Gotama's attainment of Final Emancipation.

There is a doubt that has arisen for me, and I have confidence in the ascetic Gotama thus: ‘The ascetic Gotama is able to teach the Teaching in such a way that I will be able to abandon that doubt.’ ”

Then the wanderer Subhadda approached the Mallas' Sal Wood at Upavattana, and approached venerable Ānanda, and after approaching he said to venerable Ānanda: “I have heard this from old, elderly wanderers, dear Ānanda, who are teachers and teachers' teachers, when they said: ‘Only occasionally, rarely, do Realised Ones, Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas arise in the world.’ Today, in the last watch of the night, will be the ascetic Gotama's attainment of Final Emancipation. There is a doubt that has arisen for me, and I have confidence in the ascetic Gotama thus: ‘The ascetic Gotama is able to teach the Teaching in such a way that I will be able to abandon that doubt’. It would be well, dear Ānanda, if I was allowed to see the ascetic Gotama.”

After this was said, venerable Ānanda said this to the wanderer Subhadda: “Enough, friend Subhadda, do not trouble the Realised One, the Gracious One is exhausted.”

For a second time the wanderer Subhadda said this to venerable Ānanda: “I have heard this from old, elderly wanderers, dear Ānanda, who are teachers and teachers' teachers, when they said: ‘Only occasionally, rarely, do Realised Ones, Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas arise in the world.’ Today, in the last watch of the night, will be the Realised One's attainment of Final Emancipation. There is a doubt that has arisen for me, and I have confidence in the ascetic Gotama thus: ‘The ascetic Gotama is able to teach the Teaching in such a way that I will be able to abandon that doubt’. It would be well, dear Ānanda, if I was allowed to see the ascetic Gotama.

For a second time venerable Ānanda said this to the wanderer Subhadda: “Enough, friend Subhadda, do not trouble the Realised One, the Gracious One is exhausted.”

For a third time the wanderer Subhadda said this to venerable Ānanda: “I have heard this from old, elderly wanderers, dear Ānanda, who are teachers and teachers' teachers, when they said: ‘Only occasionally, rarely, do Realised Ones, Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas arise in the world.’ Today, in the last watch of the night, will be the ascetic Gotama's attainment of Final Emancipation. There is a doubt that has arisen for me, and I have confidence in the ascetic Gotama thus: ‘The ascetic Gotama is able to teach the Teaching in such a way that I will be able to abandon that doubt’. It would be well, dear Ānanda, if I was allowed to see the ascetic Gotama.”

For a third time venerable Ānanda said this to the wanderer Subhadda: “Enough, friend Subhadda, do not trouble the Realised One, the Gracious One is exhausted.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

The Last Convert

  1. 51. Now at that time a wandering ascetic named Subhadda was dwelling at Kusinara. And Subhadda the wandering ascetic heard it said: "Today in the third watch of the night, the Parinibbana of the ascetic Gotama will take place."
  1. And the thought arose in him: "I have heard it said by old and venerable wandering ascetics, teachers of teachers, that the arising of Tathagatas, Arahants, Fully Enlightened Ones, is rare in the world. Yet this very day, in the last watch of the night, the Parinibbana of the ascetic Gotama will take place. Now there is in me a doubt; but to this extent I have faith in the ascetic Gotama, that he could so teach me the Dhamma as to remove that doubt."
  2. Then the wandering ascetic Subhadda went to the Sala Grove, the recreation park of the Mallas, and drew near to the Venerable Ananda, and told the Venerable Ananda his thought. And he spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "Friend Ananda, it would be good if I could be allowed into the presence of the ascetic Gotama."
  3. But the Venerable Ananda answered him, saying: "Enough, friend Subhadda! Do not trouble the Tathagata. The Blessed One is weary."

55-56. Yet a second and a third time the wandering ascetic Subhadda made his request, and a second and a third time the Venerable Ananda refused him.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 213
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Assosi kho bhagavā āyasmato ānandassa subhaddena paribbājakena saddhiṃ imaṃ kathāsallāpaṃ. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘alaṃ, ānanda, mā subhaddaṃ vāresi, labhataṃ, ānanda, subhaddo tathāgataṃ dassanāya. Yaṃ kiñci maṃ subhaddo pucchissati, sabbaṃ taṃ aññāpekkhova pucchissati, no vihesāpekkho. Yaṃ cassāhaṃ puṭṭho byākarissāmi, taṃ khippameva ājānissatī’’ti. Atha kho āyasmā ānando subhaddaṃ paribbājakaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘gacchāvuso subhadda, karoti te bhagavā okāsa’’nti. Atha kho subhaddo paribbājako yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṃ sammodi, sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho subhaddo paribbājako bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘yeme, bho gotama, samaṇabrāhmaṇā saṅghino gaṇino gaṇācariyā ñātā yasassino titthakarā sādhusammatā bahujanassa, seyyathidaṃ – pūraṇo kassapo, makkhali gosālo, ajito kesakambalo, pakudho kaccāyano, sañcayo belaṭṭhaputto, nigaṇṭho nāṭaputto, sabbete sakāya paṭiññāya abbhaññiṃsu, sabbeva na abbhaññiṃsu , udāhu ekacce abbhaññiṃsu, ekacce na abbhaññiṃsū’’ti? ‘‘Alaṃ, subhadda, tiṭṭhatetaṃ – ‘sabbete sakāya paṭiññāya abbhaññiṃsu, sabbeva na abbhaññiṃsu, udāhu ekacce abbhaññiṃsu, ekacce na abbhaññiṃsū’ti. Dhammaṃ te, subhadda, desessāmi; taṃ suṇāhi sādhukaṃ manasikarohi, bhāsissāmī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho subhaddo paribbājako bhagavato paccassosi. Bhagavā etadavoca –
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 世尊聽到尊者阿難與遊行者須跋陀這互相的交談。

那時,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「夠了!阿難!不要阻止須跋陀,讓須跋陀得以見世尊,凡須跋陀將問我的任何事,都將從完全智[CFn184] 之期待而問,非從惱害之期待,而凡我將對所問解說的,他將迅速了知。」

那時,尊者阿難對遊行者須跋陀這麼說:

「須跋陀道友!去吧!世尊允許你。」

那時,遊行者須跋陀去見世尊。抵達後,與世尊互相歡迎。歡迎與寒暄後,在一旁坐下。在一旁坐好後,遊行者須跋陀對世尊這麼說:

「喬達摩先生!凡這些團體的領導者,群眾的老師,有名望的知名開宗祖師,眾人公認有德行者的沙門、婆羅門,即:富蘭那迦葉、末迦利瞿舍羅、阿夷多翅舍欽婆羅、浮陀迦旃延、散惹耶毘羅梨子、尼乾陀若提子,全都如自己自稱的已證知呢?全都未證知呢?或者某些已證知,某些未證知呢?」

「夠了!須跋陀!停止這個:『全都如自己自稱的已證知呢?全都未證知呢?或者某些已證知,某些未證知呢?』須跋陀!我將教導你法,須跋陀!你要聽!你要好好作意,我要說了。」

「是的,大德!」遊行者須跋陀回答世尊。

世尊這麼說:

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 25. 世尊聽到阿難尊者和須跋陀遊方者的談話,他對阿難尊者說:

“阿難,不。不要阻止須跋陀。阿難,讓須跋陀來見如來吧。須跋陀要問我的,都是為了想得究竟智而問,不是為了煩擾而問。無論他問什麼問題,我會為他解釋,他很快便會明白。”

  1. 於是須跋陀遊方者去到世尊那裏,和世尊互相問候,作了一番悅意的交談,然後坐在一邊。須跋陀遊方者對世尊說:

“喬答摩賢者,一些沙門婆羅門如富蘭那.迦葉、末伽梨.拘舍梨、阿耆多.翅舍欽婆羅、波拘陀.迦旃延、散若耶.毗羅胝子、尼乾陀.若提子擁有教團,擁有教派,是教派的老師,為人所認知,有名望,是宗派的創立人,受很多人推崇;他們都宣稱自己得到最高的智慧。究竟他們全都得不到最高的智慧;還是一些得到,一些得不到呢?”

“須跋陀,不。不要問這些事情。須跋陀,我將要為你說法,留心聽,好好用心思量,我現在說了。”

須跋陀遊方者回答世尊: “大德,是的。” 世尊說:

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 25 當薄伽梵聽到尊者阿難與遊行者蘇跋陀的談話,彼告尊者阿難說:「止止,阿難,不用阻攔蘇跋陀,且聽他瞻仰如來。隨彼所問,是因求知而問,非為勞擾;而隨我所答,彼將迅速瞭解。」

於是尊者阿難向遊行者蘇跋陀說:「請進,朋友蘇跋陀,如來已給了許可。」

26 遊行者蘇跋陀遂走向佛前致敬,與之互相問訊後,即就座其側,白佛言:「喬達摩,彼諸宗教領袖,門徒之首領,教派之創建者,遠近知名,群眾欽仰其為賢者如:(一)富蘭迦葉,(二)末伽梨憍舍梨,(三)阿浮多,翅舍欽婆羅,(四)波浮迦旃延,(五)薩若毘耶梨弗,(六)尼犍子等,依照其自稱,是否他們已徹底瞭解諸法?或有瞭解,或有不瞭解者?」

「止止,蘇跋陀,且放下:『依照其自稱,是否他們已徹底瞭解諸法?或有瞭解,或有不瞭解者』,我將向你說法,且專心諦聽!」

「是,世尊」,遊行者蘇跋陀回答說。

27 於是薄伽梵說:

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. The Gracious One heard venerable Ānanda having this conversation with the wanderer Subhadda. Then the Gracious One said this to venerable Ānanda: “Enough, Ānanda, do not obstruct Subhadda allow Subhadda to see the Realised One.[AFn163] Whatever Subhadda will ask of me all of it he will ask of me seeking for deep knowledge, and not to trouble me. Whatever question is put I will answer, and he will quickly understand it.”

Then venerable Ānanda said this to the wanderer Subhadda: “Go, friend Subhadda, the Gracious One has given you permission.”

Then the wanderer Subhadda approached the Gracious One, and after approaching, he exchanged greetings with the Gracious One, and after exchanging courteous talk and greetings, he sat down on one side.

While sitting on one side the wanderer Subhadda said this to the Gracious One: “Those ascetics and brahmins, dear Gotama, who have a community, a group, who teach a group, well-known, famous, religious founders, agreed upon as good for the people, such as: Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla, Ajita Kesakambala, Pakudha Kaccāyana, Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, Nigaṇṭha Nāṭaputta,[AFn164] have they all understood, according to their own avowal? Have they all not understood? Or, have some understood? Or, have some not understood?”

“Enough, Subhadda, stop this:[AFn165] ‘Have they all understood, according to their own avowal? Have they all not understood? Or, have some understood? Or, have some not understood?’ I will teach the Teaching to you, Subhadda, listen to it, apply your mind well, and I will speak.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” the wanderer Subhadda replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 57. And the Blessed One heard the talk between them, and he called the Venerable Ananda and said: "Stop, Ananda! Do not refuse Subhadda. Subhadda, Ananda, may be allowed into the presence of the Tathagata. For whatever he will ask me, he will ask for the sake of knowledge, and not as an offence. And the answer I give him, that he will readily understand."
  1. Thereupon the Venerable Ananda said to the wandering ascetic Subhadda: "Go then, friend Subhadda, the Blessed One gives you leave."
  2. Then the wandering ascetic Subhadda approached the Blessed One and saluted him courteously. And having exchanged with him pleasant and civil greetings, the wandering ascetic Subhadda seated himself at one side and addressed the Blessed One, saying: "There are, Venerable Gotama, ascetics and brahmans who are heads of great companies of disciples, who have large retinues, who are leaders of schools, well known and renowned, and held in high esteem by the multitude, such teachers as Purana Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala, Ajita Kesakambali, Pakudha Kaccayana, Sañjaya Belatthaputta, Nigantha Nataputta. Have all of these attained realization, as each of them would have it believed, or has none of them, or is it that some have attained realization and others not?"
  3. "Enough, Subhadda! Let it be as it may, whether all of them have attained realization, as each of them would have it believed, or whether none of them has, or whether some have attained realization and others not. I will teach you the Dhamma, Subhadda; listen and heed it well, and I will speak."

"So be it, Lord."

The Lion's Roar

  1. And the Blessed One spoke, saying:
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 214
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. ‘‘Yasmiṃ kho, subhadda, dhammavinaye ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo na upalabbhati, samaṇopi tattha na upalabbhati. Dutiyopi tattha samaṇo na upalabbhati. Tatiyopi tattha samaṇo na upalabbhati. Catutthopi tattha samaṇo na upalabbhati. Yasmiñca kho, subhadda, dhammavinaye ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo upalabbhati, samaṇopi tattha upalabbhati, dutiyopi tattha samaṇo upalabbhati, tatiyopi tattha samaṇo upalabbhati, catutthopi tattha samaṇo upalabbhati. Imasmiṃ kho, subhadda, dhammavinaye ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo upalabbhati, idheva, subhadda, samaṇo, idha dutiyo samaṇo, idha tatiyo samaṇo, idha catuttho samaṇo, suññā parappavādā samaṇebhi aññehi aññe (pī.). Ime ca idheva (ka.), subhadda, bhikkhū sammā vihareyyuṃ, asuñño loko arahantehi assāti.
‘‘Ekūnatiṃso vayasā subhadda,
Yaṃ pabbajiṃ kiṃkusalānuesī;
Vassāni paññāsa samādhikāni,
Yato ahaṃ pabbajito subhadda.
Ñāyassa dhammassa padesavattī,
Ito bahiddhā samaṇopi natthi.

‘‘Dutiyopi samaṇo natthi. Tatiyopi samaṇo natthi. Catutthopi samaṇo natthi. Suññā parappavādā samaṇebhi aññehi. Ime ca, subhadda, bhikkhū sammā vihareyyuṃ, asuñño loko arahantehi assā’’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 「須跋陀!凡在法律中,八支聖道不被發現者,在那裡面,〔第一〕沙門不被發現;在那裡面,第二沙門也不被發現;在那裡面,第三沙門也不被發現;在那裡面,第四沙門也不被發現,而,須跋陀!凡在法律中,八支聖道被發現者,在那裡面,〔第一〕沙門被發現;在那裡面,第二沙門也被發現;在那裡面,第三沙門也被發現;在那裡面,第四沙門也被發現,須跋陀!在這法律中,八支聖道被發現,就在這裡,有〔第一〕沙門;在這裡,有第二沙門;在這裡,有第三沙門;在這裡,有第四沙門,其它的議論者空無另外的沙門。而,須跋陀!如果這些比丘正住[CFn185] ,則世間阿羅漢會是不空的。
 須跋陀!年二十九,尋求什麼是善而出家,
 須跋陀!從那時我出家已超過五十年。
 在關於真理之法處活躍,此處之外無〔第一〕沙門,
 也無第二沙門,也無第三沙門,也無第四沙門,
 其它的議論者空無另外的沙門,
 而,須跋陀!如果這些比丘正住,則世間阿羅漢會是不空的。」
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 27. “須跋陀,在任何的法和律之中,如果找不到八正道便找不到沙門,找不到第二沙門、第三沙門、第四沙門[SFn25] ;在任何的法和律之中,如果找得到八正道便找得到沙門,找得到第二沙門、第三沙門、第四沙門。須跋陀,在這裏的法和律之中能找得到八正道,所以只有這裏才能找得到沙門,找得到第二沙門、第三沙門、第四沙門。其他的教法是沒有沙門的,缺乏沙門的。須跋陀,如果比丘生活在正道之中,世間是不會沒有阿羅漢的。
  “我年二十九,
  出家尋善法;
  從出家至今,
  多於五十年。
  唯此有正法,
  之外無沙門。

“沒有第二沙門、第三沙門、第四沙門。[SFn26] 其他的教法是沒有沙門的,缺乏沙門的。須跋陀,如果比丘生活在正道之中,世間是不會沒有阿羅漢的。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 「蘇跋陀,若於任何法中無八聖道者,則無第一、第二、第三及第四沙門果。若於任何法戒中有八聖道者,則有第一、第二、第三及第四沙門果。今我法戒中有八聖道,蘇跋陀,亦有第一、第二、第三及第四沙門果。外道諸師之法皆空幻,無沙門果,蘇跋陀,若比丘能行正道,則世間不會缺少阿羅漢。
  我年二十九,
  出家求善道。
  自出離已來,
  已逾五一年。
  道法廣闊界,
  常遊巡仰企;
  於其領域外,
  無沙門果。

不但無第一沙門果,且無第二、第三及第四沙門果。外道諸師之法皆空幻、無沙門果。蘇跋陀,若比丘能行正道,則世間不會缺少阿羅漢。」

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. “Wherever, Subhadda, the Noble Eightfold Path is not found in a Teaching and Discipline there a (true) ascetic is not found,[AFn166] there a second (true) ascetic is not found, there a third (true) ascetic is not found, there a fourth (true) ascetic is not found.

But wherever, Subhadda, the Noble Eightfold Path is found in a Teaching and Discipline there a (true) ascetic is found, there a second (true) ascetic is found, there a third (true) ascetic is found, there a fourth (true) ascetic is found.

In this Teaching and Discipline, Subhadda, the Noble Eightfold Path is found, here a (true) ascetic is found, here a second (true) ascetic is found, here a third (true) ascetic is found, here a fourth (true) ascetic is found.

Void are the outside doctrines of these other ascetics,[AFn167] Subhadda, (but) if monks should live well,[AFn168] the world will not be void of Worthy Ones.

(At) twenty-nine years, Subhadda,
I went forth a seeker of what is good,[AFn169]
More than fifty years ago,[AFn170]
Wherefore I am (truly) gone forth, Subhadda.
Existing in the realm of the right Teaching[AFn171]
Outside of this there is no (true) ascetic,[AFn172]

a second (true) ascetic is not found, a third (true) ascetic is not found, a fourth (true) ascetic is not found. Void are the outside doctrines of these other ascetics, Subhadda, (but) if monks should live well, the world will not be void of Worthy Ones.”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. "In whatsoever Dhamma and Discipline, Subhadda, there is not found the Noble Eightfold Path, neither is there found a true ascetic of the first, second, third, or fourth degree of saintliness. But in whatsoever Dhamma and Discipline there is found the Noble Eightfold Path, there is found a true ascetic of the first, second, third, and fourth degrees of saintliness.[VFn54] Now in this Dhamma and Discipline, Subhadda, is found the Noble Eightfold Path; and in it alone are also found true ascetics of the first, second, third, and fourth degrees of saintliness. Devoid of true ascetics are the systems of other teachers. But if, Subhadda, the bhikkhus live righteously, the world will not be destitute of arahats.
62. "In age but twenty-nine was I, Subhadda,
When I renounced the world to seek the Good;
Fifty-one years have passed since then, Subhadda,
And in all that time a wanderer have I been
In the domain of virtue and of truth,
And except therein, there is no saint
(of the first degree).

"And there is none of the second degree, nor of the third degree, nor of the fourth degree of saintliness. Devoid of true ascetics are the systems of other teachers. But if, Subhadda, the bhikkhus live righteously, the world will not be destitute of arahats."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 215
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Evaṃ vutte subhaddo paribbājako bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘abhikkantaṃ, bhante, abhikkantaṃ, bhante. Seyyathāpi, bhante, nikkujjitaṃ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṃ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṃ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṃ dhāreyya, ‘cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī’ti, evamevaṃ bhagavatā anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṃ, bhante, bhagavantaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Labheyyāhaṃ, bhante, bhagavato santike pabbajjaṃ, labheyyaṃ upasampada’’nti. ‘‘Yo kho, subhadda, aññatitthiyapubbo imasmiṃ dhammavinaye ākaṅkhati pabbajjaṃ, ākaṅkhati upasampadaṃ, so cattāro māse parivasati. Catunnaṃ māsānaṃ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājenti upasampādenti bhikkhubhāvāya. Api ca mettha puggalavemattatā viditā’’ti. ‘‘Sace, bhante, aññatitthiyapubbā imasmiṃ dhammavinaye ākaṅkhantā pabbajjaṃ ākaṅkhantā upasampadaṃ cattāro māse parivasanti, catunnaṃ māsānaṃ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājenti upasampādenti bhikkhubhāvāya. Ahaṃ cattāri vassāni parivasissāmi, catunnaṃ vassānaṃ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājentu upasampādentu bhikkhubhāvāyā’’ti.

Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘tenahānanda, subhaddaṃ pabbājehī’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho subhaddo paribbājako āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘lābhā vo, āvuso ānanda; suladdhaṃ vo, āvuso ānanda, ye ettha satthu satthārā (syā.) sammukhā antevāsikābhisekena abhisittā’’ti. Alattha kho subhaddo paribbājako bhagavato santike pabbajjaṃ, alattha upasampadaṃ. Acirūpasampanno kho panāyasmā subhaddo eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto nacirasseva – ‘yassatthāya kulaputtā sammadeva agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajanti’ tadanuttaraṃ brahmacariyapariyosānaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā’ti abbhaññāsi. Aññataro kho panāyasmā subhaddo arahataṃ ahosi. So bhagavato pacchimo sakkhisāvako ahosīti.

Pañcamo bhāṇavāro.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 當這麼說時,遊行者須跋陀對世尊這麼說:

「大德!太偉大了,大德!太偉大了,大德!猶如能扶正顛倒的,能顯現被隱藏的,能告知迷途者的路,能在黑暗中持燈火:『有眼者看得見諸色』。同樣的,法被世尊以種種法門說明。大德!我歸依世尊、法、比丘僧團。大德!願我得在世尊面前出家,願我得受具足[CFn186] 戒。」

「須跋陀!凡先前為其他外道者,希望在這法律中出家;希望受具足戒,他要滿四個月別住。經四個月後,獲得比丘們同意,使他出家受具足戒成為比丘,但個別例外由我確認。」

「大德!如果先前為其他外道者,希望在這法律中出家;希望受具足戒,要滿四個月別住。經四個月後獲得比丘們同意,使他出家受具足戒成為比丘,我將四年別住,經四年後,獲得比丘們同意,使我出家受具足戒成為比丘。」

那時,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「阿難!如果這樣,令須跋陀出家。」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答世尊。

那時,遊行者須跋陀對尊者阿難這麼說:

「阿難學友!這是你們的獲得,阿難學友!這是你們的好獲得,在這裡,以內住弟子之灌頂在大師面前被灌頂[CFn187] 。」

遊行者須跋陀得到在世尊的面前出家、受具足戒。

受具足戒後不久,當尊者須跋陀住於獨處、隱退、不放逸、熱心、自我努力時,不久,以證智自作證後,在當生中進入後住於那善男子之所以從在家而正確地出家,成為非家生活[CFn188] 的梵行無上目標,他證知:

「出生已盡[CFn189] ,梵行已完成[CFn190] ,應該作的已作[CFn191] ,不再有這樣〔輪迴〕的狀態了[CFn192] 。」

尊者須跋陀成為眾阿羅漢之一,他是世尊最後的直接弟子[CFn193]

第五誦品〔終了〕。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 28. 世尊說了這番話後,須跋陀遊方者對他說: “大德,妙極了!大德,妙極了!世尊能以各種不同的方式來演說法義,就像把倒轉了的東西反正過來;像為受覆蓋的東西揭開遮掩;像為迷路者指示正道;像在黑暗中拿著油燈的人,使其他有眼睛的人可以看見東西。大德,我皈依世尊、皈依法、皈依比丘僧。願我能在世尊的座下出家,願我能受具足戒。”

“須跋陀,以前曾是外道的人,想在這裏的法和律之中出家和受具足戒,是需要接受四個月觀察期的;過了四個月,比丘滿意的話,便接受他出家,授與他具足戒,讓他成為一位比丘。然而,每個人都不同,有些人是可以豁免的。”

  1. “大德,如果外道需要接受四個月觀察期的話,我可以接受四年觀察期,過了四年,比丘滿意的話,便接受我出家,授與我具足戒,讓我成為一位比丘。”

於是世尊對阿難尊者說: “阿難,既然這樣,幫他剃度出家吧。”

阿難尊者回答世尊: “大德,是的。”

  1. 須跋陀遊方者對阿難尊者說:

“阿難賢友,你們有得著。阿難賢友,你們有得益。你們生活在導師跟前。”

須跋陀遊方者在世尊座下出家,受具足戒。受具足戒不久,須跋陀尊者獨處、遠離、不放逸、勤奮、專心一意,不久便親身以無比智來體證這義理,然後安住在證悟之中。在家庭生活的人,出家過沒有家庭的生活,就是為了在現生之中完滿梵行,達成這個無上的目標。他自己知道:生已經盡除,梵行已經達成,應要做的已經做完,沒有下一生[SFn27]

須跋陀尊者成為另一位阿羅漢,他是最後一位世尊眼見的弟子。

第五熙連禪誦完

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 28 當其如是語已,遊行者蘇跋陀白佛言:「世尊,你之法語優妙絕倫,正如傾者扶之,晦者顯之,迷途者示以正道,住黑暗者示以明燈,因而有眼者能視外物。薄伽梵以眾多譬喻為我開示真理亦復如是。因此,世尊,我皈依佛法僧,甚願能許我在佛前出家及受具足戒。」

29 「蘇跋陀,若人先為外道門徒,欲來此法戒中出家或受具足戒,他應有四月試習;四月期滿,諸比丘喜悅聽其出家或受具足戒。但我宣佈此事是因人而異。」

「世尊,若人先為外道門徒欲來此戒法中出家或受具足戒,此人應試習四月;四月期滿,諸比丘喜悅,聽其出家,或受具足戒。現我願試習四月,四月之後,諸比丘喜悅聽我出家或受具足戒。」

爾時薄伽梵告尊者阿難說:「阿難,聽許蘇跋陀出家。」

「是,世尊,」尊者阿難回答說。

30  爾時遊行者蘇跋陀向尊者阿難說:「阿難,你親從導師霑潤而為此僧團之弟子,你獲大饒益,你得大福利。」

是時遊行者蘇跋陀於薄伽梵之僧團出家並受具足戒,尊者蘇跋陀於受具足戒之後即堅定精勤,離群獨居。不久即證得最高梵行境界。為此之故,族姓子捨棄各種家庭利益與舒適而出家。誠然,於現世以自力證取最高目標。他自知生死已斷,梵行已立,所作已作,今生後不再有來生。

尊者蘇跋陀成了阿羅漢之一, 他為薄伽梵所化的最後弟子。

第五章竟

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. After this was said, the wanderer Subhadda said this to the Gracious One: “Excellent, reverend Sir! Excellent, reverend Sir! Just as, reverend Sir, one might set upright what has been overturned, or open up what has been closed, or show a path to one who is lost, or bear an oil lamp in the darkness, so that one who has eyes can see forms, just so has the Teaching been made clear by the Gracious One in more than one way. I go to the Gracious One for refuge, reverend Sir, and to the Teaching, and to the Community of monks. May I receive the going-forth, reverend Sir, in the presence of the Gracious One, may I receive the full ordination.”

“Those who were formerly of another sect who in this Teaching and Discipline desire the going-forth, who desire full ordination, live on probation for four months, and at the end of four months, the minds of the monks being satisfied, they give the going-forth and the full ordination into the monkhood. But I understand there is a distinction between persons in this case.”

“If, reverend Sir, those who were formerly of another sect who in this Teaching and Discipline, desire the going-forth, who desire full ordination, live on probation for four months, and at the end of four months, the minds of the monks being satisfied, they give the going-forth and the full ordination into the monkhood, then I will live on probation for four years, and at the end of four years, the minds of the monks being satisfied, they can give the going-forth and the full ordination into the monkhood.”

Then the Gracious One said this to venerable Ānanda: “Then, Ānanda, give the going-forth to Subhadda.”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One.

Then the wanderer Subhadda said this to venerable Ānanda: “There are certainly gains for you, friend Ānanda, it is certainly a good gain for you, friend Ānanda, that here, face to face with the Teacher, you have been consecrated with an attendant's consecration.”[AFn173]

The wanderer Subhadda received the going forth in the presence of the Gracious One, received full ordination.

Then not long after ordination, venerable Subhadda, while dwelling solitary, secluded, heedful, ardent, and resolute, after no long time (attained) that good for which young gentlemen rightly go forth from the house to the houseless life, that unsurpassed conclusion to the spiritual life, and dwelt having known, experienced, and attained it himself in this very life.

Destroyed is (re)birth accomplished is the spiritual life done is what ought to be done there is no more of this mundane state - this he knew.

And venerable Subhadda became another of the Worthy Ones. He was the last direct disciple of the Gracious One.[AFn174]

The Fifth Chapter for Recital (is Finished)

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 63. When this was said, the wandering ascetic Subhadda spoke to the Blessed One, saying: "Excellent, O Lord, most excellent, O Lord! It is as if, Lord, one were to set upright what had been overthrown, or to reveal what had been hidden, or to show the path to one who had gone astray, or to light a lamp in the darkness so that those with eyes might see — even so has the Blessed One set forth the Dhamma in many ways. And so, O Lord, I take my refuge in the Blessed One, the Dhamma, and the Community of Bhikkhus. May I receive from the Blessed One admission to the Order and also the higher ordination."
  1. "Whoever, Subhadda, having been formerly a follower of another creed, wishes to receive admission and higher ordination in this Dhamma and Discipline, remains on probation for a period of four months. At the end of those four months, if the bhikkhus are satisfied with him, they grant him admission and higher ordination as a bhikkhu. Yet in this matter I recognize differences of personalities."
  2. "If, O Lord, whoever, having been formerly a follower of another creed, wishes to receive admission and higher ordination in this Dhamma and Discipline, remains on probation for a period of four months, and at the end of those four months, if the bhikkhus are satisfied with him, they grant him admission and higher ordination as a bhikkhu — then I will remain on probation for a period of four years. And at the end of those four years, if the bhikkhus are satisfied with me, let them grant me admission and higher ordination as a bhikkhu."
  3. But the Blessed One called the Venerable Ananda and said to him: "Ananda, let Subhadda be given admission into the Order." And the Venerable Ananda replied: "So be it, Lord."
  4. Then the wandering ascetic Subhadda said to the Venerable Ananda: "It is a gain to you, friend Ananda, a blessing, that in the presence of the Master himself you have received the sprinkling of ordination as a disciple."
  5. So it came about that the wandering ascetic Subhadda, in the presence of the Blessed One, received admission and higher ordination. And from the time of his ordination the Venerable Subhadda remained alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, and resolute. And before long he attained to the goal for which a worthy man goes forth rightly from home to homelessness, the supreme goal of the holy life; and having by himself realized it with higher knowledge, he dwelt therein. He knew: "Destroyed is birth; the higher life is fulfilled; nothing more is to be done, and beyond this life nothing more remains." And the Venerable Subhadda became yet another among the arahats, and he was the last disciple converted by the Blessed One himself.

  • 第六頌(第六章)
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 216
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Tathāgatapacchimavācā

  1. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘siyā kho panānanda, tumhākaṃ evamassa – ‘atītasatthukaṃ pāvacanaṃ, natthi no satthā’ti. Na kho panetaṃ, ānanda, evaṃ daṭṭhabbaṃ. Yo vo, ānanda, mayā dhammo ca vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mamaccayena satthā. Yathā kho panānanda, etarahi bhikkhū aññamaññaṃ āvusovādena samudācaranti, na kho mamaccayena evaṃ samudācaritabbaṃ. Theratarena, ānanda, bhikkhunā navakataro bhikkhu nāmena vā gottena vā āvusovādena vā samudācaritabbo. Navakatarena bhikkhunā therataro bhikkhu ‘bhante’ti vā ‘āyasmā’ti vā samudācaritabbo. Ākaṅkhamāno, ānanda, saṅgho mamaccayena khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadāni samūhanatu. Channassa, ānanda, bhikkhuno mamaccayena brahmadaṇḍo dātabbo’’ti. ‘‘Katamo pana, bhante, brahmadaṇḍo’’ti? ‘‘Channo, ānanda, bhikkhu yaṃ iccheyya, taṃ vadeyya. So bhikkhūhi neva vattabbo, na ovaditabbo, na anusāsitabbo’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

如來最後的話

  1. 那時,世尊召喚尊者阿難:

「阿難!但,你們可能會這麼想:『大師的教語已過去了,我們沒有大師了。』但,阿難!不應該這樣認為,阿難!凡你們被我教導、告知的法與律,我死後就是你們的大師。阿難!現在,比丘們以學友之語互相稱呼,我死後不應該這樣稱呼,阿難!較資淺的比丘應該被較長老的比丘以名字或以姓氏或以學友之語稱呼;較長老的比丘應該被較資淺的比丘稱呼『大德!』或『尊者!』阿難!我死後,當你們希望時,請僧團除去小小學處[CFn194] ,阿難!我死後,對闡陀比丘應該施與梵罰。」

「大德!但,什麼是梵罰?」

「阿難!闡陀比丘如果說他欲求的,他既不應該被比丘們講說,也不應該被教誡、被訓誡。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 1. 世尊對阿難尊者說: “阿難,可能你會這樣想: ‘導師的說話已經成為過去,我們沒有導師了。’ 阿難,不要這樣想。阿難,當我離去後,我所宣說的法和律就是你們的導師了。
  1. “阿難,現在比丘之間互相以賢友這個稱謂來稱呼,在我離去之後便不應這樣了。阿難,長老比丘應以名字、族姓或賢友來稱呼年輕比丘,年輕比丘應以大德或尊者來稱呼長老比丘。
  2. “阿難,在我離去後,可按僧團的意願廢除細小的戒。
  3. “阿難,在我離去後,應向車匿比丘施行梵罰。”

“大德,什麼是梵罰呢?”

“阿難,無論車匿比丘想要什麼,想說什麼,比丘都不和他說話,不給他指示,不對他教誡。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]

第 六 章

  1. 01 爾時薄伽梵告尊者阿難說:「阿難,汝等中若有人作如是思維:『導師的教言已畢,我們無復有導師。』實非如此,不應作如是觀。阿難,我為汝等所建立的法與戒,於我去世後應為汝等的導師。」

※     ※

02 「阿難,「朋友」一詞為現時諸比丘互相沿用的稱呼,於我去世後不應再用。阿難,年長的比丘應呼年幼比丘的名或姓,或稱「朋友」;但年幼者應稱年長者為「大德」或「尊者」。

※     ※

03 「阿難,於我去世後,若僧團同意可以捨微小戒。」

※     ※

04 「阿難,於我去世後應向彊那比丘施行梵罰。」

「但,世尊,何名梵罰?」

「阿難,聽任彊那比丘隨意說話,諸比丘不應與之交談,不勸告他,亦不教訓他。」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[The Sixth Chapter for Recitation]

[40: The Last Instructions of the Realised One]

  1. Then the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “It may be, Ānanda, that some of you may think in this way: ‘Past is the Teacher's word, there is now no Teacher for us.’ But it should not be seen like that, Ānanda, whatever Teaching and Discipline has been taught by me or laid down, Ānanda, that is your Teacher after my passing away.

* * *

At present, Ānanda, the monks address each other with the word ‘friend’, (but) after my passing away they are not to address (one another) thus. The elder monk, Ānanda, should address the younger monk by his name or by his clan (name) or by the word ‘friend’. (But) the younger monk should address the elder monk as reverend Sir or venerable Sir.

* * *

Desiring (to do so), Ānanda, the Community after my passing away, can abolish the minor and subsidiary training rules.[AFn175]

* * *

The highest penalty, Ānanda, after my passing away, is to be handed out to the monk Channa.” “But what is the highest penalty, reverend Sir?” “The monk Channa, Ānanda, may say whatever he wishes but he is not to be spoken to or advised or instructed by the monks.”[AFn176]

* * *

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

Part Six: The Passing Away

The Blessed One's Final Exhortation

  1. 1. Now the Blessed One spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "It may be, Ananda, that to some among you the thought will come: 'Ended is the word of the Master; we have a Master no longer.' But it should not, Ananda, be so considered. For that which I have proclaimed and made known as the Dhamma and the Discipline, that shall be your Master when I am gone.
  1. "And, Ananda, whereas now the bhikkhus address one another as 'friend,' let it not be so when I am gone. The senior bhikkhus, Ananda, may address the junior ones by their name, their family name, or as 'friend'; but the junior bhikkhus should address the senior ones as 'venerable sir' or 'your reverence.'[VFn55]
  2. "If it is desired, Ananda, the Sangha may, when I am gone, abolish the lesser and minor rules.[VFn56]
  3. "Ananda, when I am gone, let the higher penalty be imposed upon the bhikkhu Channa."[VFn57]

"But what, Lord, is the higher penalty?"

"The bhikkhu Channa, Ananda, may say what he will, but the bhikkhus should neither converse with him, nor exhort him, nor admonish him."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 217
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, ekabhikkhussāpi kaṅkhā vā vimati vā buddhe vā dhamme vā saṅghe vā magge vā paṭipadāya vā, pucchatha, bhikkhave, mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha – ‘sammukhībhūto no satthā ahosi , na mayaṃ sakkhimhā bhagavantaṃ sammukhā paṭipucchitu’’’ nti. Evaṃ vutte te bhikkhū tuṇhī ahesuṃ. Dutiyampi kho bhagavā…pe… tatiyampi kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, ekabhikkhussāpi kaṅkhā vā vimati vā buddhe vā dhamme vā saṅghe vā magge vā paṭipadāya vā, pucchatha, bhikkhave, mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha – ‘sammukhībhūto no satthā ahosi , na mayaṃ sakkhimhā bhagavantaṃ sammukhā paṭipucchitu’’’ nti. Tatiyampi kho te bhikkhū tuṇhī ahesuṃ. Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, satthugāravenapi na puccheyyātha. Sahāyakopi, bhikkhave, sahāyakassa ārocetū’’ti. Evaṃ vutte te bhikkhū tuṇhī ahesuṃ. Atha kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘acchariyaṃ, bhante, abbhutaṃ, bhante, evaṃ pasanno ahaṃ, bhante, imasmiṃ bhikkhusaṅghe, ‘natthi ekabhikkhussāpi kaṅkhā vā vimati vā buddhe vā dhamme vā saṅghe vā magge vā paṭipadāya vā’’’ti. ‘‘Pasādā kho tvaṃ, ānanda, vadesi, ñāṇameva hettha, ānanda, tathāgatassa. Natthi imasmiṃ bhikkhusaṅghe ekabhikkhussāpi kaṅkhā vā vimati vā buddhe vā dhamme vā saṅghe vā magge vā paṭipadāya vā. Imesañhi, ānanda, pañcannaṃ bhikkhusatānaṃ yo pacchimako bhikkhu, so sotāpanno avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊召喚比丘們:

「比丘們!對佛、法、僧團、正道、道跡,可能有某位比丘的懷疑或疑惑,比丘們!請你們問吧,不要以後成為後悔者:『我們的大師在面前時,我們沒能夠從世尊面前質問。』」

當這麼說時,那些比丘變得沈默。

第二次,世尊……(中略)。

第三次,世尊召喚比丘們:

「比丘們!對佛、法、僧團、正道、道跡,可能有某位比丘的懷疑或疑惑,比丘們!請你們問吧,不要以後成為後悔者:『我們的大師在面前時,我們沒能夠從世尊面前質問。』」

第三次,那些比丘變得沈默。

那時,世尊召喚比丘們:

「比丘們!你們可能是出於敬重大師而不問,比丘們!請你們朋友對朋友述說。」 當這麼說時,那些比丘變得沈默。

那時,尊者阿難對世尊這麼說:

「不可思議啊,大德!未曾有啊,大德!大德!我有這樣的淨信:『在這比丘僧團中,對佛、法、僧團、正道、道跡,沒有一位比丘的懷疑或疑惑。』」

「阿難!你以淨信而說,阿難!在這裡,有如來的智:在這比丘僧團中,對佛、法、僧團、正道、道跡,沒有一位比丘的懷疑或疑惑,阿難!因為,這五百位比丘的最低比丘是不墮惡趣法、決定、以正覺為彼岸的入流者。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 5. 世尊對比丘說:

“比丘們,如果你們任何人對佛、法、僧、道或修行方法有疑惑或不清楚的地方,把問題提出來。不要過後因世尊在面前也沒有問而懊悔。”

世尊說了這番話後,比丘保持肅靜。

世尊第二次對比丘說……

世尊第三次對比丘說:

“比丘們,如果你們任何人對佛、法、僧、道或修行方法有疑惑或不清楚的地方,把問題提出來。不要過後因世尊在面前也沒有問而懊悔。”

比丘第三次保持肅靜。

這時候,世尊對比丘說:

“比丘們,如果你是出於對導師的尊敬而不發問,把問題告訴同伴,叫他代你發問吧。”

世尊說了這番話後,比丘依然保持肅靜。

  1. 這時候,阿難尊者對世尊說:

“大德,真稀有!大德,真難得!大德,我有這份淨信:在這個僧團裏,沒有一位比丘對佛、法、僧、道或修行方法有疑惑或不清楚的地方。”

“阿難,你是出於淨信而說以上的說話。阿難,如來知道:在這個僧團裏,沒有一位比丘對佛、法、僧、道或修行方法有疑惑或不清楚的地方。阿難,這五百位比丘最低的一位都已得到入流果,不會墮落惡道,肯定會得到覺悟。”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 05 爾時薄伽梵告諸比丘說:「諸比丘,若比丘心中於佛法僧正道等有所惑疑,即當諮詢,不應後業自責說:『當面對導師時,我等未能親向如來諮詢!』」

他如是語已,諸比丘皆默然。

第二及第三次薄伽梵告諸比丘說:「諸比丘,若比丘心中於佛法僧正道等有所惑疑,即當諮詢,不應後來自責說:『當面對導師時,我等未能親向如來諮詢!』」

至於第三次諸比丘仍皆默然。

於是薄伽梵告諸比丘說:「諸比丘,若你們是為了尊師,故不發問,可令其友人互相轉達。」

他如是語已,諸比丘仍皆默然。

06 爾時尊者阿難白佛言:「世尊,此誠奇妙不可思議!我深信此大眾中沒有一比丘於佛法僧正道等有所惑疑。」

「阿難,你之所說是出自淨信。但如來也確知此事:在此大眾中沒有一比丘於佛法僧正道等有所惑疑。阿難,於此五百比丘中連最落後者亦取得預流果,將不墮惡趣,亦決定證取正覺。」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then the Gracious One addressed the monks, (saying): “It may be, monks, that for one of the monks there is doubt or confusion about the Buddha, or about the Teaching, or about the Community, or about the Path, or about the practice. Ask, monks, do not be regretful later (thinking): ‘The Teacher was face to face with us and we didn't ask the Gracious One directly about the training.’ ” After this was said those monks were silent.

For a second time the Gracious One addressed the monks, (saying): “It may be, monks, that for one of the monks there is doubt or confusion about the Buddha, or about the Teaching, or about the Community, or about the Path, or about the practice. Ask, monks, do not be regretful later (thinking): ‘The Teacher was face to face with us and we didn't ask the Gracious One directly about the training.’ ” For a second time those monks were silent.

For a third time the Gracious One addressed the monks, (saying): “It may be, monks, that for one of the monks there is doubt or confusion about the Buddha, or about the Teaching, or about the Community, or about the Path, or about the practice. Ask, monks, do not be regretful later (thinking): ‘The Teacher was face to face with us and we didn't ask the Gracious One directly about the training.’ ” For a third time those monks were silent.

Then the Gracious One addressed the monks, (saying): “It may be, monks, that out of respect for the Teacher you do not ask, then one friend, monks, can inform another friend (about his doubts).” After this was said those monks were silent.

Then venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: “It is wonderful, reverend Sir, it is marvellous, reverend Sir, I am confident, reverend Sir, that in this Community of monks there is not one of the monks in this Community of monks who has doubt or confusion about the Buddha, or about the Teaching, or about the Community, or about the Path, or about the practice.”

“Out of confidence, Ānanda, you speak, but the Realised One, Ānanda, has knowledge that there is not one of the monks in this Community of monks who has doubt or confusion about the Buddha, or about the Teaching, or about the Community, or about the Path, or about the practice. For amongst these five hundred monks, Ānanda, he who is the last monk, is a Stream-Enterer, no longer subject to falling (into the lower realms), and has a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening.”[AFn177]

* * *

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 5. Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus, saying: "It may be, bhikkhus, that one of you is in doubt or perplexity as to the Buddha, the Dhamma, or the Sangha, the path or the practice. Then question, bhikkhus! Do not be given to remorse later on with the thought: 'The Master was with us face to face, yet face to face we failed to ask him.'"
  1. But when this was said, the bhikkhus were silent. And yet a second and a third time the Blessed One said to them: "It may be, bhikkhus, that one of you is in doubt or perplexity as to the Buddha, the Dhamma, or the Sangha, the path or the practice. Then question, bhikkhus! Do not be given to remorse later on with the thought: 'The Master was with us face to face, yet face to face we failed to ask him.'"

And for a second and a third time the bhikkhus were silent. Then the Blessed One said to them: "It may be, bhikkhus, out of respect for the Master that you ask no questions. Then, bhikkhus, let friend communicate it to friend." Yet still the bhikkhus were silent.

  1. And the Venerable Ananda spoke to the Blessed One, saying: "Marvellous it is, O Lord, most wonderful it is! This faith I have in the community of bhikkhus, that not even one bhikkhu is in doubt or perplexity as to the Buddha, the Dhamma, or the Sangha, the path or the practice."

"Out of faith, Ananda, you speak thus. But here, Ananda, the Tathagata knows for certain that among this community of bhikkhus there is not even one bhikkhu who is in doubt or perplexity as to the Buddha, the Dhamma, or the Sangha, the path or the practice. For, Ananda, among these five hundred bhikkhus even the lowest is a stream-enterer, secure from downfall, assured, and bound for enlightenment."

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 218
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘handa dāni, bhikkhave, āmantayāmi vo, vayadhammā saṅkhārā appamādena sampādethā’’ti. Ayaṃ tathāgatassa pacchimā vācā.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,世尊召喚比丘們:

「好了,比丘們!我現在召喚你們:『諸行是消散法,你們要以不放逸使目標達成。』這是如來最後的話。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 7. 世尊對比丘說:

“比丘們,我現在對你們說,行是衰敗法,你們要不放逸地修行取證。”

這是如來最後的說話。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 07 爾時薄伽梵語諸比丘說:「諸比丘,現在我勸告汝等:諸因緣法含固有毀壞。大家應自精勤,證取道果!」

此為如來的最後遺教。

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then the Gracious One addressed the monks, (saying): “Come now, monks, for I tell you (all) conditioned things are subject to decay, strive on with heedfulness!” These were the last words of the Realised One.[AFn178]
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 8. And the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus, saying: "Behold now, bhikkhus, I exhort you: All compounded things are subject to vanish. Strive with earnestness!"[VFn58]

This was the last word of the Tathagata.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 219
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Parinibbutakathā

  1. Atha kho bhagavā paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ samāpajji, paṭhamajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ samāpajji, dutiyajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ samāpajji, tatiyajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā catutthaṃ jhānaṃ samāpajji. Catutthajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ samāpajji, ākāsānañcāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ samāpajji, viññāṇañcāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ samāpajji, ākiñcaññāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ samāpajji, nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā saññāvedayitanirodhaṃ samāpajji.

Atha kho āyasmā ānando āyasmantaṃ anuruddhaṃ etadavoca – ‘‘parinibbuto, bhante anuruddha , bhagavā’’ti. ‘‘Nāvuso ānanda, bhagavā parinibbuto, saññāvedayitanirodhaṃ samāpanno’’ti.

Atha kho bhagavā saññāvedayitanirodhasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ samāpajji, nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ samāpajji, ākiñcaññāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ samāpajji, viññāṇañcāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ samāpajji, ākāsānañcāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā catutthaṃ jhānaṃ samāpajji, catutthajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ samāpajji, tatiyajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ samāpajji, dutiyajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ samāpajji, paṭhamajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ samāpajji, dutiyajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ samāpajji, tatiyajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā catutthaṃ jhānaṃ samāpajji, catutthajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā samanantarā bhagavā parinibbāyi.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

般涅槃的談說

  1. 那時,世尊進入初禪,從初禪出來後,進入第二禪,從第二禪出來後,進入第三禪,從第三禪出來後,進入第四禪,從第四禪出來後,進入空無邊處,從空無邊處等至[CFn195] 出來後,進入識無邊處,從識無邊處等至出來後,進入無所有處[CFn196] ,從無所有處等至出來後,進入非想非非想處[CFn197] ,從非想非非想處等至出來後,進入想受滅[CFn150]

那時,尊者阿難對尊者阿那律這麼說:

「阿那律大德!世尊般涅槃了。」

「阿難學友!世尊沒般涅槃,他已入想受滅。」

那時,世尊從想受滅等至出來後,進入非想非非想處,從非想非非想處等至出來後,進入無所有處,從無所有處等至出來後,進入識無邊處,從識無邊處等至出來後,進入空無邊處,從空無邊處等至出來後,進入第四禪,從第四禪出來後,進入第三禪,從第三禪出來後,進入第二禪,從第二禪出來後,進入初禪,從初禪出來後,進入第二禪,從第二禪出來後,進入第三禪,從第三禪出來後,進入第四禪,從

第四禪出來後,世尊直接般涅槃。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 8. 這時候,世尊進入初禪。他從初禪出,之後進入二禪。他從二禪出,之後進入三禪。他從三禪出,之後進入四禪。他從四禪出,之後進入空無邊處。他從空無邊處正受出,之後進入識無邊處。他從識無邊處正受出,之後進入無所有處。他從無所有處正受出,之後進入非想非非想處。他從非想非非想處正受出,之後進入想受滅盡定。

這時候,阿難尊者對阿那律陀尊者說:

“阿那律陀大德,世尊入滅了。”

“阿難賢友,世尊不是入滅,他是進入想受滅盡定。”

  1. 這時候,世尊從想受滅盡定正受出,進入非想非非想處。他從非想非非想處正受出,之後進入無所有處。他從無所有處正受出,之後進入識無邊處。他從識無邊處正受出,之後進入空無邊處。他從空無邊處正受出,之後進入四禪。他從四禪出,之後進入三禪。他從三禪出,之後進入二禪。他從二禪出,之後進入初禪。他從初禪出,之後進入二禪。他從二禪出,之後進入三禪。他從三禪出,之後進入四禪。他從四禪出,之後立刻入滅。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 08 於是薄伽梵即入初禪,從初禪起入第二禪,從第二禪起入第三禪,從第三禪起入第四禪,從第四禪起入空處定,從空處定起入識處定,從識處定起入無所有處定,從無所有處定起入非想非非想定。

爾時尊者阿難語尊者阿〔少/兔〕樓馱說:「大德阿〔少/兔〕樓馱,薄伽梵已入圓寂!」

「朋友阿難,如來尚未圓寂,他是入於滅想定。」

09 於是薄伽梵從滅想定起入非想非非想處定,從非想非非想處定起入無所有處定,從無所有處定起入識處定,從識處定起入第四禪,從第四禪起入第三禪,從第三禪起入第二禪,從第二禪起入初禪,從初禪起入第二禪,從第二禪起入第三禪,從第三禪起入第四禪,從第四禪起如來立即入於涅槃。

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]

[41: The Final Emancipation]

  1. Then the Gracious One attained the first absorption, and after emerging from the first absorption he attained the second absorption, and after emerging from the second absorption he attained the third absorption, and after emerging from the third absorption he attained the fourth absorption,[AFn179] and after emerging from the fourth absorption he attained the sphere of endless space, and after emerging from the sphere of endless space he attained the sphere of endless consciousness, and after emerging from the sphere of endless consciousness he attained the sphere of nothingness, and after emerging from the sphere of nothingness, he attained the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, and after emerging from the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he attained the cessation of perception and feeling.

Then venerable Ānanda said this to venerable Anuruddha: “(Has) the Gracious One, reverend Anuruddha, attained Final Emancipation?”[AFn180]

“The Gracious One, reverend Ānanda, has not attained Final Emancipation, he has attained the cessation of perception and feeling.”[AFn181]

Then the Gracious One, after emerging from the cessation of perception and feeling, attained the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, and after emerging from the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception he attained the sphere of nothingness, and after emerging from the sphere of nothingness he attained the sphere of endless consciousness, and after emerging from the sphere of endless consciousness he attained the sphere of endless space, and after emerging from the sphere of endless space he attained the fourth absorption, and after emerging from the fourth absorption he attained the third absorption, and after emerging from the third absorption he attained the second absorption, and after emerging from the second absorption he attained the first absorption, and after emerging from the first absorption he attained the second absorption, and after emerging from the second absorption he attained the third absorption, and after emerging from the third absorption he attained the fourth absorption, and after emerging from the fourth absorption, immediately the Gracious One attained Final Emancipation.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

How the Blessed One Passed into Nibbana

  1. 9. And the Blessed One entered the first jhana. Rising from the first jhana, he entered the second jhana. Rising from the second jhana, he entered the third jhana. Rising from the third jhana, he entered the fourth jhana. And rising out of the fourth jhana, he entered the sphere of infinite space. Rising from the attainment of the sphere of infinite space, he entered the sphere of infinite consciousness. Rising from the attainment of the sphere of infinite consciousness, he entered the sphere of nothingness. Rising from the attainment of the sphere of nothingness, he entered the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. And rising out of the attainment of the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he attained to the cessation of perception and feeling.
  1. And the Venerable Ananda spoke to the Venerable Anuruddha, saying: "Venerable Anuruddha, the Blessed One has passed away."

"No, friend Ananda, the Blessed One has not passed away. He has entered the state of the cessation of perception and feeling."[VFn59]

  1. Then the Blessed One, rising from the cessation of perception and feeling, entered the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. Rising from the attainment of the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he entered the sphere of nothingness. Rising from the attainment of the sphere of nothingness, he entered the sphere of infinite consciousness. Rising from the attainment of the sphere of infinite consciousness, he entered the sphere of infinite space. Rising from the attainment of the sphere of infinite space, he entered the fourth jhana. Rising from the fourth jhana, he entered the third jhana. Rising from the third jhana, he entered the second jhana. Rising from the second jhana, he entered the first jhana.

Rising from the first jhana, he entered the second jhana. Rising from the second jhana, he entered the third jhana. Rising from the third jhana, he entered the fourth jhana. And, rising from the fourth jhana, the Blessed One immediately passed away.

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 220
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Parinibbute bhagavati saha parinibbānā mahābhūmicālo ahosi bhiṃsanako salomahaṃso. Devadundubhiyo ca phaliṃsu. Parinibbute bhagavati saha parinibbānā brahmāsahampati imaṃ gāthaṃ abhāsi –

‘‘Sabbeva nikkhipissanti, bhūtā loke samussayaṃ; Yattha etādiso satthā, loke appaṭipuggalo; Tathāgato balappatto, sambuddho parinibbuto’’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 當世尊般涅槃時,與般涅槃同時,發生大地震,令人恐懼、身毛豎立,並且天鼓破裂。當世尊般涅槃時,與般涅槃同時梵王娑婆主[CFn198] 說這偈頌[CFn199]
 「世間中一切生存類的身體,都將躺下,
 因為像這樣的大師,世間中無與倫比者,
 已得力的如來,正覺者般涅槃了。」
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 10. 當世尊入滅時,大地發生了使人恐懼、使人驚慌的震動,天上響起了震耳的雷聲。

當世尊入滅時,梵天.娑婆世界主說出以下偈頌:

  “一切諸眾生,
  皆會捨身命;
  導師無倫匹,
  今亦復如是;
  正覺大勢力,
  如來今入滅。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 10 當佛陀逝世時有大地震甚可驚怖,並有天雷響震。

於佛陀滅度時梵天沙航拔諦以偈頌曰:

  世間諸有情
  皆當捨諸蘊;
  導師亦若此
  世間無比倫。
  昔賢承繼者,
  智慧知見深,
  而今竟涅槃。
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. When the Gracious One attained Final Emancipation along with the Emancipation there was a great earthquake, and an awful, horrifying crash of the Divinities' (thunder) drum.

When the Gracious One attained Final Emancipation along with the Emancipation Brahmā Sahampati spoke this verse:[AFn182]

“All beings in the world will surely lay aside the body,
In the same way the Teacher, Such-like, unmatched in the world,

the Realised One, attained to (the ten) strengths, the Sambuddha, has attained Final Emancipation.”
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]

The World's Echo

  1. 12. And when the Blessed One had passed away, simultaneously with his Parinibbana there came a tremendous earthquake, dreadful and astounding, and the thunders rolled across the heavens.
  1. And when the Blessed One had passed away, simultaneously with his Parinibbana, Brahma Sahampati[VFn60] spoke this stanza:
All must depart — all beings that have life
Must shed their compound forms. Yea, even one,
A Master such as he, a peerless being,
Powerful in wisdom, the Enlightened One, has passed away.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 221
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Parinibbute bhagavati saha parinibbānā sakko devānamindo imaṃ gāthaṃ abhāsi –
‘‘Aniccā vata saṅkhārā, uppādavayadhammino;
Uppajjitvā nirujjhanti, tesaṃ vūpasamo sukho’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 當世尊般涅槃時,與般涅槃同時,天帝釋[CFn200] 說了這偈頌:
 「諸行確實是無常的,是生起與消散法,
 生起後被滅,它們的平息是樂。」
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 2.當世尊入滅時,帝釋天.因陀羅說出以下偈頌:
  “諸行皆無常,
  是生滅之法;
  止息生與死,
  此是解脫樂。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 於佛陀涅槃時帝釋因陀羅以偈頌曰:
  諸行無常,
  是生滅法;
  生而復滅,
  寂滅為樂。
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. When the Gracious One attained Final Emancipation along with the Emancipation Sakka, the Lord of the Divinities, spoke this verse:

“Impermanent, indeed, are (all) processes, arisen they have the nature to decay, After arising they come to cessation, the stilling of them is blissful.”[AFn183]

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 14. And when the Blessed One had passed away, simultaneously with his Parinibbana, Sakka, king of the gods,[VFn61] spoke this stanza:
Transient are all compounded things,
Subject to arise and vanish;
Having come into existence they pass away;
Good is the peace when they forever cease.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 222
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Parinibbute bhagavati saha parinibbānā āyasmā anuruddho imā gāthāyo abhāsi –
‘‘Nāhu assāsapassāso, ṭhitacittassa tādino;
Anejo santimārabbha, yaṃ kālamakarī muni.
‘‘Asallīnena cittena, vedanaṃ ajjhavāsayi;
Pajjotasseva nibbānaṃ, vimokkho cetaso ahū’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 當世尊般涅槃時,與般涅槃同時,尊者阿那律說了這偈頌:
 「沒有了入息出息,對像這樣[CFn201] 心已住立者來說,
 不擾動,只向於寂靜,牟尼[CFn202] 死了。
 以不動之心,忍受苦痛,
 就如燈火的熄滅,那是心的解脫。」
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 當世尊入滅時,阿那律陀尊者說出以下偈頌:
  “無有出入息,
  內心住不動,
  牟尼已離欲,
  常處於寂靜。
  內心不懈怠,
  承受諸病苦;
  心解脫湼槃,
  如燈盡火滅。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 於佛陀涅槃時尊者阿〔少/兔〕樓陀以偈頌曰:
  已捨諸貪欲,
  得證淨涅槃。
  大賢損壽時,
  心安隱堅定。
  心定不可搖,
  戰勝死痛苦。
  正如明燈滅,
  心解脫亦然。
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. When the Gracious One attained Final Emancipation along with the Emancipation venerable Anuruddha spoke these verses:
“There is no more breathing for that Such-like one of steady mind, Freed from lust, the Sage who has died, has entered the peace (of Nibbāna).
With an unshaken heart, he endured the painful feelings,
Like a flame (when it goes out) so his mind was liberated in Nibbāna.”[AFn184]
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 15. And when the Blessed One had passed away, simultaneously with his Parinibbana, the Venerable Anuruddha spoke this stanza:
No movement of the breath, but with steadfast heart,
Free from desires and tranquil — so the sage
Comes to his end. By mortal pangs unshaken,
His mind, like a flame extinguished, finds release.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 223
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Parinibbute bhagavati saha parinibbānā āyasmā ānando imaṃ gāthaṃ abhāsi –
‘‘Tadāsi yaṃ bhiṃsanakaṃ, tadāsi lomahaṃsanaṃ;
Sabbākāravarūpete, sambuddhe parinibbute’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 當世尊般涅槃時,與般涅槃同時,尊者阿難說了這偈頌:
 「那時令人恐懼的,那時令人身毛豎立的,
 具一切殊勝行相者,正覺者般涅槃。」
漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 當世尊入滅時,阿難尊者說出以下偈頌:
  “具足一切德,
  等正覺入滅;
  實使人恐懼,
  實使人驚慌。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 於佛陀圓寂時尊者阿難以偈頌曰:
  有大恐怖,
  毛髮為豎。
  諸事圓成,
  佛取滅度。
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. When the Gracious One attained Final Emancipation along with the Emancipation venerable Ānanda spoke this verse:
“With that there was fear, with that there was horror,
When the Sambuddha, endowed with all noble qualities, attained Emancipation.”
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 16. And when the Blessed One had passed away, simultaneously with his Parinibbana, the Venerable Ananda spoke this stanza:
Then there was terror, and the hair stood up, when he,
The All-accomplished One, the Buddha, passed away.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 224
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Parinibbute bhagavati ye te tattha bhikkhū avītarāgā appekacce bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṃ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti vivaṭṭanti, ‘‘atikhippaṃ bhagavā parinibbuto , atikhippaṃ sugato parinibbuto, atikhippaṃ cakkhuṃ loke antarahito’’ti. Ye pana te bhikkhū vītarāgā, te satā sampajānā adhivāsenti – ‘‘aniccā saṅkhārā, taṃ kutettha labbhā’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 當世尊般涅槃時,那時,凡那些未離貪的比丘,有一些揮舞手臂號泣、倒下打滾〔而說〕:

「太快了,世尊已般涅槃,太快了,善逝已般涅槃,太快了,世間之眼已滅沒。」

但,凡那些已離貪的比丘,他們正知正念地忍受〔而說〕:

「諸行是無常的,〔除此之外,〕在這裡,這如何可得。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 當世尊入滅時,還有貪著的比丘,有的緊抱雙臂在痛泣;有的從石上跳下,在地上滾來滾去。他們叫嚷: “世尊太快入滅了!善逝太快入滅了!世間的眼睛太快消失了!”

一些離了貪著的比丘,他們具有念和覺知,明白到行是無常的,要世尊不入滅是不可能的。

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 於佛陀涅槃時彼諸未離欲比丘或伸臂而哭,或自投地宛轉悲泣說:「薄伽梵取涅槃何如是其迅速!慈尊取涅槃何如是其迅速!世界之光熄滅何如是其迅速!」

但彼諸離欲比丘念及:「諸因緣法皆無常,不要其解離,此何可能!」遂攝抑其心以忍受悲戚。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. When the Gracious One attained Final Emancipation those monks there who were not free from passion, throwing up their arms, falling down (as though) cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, were crying: ‘Too quickly the Gracious One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world has disappeared!’ But those monks who were free from passion, mindfully, with full awareness, endured, (thinking): “Impermanent are (all) processes, how can it be otherwise?”
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 17. Then, when the Blessed One had passed away, some bhikkhus, not yet freed from passion, lifted up their arms and wept; and some, flinging themselves on the ground, rolled from side to side and wept, lamenting: "Too soon has the Blessed One come to his Parinibbana! Too soon has the Happy One come to his Parinibbana! Too soon has the Eye of the World vanished from sight!"

But the bhikkhus who were freed from passion, mindful and clearly comprehending, reflected in this way: "Impermanent are all compounded things. How could this be otherwise?"

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 225
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho āyasmā anuruddho bhikkhū āmantesi – ‘‘alaṃ, āvuso, mā socittha mā paridevittha. Nanu etaṃ, āvuso, bhagavatā paṭikacceva akkhātaṃ – ‘sabbeheva piyehi manāpehi nānābhāvo vinābhāvo aññathābhāvo’. Taṃ kutettha, āvuso, labbhā. ‘Yaṃ taṃ jātaṃ bhūtaṃ saṅkhataṃ palokadhammaṃ, taṃ vata mā palujjī’ti, netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati . Devatā, āvuso, ujjhāyantī’’ti. ‘‘Kathaṃbhūtā pana, bhante, āyasmā anuruddho devatā manasi karotī’’ti bhante anuruddha devatā manasi karontīti (syā. ka.)?

‘‘Santāvuso ānanda, devatā ākāse pathavīsaññiniyo kese pakiriya kandanti, bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṃ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti, vivaṭṭanti – ‘atikhippaṃ bhagavā parinibbuto, atikhippaṃ sugato parinibbuto, atikhippaṃ cakkhuṃ loke antarahito’ti. Santāvuso ānanda, devatā pathaviyā pathavīsaññiniyo kese pakiriya kandanti, bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṃ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti, vivaṭṭanti – ‘atikhippaṃ bhagavā parinibbuto , atikhippaṃ sugato parinibbuto, atikhippaṃ cakkhuṃ loke antarahito’ti. Yā pana tā devatā vītarāgā, tā satā sampajānā adhivāsenti – ‘aniccā saṅkhārā, taṃ kutettha labbhā’ti. Atha kho āyasmā ca anuruddho āyasmā ca ānando taṃ rattāvasesaṃ dhammiyā kathāya vītināmesuṃ.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,尊者阿那律召喚比丘們:

「夠了,學友們!你們不要憂愁,不要悲泣,學友們!以前這不是被如來說過嗎?與一切所愛的、合意的分離、別離、異離。學友們!在這裡,這如何可得:『凡那被生的、存在的、有為的、敗壞之法都不要被破壞。』這是不可能的!學友們!天神們譏嫌。」

「大德!但,尊者阿那律注意到有什麽種類的天神呢?」

「學友們!有在虛空而有地想的天神散髮號泣、揮舞手臂號泣、倒下打滾〔而說〕:『太快了,世尊已般涅槃,太快了,善逝已般涅槃,太快了,世間之眼已滅沒。』學友們!有在地上而有地想的天神散髮號泣、揮舞手臂號泣、倒下打滾〔而說〕:『太快了,世尊已般涅槃,太快了,善逝已般涅槃,太快了,世間之眼將滅沒。』但,凡那些已離貪的天神,他們正知正念地忍受〔而說〕:『諸行是無常的,〔除此之外,〕在這裡,這如何可得。』」

那時,尊者阿那律與尊者阿難以法談度過該夜的剩餘部分。

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 11. 這時候,阿那律陀尊者對比丘說:

“賢友們,不。不要憂愁,不要悲傷。賢友們,世尊不是曾經對你們說過嗎,所有我們的至親和喜愛的事物都會變化,都會消逝,都會和我們分離;要這些事物不變化,不消逝,不和我們分離是沒有可能的。賢友們,任何生、有、眾緣和合的事物都是敗壞法,要它不敗壞是沒有可能的。賢友們,天神很激動呢。”

“大德,在你心裏所看見的天神是怎麼樣的呢?”

“阿難賢友,一些在天空的天神,以天空為地想。有的弄亂頭髮在痛泣;有的緊抱雙臂在痛泣;有的從石上跳下,在地上滾來滾去。他們叫嚷: ‘世尊太快入滅了!善逝太快入滅了!世間的眼睛太快消失了!’

“阿難賢友,一些在地上的天神,以地為地想。有的弄亂頭髮在痛泣;有的緊抱雙臂在痛泣;有的從石上跳下,在地上滾來滾去。他們叫嚷: ‘世尊太快入滅了!善逝太快入滅了!世間的眼睛太快消失了!’

“一些離了貪著的天神,他們具有念和覺知,明白到行是無常的,要世尊不入滅是不可能的。”

  1. 阿那律陀尊者和阿難尊者用晚上餘下的時間互相談論佛法。
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 11 爾時尊者阿〔少/兔〕樓陀語諸比丘說:「止止,諸友,不用哭泣悲慟,是否往昔薄伽梵曾告訴我們:萬物實性如此,其與我們最親近者將要與我們分別隔離。當一物既生而成形即具分離必然性。不要其解離,此何可能,且必無此理。諸比丘,天神將責怪我等。」

「但大德阿〔少/兔〕樓陀,此諸天神屬何種類?」

「朋友阿難,天上諸神還有世念,他們或披髮而哭,或伸臂而哭,或自投地宛轉悲泣說:薄伽梵取涅槃何如是其迅速!慈尊取涅槃何如是迅速!世界之光熄滅何如是其迅速!

「朋友阿難,地上諸神還有世念,他們或披髮而哭,或伸臂而哭,或自投地宛轉悲泣說:薄伽梵取涅槃何如是其迅速,慈尊取涅槃何如是其迅速!世界之光熄滅何如是其迅速!

「但彼諸離欲天神念及:『諸因緣法皆無常,不要其解離,此何可能』,遂自攝心忍受之。」

※     ※

12 爾時尊者阿〔少/兔〕樓陀與尊者阿難議論佛法以度殘夜。

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then venerable Anuruddha said this to the monks: “Enough, friends, do not grieve, do not lament, were you not warned by the Gracious One when he declared: ‘There is alteration in, separation from, and changeability in all that is dear and appealing.’ How can it be otherwise, friends, for that which is obtained, born, become, in process, subject to dissolution? It is not possible (to say) this: ‘It should not dissolve’. The Divinities, friends, are complaining.”

“But what beings and Divinities is the venerable Anuruddha thinking of?”

“There are, friend Ānanda, Divinities in the sky, perceiving the Earth, who, having dishevelled hair, are weeping, throwing up their arms, falling down (as though) cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, crying: ‘Too quickly the Gracious One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world has disappeared!’

There are, friend Ānanda, Divinities on the Earth, perceiving the Earth, who, having dishevelled hair, are weeping, throwing up their arms, falling down (as though) cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, crying: ‘Too quickly the Gracious One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world has disappeared!’

But those Divinities, who have cut off passion, they mindfully, with full awareness, endure, (thinking): ‘Impermanent are (all) processes, how can it be otherwise?’ ”

[42: The Preparation of the Body ]

Then venerable Anuruddha and venerable Ānanda spent the rest of the night in talk about the Teaching.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. 18. And the Venerable Anuruddha addressed the bhikkhus, saying: "Enough, friends! Do not grieve, do not lament! For has not the Blessed One declared that with all that is dear and beloved there must be change, separation, and severance? Of that which is born, come into being, compounded and subject to decay, how can one say: 'May it not come to dissolution!'? The deities, friends, are aggrieved."

"But, venerable sir, of what deities is the Venerable Anuruddha aware?"

"There are deities, friend Ananda, in space and on the earth who are earthly-minded; with dishevelled hair they weep, with uplifted arms they weep; flinging themselves on the ground, they roll from side to side, lamenting: 'Too soon has the Blessed One come to his Parinibbana! Too soon has the Happy One come to his Parinibbana! Too soon has the Eye of the World vanished from sight!' But those deities who are freed from passion, mindful and clearly comprehending, reflect in this way: 'Impermanent are all compounded things. How could this be otherwise?'"

  1. Now the Venerable Anuruddha and the Venerable Ananda spent the rest of the night in talking on the Dhamma.
D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 226
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]
  1. Atha kho āyasmā anuruddho āyasmantaṃ ānandaṃ āmantesi – ‘‘gacchāvuso ānanda, kusināraṃ pavisitvā kosinārakānaṃ mallānaṃ ārocehi – ‘parinibbuto, vāseṭṭhā, bhagavā, yassadāni kālaṃ maññathā’’’ti. ‘‘Evaṃ, bhante’’ti kho āyasmā ānando āyasmato anuruddhassa paṭissutvā pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya attadutiyo kusināraṃ pāvisi. Tena kho pana samayena kosinārakā mallā sandhāgāre sannipatitā honti teneva karaṇīyena. Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena kosinārakānaṃ mallānaṃ sandhāgāraṃ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā kosinārakānaṃ mallānaṃ ārocesi – ‘parinibbuto, vāseṭṭhā, bhagavā, yassadāni kālaṃ maññathā’ti. Idamāyasmato ānandassa vacanaṃ sutvā mallā ca mallaputtā ca mallasuṇisā ca mallapajāpatiyo ca aghāvino dummanā cetodukkhasamappitā appekacce kese pakiriya kandanti, bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṃ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti, vivaṭṭanti – ‘‘atikhippaṃ bhagavā parinibbuto, atikhippaṃ sugato parinibbuto, atikhippaṃ cakkhuṃ loke antarahito’’ti.
漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]
  1. 那時,尊者阿那律召喚尊者阿難:

「去!阿難學友!請你進入拘尸那羅後,召喚拘尸那羅的末羅人:『襪謝德們!世尊已般涅槃,現在,請你們考量適當的時間。』」

「是的,大德!」尊者阿難回答尊者阿那律後,在午前時穿好衣服後,取鉢與僧衣,自己與同伴進入拘尸那羅。

當時,拘尸那羅的末羅人以必須作那件事在集會所集合。那時,尊者阿難去拘尸那羅末羅人的集會所。抵達後,召喚拘尸那羅的末羅人:

「襪謝德們!世尊已般涅槃,現在,請你們考量適當的時間。」

聽了尊者阿難的這言語後,末羅人與末羅人的兒子、末羅人的媳婦、末羅人的夫人們成為痛苦的、悲傷的、具備心苦的,有些散髮號泣、揮舞手臂號泣、倒下打滾〔而說〕:

「太快了,世尊已般涅槃,太快了,善逝已般涅槃,太快了,世間之眼已滅沒。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 之後,阿那律陀尊者對阿難尊者說:

“阿難賢友,你入去拘尸那羅,通知拘尸那羅的武士子: ‘婆舍多,世尊入滅了。如果你們認為是時候的話,請便。’ ”

阿難尊者回答阿那律陀尊者: “大德,是的。” 於是,在上午,他穿好衣服,拿著大衣和缽,和另一人入拘尸那羅。

這時候,拘尸那羅的武士子聚集在聚集堂裏處理有關世尊入滅的事務。阿難尊者去到拘尸那羅武士子的聚集堂,通知拘尸那羅的武士子: “婆舍多,世尊入滅了。如果你們認為是時候的話,請便。”

聽了阿難尊者的說話後,武士子和他們的妻子、兒子、媳婦都感到痛惜和傷心,內心充滿苦惱。他們有些人弄亂頭髮在痛泣;有些人緊抱雙臂在痛泣;有些人從石上跳下,在地上滾來滾去。他們叫嚷: “世尊太快入滅了!善逝太快入滅了!世間的眼睛太快消失了!”

漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 其後尊者阿〔少/兔〕樓陀語尊者阿難說:「朋友阿難,你去拘屍那羅通知該地的馬拉說:『瓦舍塔們,薄伽梵已入涅槃。請行所應行!』」

「是,大德。」尊者阿難回答說,即於清晨著衣持缽,有另一比丘作伴,走向拘屍那羅。

爾時拘屍那羅的馬拉正為該事集於議事廳,尊者阿難走向該處語諸馬拉說:「瓦舍塔們,薄伽梵已入涅槃,請行所應行!」

聞尊者阿難語已,馬拉們與其少年、少女及妻子皆悲哀慘悽,中心憂傷。他們或披髮而哭,或伸臂而哭,或自投地宛轉悲泣說:「薄伽梵取涅槃何如是其迅速!慈尊取涅槃何如是其迅速!世界之光熄滅何如是其迅速!」

※     ※

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)[5]
  1. Then venerable Anuruddha addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying): “Go, Ānanda, and after entering Kusinārā inform the Mallas of Kusinārā, (saying): ‘The Gracious One has attained Emancipation, Vāseṭṭhas, now is the time for whatever you are thinking.’ ”

“Very well, reverend Sir,” said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to venerable Anuruddha, dressing in the morning time, and taking his robes and bowl, he entered Kusinārā with a companion.

Now at that time the Mallas from Kusinārā were assembled in the Council Hall having some business (or other). Then venerable Ānanda approached the Mallas from Kusinārā in the Council Hall, and after approaching he informed the Mallas of Kusinārā (saying): “The Gracious One has attained Emancipation, Vāseṭṭhas, now is the time for whatever you are thinking.”

After hearing this word from venerable Ānanda, the Mallas, the sons of the Mallas, the daughters-in-law of the Mallas, and the wives of the Mallas became miserable, depressed, with their minds given over to suffering. Some, having dishevelled hair, were weeping, throwing up their arms, falling down (as though) cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, they were crying: “Too quickly the Gracious One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world has disappeared!”

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Sister Vajira & Francis Story)[6]
  1. Then the Venerable Anuruddha spoke to the Venerable Ananda, saying: "Go now, friend Ananda, to Kusinara, and announce to the Mallas: 'The Blessed One, Vasetthas, has passed away. Do now as seems fitting to you.'"

"So be it, venerable sir." And the Venerable Ananda prepared himself in the forenoon, and taking bowl and robe, went with a companion into Kusinara.

  1. At that time the Mallas of Kusinara had gathered in the council hall to consider that very matter. And the Venerable Ananda approached them and announced: "The Blessed One, Vasetthas, has passed away. Do now as seems fitting to you."

And when they heard the Venerable Ananda speak these words, the Mallas with their sons, their wives, and the wives of their sons, were sorely grieved, grieved at heart and afflicted; and some, with their hair all dishevelled, with arms upraised in despair, wept; flinging themselves on the ground, they rolled from side to side, lamenting: "Too soon has the Blessed One come to his Parinibbana! "Too soon has the Happy One come to his Parinibbana! Too soon has the Eye of the World vanished from sight!"

D16 Mahāparinibbānasuttaṃ CSCD paranum 227
巴利原典 (CSCD)[1]

Buddhasarīrapūjā

  1. Atha kho kosinārakā mallā purise āṇāpesuṃ – ‘‘tena hi, bhaṇe, kusinārāyaṃ gandhamālañca sabbañca tāḷāvacaraṃ sannipātethā’’ti. Atha kho kosinārakā mallā gandhamālañca sabbañca tāḷāvacaraṃ pañca ca dussayugasatāni ādāya yena upavattanaṃ mallānaṃ sālavanaṃ, yena bhagavato sarīraṃ tenupasaṅkamiṃsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavato sarīraṃ naccehi gītehi vāditehi mālehi gandhehi sakkarontā garuṃ karontā mānentā pūjentā celavitānāni karontā maṇḍalamāḷe paṭiyādentā ekadivasaṃ vītināmesuṃ.

Atha kho kosinārakānaṃ mallānaṃ etadahosi – ‘‘ativikālo kho ajja bhagavato sarīraṃ jhāpetuṃ, sve dāni mayaṃ bhagavato sarīraṃ jhāpessāmā’’ti. Atha kho kosinārakā mallā bhagavato sarīraṃ naccehi gītehi vāditehi mālehi gandhehi sakkarontā garuṃ karontā mānentā pūjentā celavitānāni karontā maṇḍalamāḷe paṭiyādentā dutiyampi divasaṃ vītināmesuṃ, tatiyampi divasaṃ vītināmesuṃ, catutthampi divasaṃ vītināmesuṃ, pañcamampi divasaṃ vītināmesuṃ, chaṭṭhampi divasaṃ vītināmesuṃ.

Atha kho sattamaṃ divasaṃ kosinārakānaṃ mallānaṃ etadahosi – ‘‘mayaṃ bhagavato sarīraṃ naccehi gītehi vāditehi mālehi gandhehi sakkarontā garuṃ karontā mānentā pūjentā dakkhiṇena dakkhiṇaṃ nagarassa haritvā bāhirena bāhiraṃ dakkhiṇato nagarassa bhagavato sarīraṃ jhāpessāmā’’ti.

漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)[2]

世尊遺體供養

  1. 那時,拘尸那羅的末羅人命令男子們:

「那樣的話,某人!請你們收集所有拘尸那羅的香料、花環與樂器。」

那時,拘尸那羅的末羅人取所有拘尸那羅的香料、花環與樂器,以及五百套衣服後,去末羅附近的沙羅樹林世尊遺體處。抵達後,以舞蹈、歌唱、奏樂、花環、香料恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬世尊的遺體,作遮陽篷、準備圓形帳蓬,度過〔第〕一天。

那時,拘尸那羅的末羅人這麼想:

「今天已過了火化世尊遺體的時機,現在,我們將在明天火化世尊的遺體。」 那時,拘尸那羅的末羅人以舞蹈、歌唱、奏樂、花環、香料恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬世尊的遺體,作遮陽篷、準備圓形帳蓬,度過第二個白天;度過第三個白天;度過第四個白天;度過第五個白天;度過第六個白天。

那時,第七個白天,拘尸那羅的末羅人這麼想:

「我們以舞蹈、歌唱、奏樂、花環、香料恭敬、尊重、尊敬、崇敬世尊的遺體,我們將向南運送到城的南邊,向外面到城外南邊,火化世尊的遺體。」

漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)[3]
  1. 13. 這時候,拘尸那羅的武士子宣佈: “各位,請集齊拘尸那羅的香花環和所有的樂師來。”

於是武士子集齊拘尸那羅的香花環和所有的樂師,還有五百雙布片,前往優波跋多那娑羅林,去到世尊舍利那裏,之後他們用一整天豎立華蓋和設置花環,及以舞蹈、歌唱、音樂、花環、香等供養世尊舍利。

這時候,拘尸那羅的武士子說:

“今天火化世尊舍利的時間已經過了,明天我們才火化世尊舍利吧。” 第二天拘尸那羅的武士子又用一整天豎立華蓋和設置花環,及以舞蹈、歌唱、音樂、花環、香等供養世尊舍利。第三、四、五、六天也是一樣。

  1. 第七天,拘尸那羅的武士子心想: “讓我們以舞蹈、歌唱、音樂、花環、香等供養世尊舍利,把世尊舍利抬到城的南方,然後在城南外面火化吧。”
漢譯(巴宙 譯, 1971 CE)[4]
  1. 13 爾時拘屍那羅的馬拉命其侍從說:「聚集拘屍那羅所有的香、花環及音樂。」

於是拘屍那羅的馬拉們攜帶香、花環,各種音樂及五百套衣著走向烏帕瓦塔那、娑羅樹林佛陀的遺體所在處。他們以歌舞,音樂,花環,名香等向如來的遺體致敬,並以其衣著作成天幕及編紮花環懸掛其上,如此他們遂度過第一天。

爾時拘屍那羅的馬拉如是思維:「今日已太晚,且於明天舉行焚葬佛之遺體。」於是拘屍那羅的馬拉們以歌舞,音樂,花環、名香等向如來的遺體致敬,並以其衣著作成天幕,及編紮花環懸掛其上。如此他們遂度過第二天,第三天,第四天,第五天及第六天。

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