|《大念處經》||Summary||Contemplation of the Body||Contemplation of Feelings||Contemplation of the Mind||Contemplation of (the Nature of) Things||The Advantages of Developing the Ways of Attending to Mindfulness|
本對讀包含下列數個版本，請自行勾選欲對讀之版本 （感恩 Siong-Ui Te 師兄 提供程式支援）：
|漢譯(莊春江 譯, 莊春江工作站)||
|漢譯(蕭式球 譯, 香港志蓮淨苑)||
|漢譯(明法尊者 譯, 法雨道場)||
|英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu)||
Contemplation of the Mind
Here, monks, a monk when a mind has passion knows “the mind has passion”,[AFn41]
or when a mind is without passion he knows “the mind is without passion”;[AFn42]
or when a mind has hate he knows “the mind has hate”,
or when a mind is without hate he knows “the mind is without hate”;
or when a mind has delusion he knows “the mind has delusion”,
or when a mind is without delusion he knows “the mind is without delusion”;
or when a mind is collected he knows “the mind is collected”,
or when a mind is scattered he knows “the mind is scattered”;[AFn43]
or when a mind has become very great he knows “the mind has become very great”,
or when a mind has not become very great he knows “the mind has not become very great”;[AFn44]
or when a mind is surpassable he knows “the mind is surpassable”,
or when a mind is unsurpassable he knows “the mind is unsurpassable”;
or when a mind is concentrated he knows “the mind is concentrated”,
or when a mind is not concentrated he knows “the mind is not concentrated”;[AFn45]
or when a mind is liberated he knows “the mind is liberated”,
or when a mind is not liberated he knows “the mind is not liberated”.[AFn46]
Thus he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind in regard to himself, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating (the nature of) the mind in the mind in regard to himself and in regard to others, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination in the mind, or he dwells contemplating the nature of dissolution in the mind, or he dwells contemplating the nature of origination and dissolution in the mind, or else mindfulness that “there is a mind” is established in him just as far as (is necessary for) a full measure of knowledge and a full measure of mindfulness, and he dwells independent, and without being attached to anything in the world.
In this way, monks, a monk dwells contemplating the (the nature of) the mind in the mind.
Contemplation of the Mind is Finished
|英譯(Translated from the Pali by Burma Piṭaka Association)||
Perception of the True Nature of Mind
Bhikkhus, the bhikkhu following my Teaching knows[BpitFn049] the mind accompanied by passion,[BpitFn050] as 'Mind with passion'; he knows the mind unaccompanied by passion, as 'Mind without passion'; he also knows the mind accompanied by anger,[BpitFn051] as 'Mind with anger'; he also knows the mind unaccompanied by anger, as 'Mind without anger'; he also knows the mind accompanied by bewilderment,[BpitFn052] as 'Mind with bewilderment'; he also knows the mind unaccompanied by bewilderment, as 'Mind without bewilderment'; he also knows the indolent state of mind,[BpitFn053] as 'Indolent state of mind'; he also knows the distracted state of mind,[BpitFn054] as 'Distracted state of mind'; he also knows the developed state of mind,[BpitFn055] as 'Developed state of mind'; he also knows the undeveloped state of mind,[BpitFn056] as 'Undeveloped state of mind': he also knows the inferior state of mind, as 'Inferior state of mind'; he also knows the superior state of mind,[BpitFn057] as 'Superior state of mind'; he also knows the mind in a state of concentration,[BpitFn058] as 'Mind in a state of concentration'; he also knows the mind not in a state of concentration,[BpitFn059] as 'Mind not in a state of concentration'; he also knows 'the liberated state of mind,[BpitFn060] as 'Liberated state of mind'; he also knows the unliberated state of mind,[BpitFn061] as 'Unliberated state of mind'.
Thus the bhikkhu concentrates steadfastly on his own mind.[BpitFn062] Occasionally he realizes that the mind of others must be of a similar nature. Because of this realization, he can be said to concentrate steadfastly on the mind of others. In this way, he is considered to concentrate steadfastly on his own mind or on the mind of others. When he gains more concentration, he perceives the cause and the actual appearing of the mind. He also perceives the cause and the actual dissolution of the mind. He also perceives both the actual appearing and the actual dissolution of the mind, with their causes.[BpitFn063] And further, the bhikkhu is firmly mindful of the fact that there is only Mind (without soul or atta). That mindfulness is solely for gaining insights progressively, solely for gaining further mindfulness stage by stage. The bhikkhu remains detached from craving and wrong views, without clinging to any of the five khandhas that are continuously deteriorating. Bhikkhus, it is also in this way that the bhikkhu concentrates steadfastly on the mind perceiving its true nature.
[End of "Perception of the True Nature of Mind"]
|英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu)||
"When the mind is restricted, he discerns that the mind is restricted. When the mind is scattered, he discerns that the mind is scattered. When the mind is enlarged, he discerns that the mind is enlarged. When the mind is not enlarged, he discerns that the mind is not enlarged. When the mind is surpassed, he discerns that the mind is surpassed. When the mind is unsurpassed, he discerns that the mind is unsurpassed. When the mind is concentrated, he discerns that the mind is concentrated. When the mind is not concentrated, he discerns that the mind is not concentrated. When the mind is released, he discerns that the mind is released. When the mind is not released, he discerns that the mind is not released.
"In this way he remains focused internally on the mind in & of itself, or externally on the mind in & of itself, or both internally & externally on the mind in & of itself. Or he remains focused on the phenomenon of origination with regard to the mind, on the phenomenon of passing away with regard to the mind, or on the phenomenon of origination & passing away with regard to the mind. Or his mindfulness that 'There is a mind' is maintained to the extent of knowledge & remembrance. And he remains independent, unsustained by (not clinging to) anything in the world. This is how a monk remains focused on the mind in & of itself.
|英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Bhikkhu Anālayo)||
“Here he knows a lustful mind to be ‘lustful’, and a mind without lust to be ‘without lust’; he knows an angry mind to be ‘angry’, and a mind without anger to be ‘without anger’; he knows a deluded mind to be ‘deluded’, and a mind without delusion to be ‘without delusion’; he knows a contracted mind to be ‘contracted’, and a distracted mind to be ‘distracted’; he knows a great mind to be ‘great’, and a narrow mind to be ‘narrow’; he knows a surpassable mind to be ‘surpassable’, and an unsurpassable mind to be ‘unsurpassable’; he knows a concentrated mind to be ‘concentrated’, and an unconcentrated mind to be unconcentrated’; he knows a liberated mind to be ‘liberated’, and an unliberated mind to be ‘unliberated.’
“In this way, in regard to the mind he abides contemplating the mind internally … externally … internally and externally. He abides contemplating the nature of arising…of passing away…of both arising and passing away in regard to the mind. Mindfulness that ‘there is a mind’ is established in him to the extent necessary for bare knowledge and continuous mindfulness. And he abides independent, not clinging to anything in the world.
“That is how in regard to the mind he abides contemplating the mind.
|||(1, 2) 〔註001〕 巴利原典 乃參考【國際內觀中心】(Vipassana Meditation(As Taught By S.N. Goenka in the tradition of Sayagyi U Ba Khin)所發行之《第六次結集》(巴利大藏經) CSCD (Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana CD)。網路版請參考：9. Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ [original: 原始出處請參考： The Pāḷi Tipitaka (http://www.tipitaka.org/) (請於左邊選單“Tipiṭaka Scripts”中選 Roman→Web → Tipiṭaka (Mūla) → Suttapiṭaka → Dīghanikāya → Mahāvaggapāḷi → 9. Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṃ )。]|
|||(1, 2) 〔註002〕 本譯文請參考：念住大經；莊春江 [原始出處請參考：臺灣【莊春江工作站】 → 漢譯長部/Dīghanikāyo → 22 → 長部22經/念住大經(大品[第二]); 莊春江 02/20/2015 17:12:44 更新]。|
|||(1, 2) 〔註003〕 本譯文請參考：長部．二十二．大念處經；蕭式球 〔原始出處請參考：香港【志蓮淨苑】文化部--佛學園圃--5. 南傳佛教--5.1. 利文佛典選譯-- 5.1.1.長部 → 22 大念處經 → 長部．二十二．大念處經；蕭式球 ，頁1～ 頁4 ) （或志蓮淨苑文化部--研究員工作--研究文章--南傳佛教 → 22 大念處經 → 長部．二十二．大念處經；蕭式球，頁1～ 頁4 ）〕|
|||(1, 2) 〔註004〕 本譯文請參考：大念處經；明法比丘 (Bhikkhu Metta, Taiwan) (巴漢對照及文法分析); PDF [原始出處請參考： 法雨道場 → 閱讀三藏 → 大念處經 -- (巴漢對照及文法分析) -- Edited by Ven. Bhikkhu Metta明法比丘(Taiwan)； 另一鏡像站: dhammarain.online-dhamma.net ]|
|||(1, 2) 〔註005〕 本譯文請參考：大念處經經文（帕奧禪師弟子合譯） （出自《正念之道》, 帕奧禪師著；弟子合譯 ） （經文 PDF ；《正念之道》PDF （原始出處請參考： 法雨道場 → 好書介紹 ）； 正念之道, 另一鏡像站: `dhammarain.online-dhamma.net ； 或自台灣南傳上座部佛教學院--TTBC 下載正念之道 Zip 壓縮檔 ）|
|||(1, 2) 〔註006〕 本譯文請參考：The Long Discourse about the Ways of Attending to Mindfulness (DN 22) (3rd revised version, October 2011 - 2555 BE), edited and translated by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu (阿難陀樵第尊者所譯); [感恩 尊者慈允轉載(This is copied by courtesy of Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu); 原始出處請參考(original): The Long Discourse about the Ways of Attending to Mindfulness , edited and translated by Ven. Ānandajoti Bhikkhu (Ancient Buddhist Texts ); the other (mirror) site (Dhamma Talks (((((0))))) Attaining PEACE with KNOWING & SEEING a Handful of Leaves)|
|||(1, 2) 〔註007〕 本譯文請參考： The Great Frames of Reference -- translated from the Pali by Burma Piṭaka Association [原始出處(original)：Maha-satipatthana Sutta: The Great Frames of Reference translated from the Pali by Burma Piṭaka Association © 2010; (Access to Insight:Readings in Theravada Buddhism ) ]|
|||(1, 2) 〔註008〕 本譯文請參考： The Great Frames of Reference -- translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu. [原始出處(original)：Maha-satipatthana Sutta: The Great Frames of Reference translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu © 2000]|
|||(1, 2) 〔註009〕 本譯文請參考：Satipaṭṭhāna: The Direct Path to Realization, Ven. Bhikkhu Anālayo (無著比丘), 2003, PDF ( Numata Zentrum für Buddhismuskunde: Universität Hamburg , 德國‧漢堡大學‧沼田佛學研究中心) 〔感恩 尊者慈允轉載(This is copied by courtesy of Ven. Anālayo Bhikkhu)〕|
|||(1, 2) 〔註010〕 本譯文請參考：《念住：通往證悟的直接之道》; 無著比丘 Ven. Bhikkhu Anālayo 著，pdf ， 香光書鄉編譯組：釋自鼐、釋恆定、蘇錦坤、溫宗堃、陳布燦、王瑞鄉 譯(2013.2月)〔香光資訊網 ／香光書鄉 ／法悅叢書 ／《念住：通往證悟的直接之道》；另刊於香光莊嚴季刊 ［第116期］一本讀懂《大念住經》 視讀經典（四） ；2014.6月。德國‧漢堡大學‧沼田佛學研究中心 (Numata Zentrum für Buddhismuskunde: Universität Hamburg)網站亦有提供《念住：通往證悟的直接之道》; 無著比丘 Ven. Bhikkhu Anālayo 著，pdf 。感恩 尊者慈允轉載(This is copied by courtesy of Ven. Anālayo Bhikkhu)〕|
|[AFn41]||(Ven. Anandajoti 41) Relying on an ambiguity in the Pāḷi (which also exists in the English), at the beginning of the Contemplation of (the Nature of) Things the commentary will say: to teach ... the contemplation of mind the Auspicious One ... took up the constituent of consciousness. Consciousness (viññāṇa) in the constituents, however, is confined to the six spheres of consciousness. The complexes that are defined here more properly belong to the constituent of (mental) processes.|
|[AFn42]||(Ven. Anandajoti 42) The commentary explains that when without passion is said it does not indicate the supermundane state, but only that the mind is in a wordly wholesome or inconsequential state and the same interpretation is to be applied to hate and delusion below. Throughout this section the Comm is careful to note that we are not talking about supermundane states.|
|[AFn43]||(Ven. Anandajoti 43) Comm: saṅkhittaṁ means fallen into sloth and torpor, this is therefore a name for a shrunken mind; scattered means having become agitated, this is therefore a name for the distracted mind. I depart from the commentary here in my translation as the whole logic of this passage is that ethical opposites are being set in contrast, and shrunken on the one hand, and distracted on the other are not opposites ethically and therefore do not fit into this pattern. Saṅkhittaṁ literally means thrown (or brought) together, and vikkhittaṁ means thrown apart.|
|[AFn44]||(Ven. Anandajoti 44) Comm: become very great means being conversant with the form and formless fields; not become very great means being conversant (only) with the sensual field. Similarly for surpassable & unsurpassable below.|
|[AFn45]||(Ven. Anandajoti 45) Comm: concentratedmeans he who has fixed concentration or access concentration; not concentrated (indicates being) devoid of both (types of) concentration.|
|[AFn46]||(Ven. Anandajoti 46) Comm: liberated means liberated by (replacing) this factor (with the opposite factor, during vipassanā meditation), and by withdrawing support (in absorption meditation); not liberated (indicates being) devoid of both (types of) liberation. We can note here that the list of qualities in this section is ordered not according to logical opposites, but according to grammatical opposition.|
|[BpitFn048]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 048) I.e., citta — and perceive its impermanent, insecure, and soulless nature|
|[BpitFn049]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 049) I.e., is aware of|
|[BpitFn050]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 050) Passion, rāga: In vipassanā bhāvanā, the bhikkhu is liable to misunderstand passion. He may think that he is required to be mindful of strong forms of passion only. He is, in fact, required to be mindful of all forms of passion — weak, medium, strong. In vipassanā, it is a very important point. Whatever takes place in the six senses, however insignificant, however good or bad it is, he is required to be mindful of it. (Passion=pleasure in or craving for something).|
|[BpitFn051]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 051) Dosa: mental violence, hatred, frustration, desire to ill-treat, desire to destroy, desire to kill, are all covered by this term dosa|
|[BpitFn052]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 052) Moha: (Usually defined as stupidity, dullness of mind, bewilderment, infatuation, delusion). Moha is a cetasika that makes citta (mind) incapable of choosing between right and wrong, incapable of perceiving the four Noble Truths, incapable of practicing correctly for the perception of the four Noble Truths, incapable of adopting a proper mental attitude. It is called micchāñāṇa, the intellect that is capable of giving only evil counsel in all matters. Moha makes a person blind to the nature and Consequences of a demeritorious deed.|
|[BpitFn053]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 053) Saṅkhitta citta: (lit., shrunken mind); this means indolence, lethargy, slothfulness, lack of interest in anything. (The Commentary)|
|[BpitFn054]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 054) Vikkhitta citta: A diffused or restless state of mind resulting in lack of concentration. (The Commentary)|
|[BpitFn055]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 055) Mahaggata citta: The loftiness of mind experienced in rūpa-jhāna and arūpa-jhāna. (The Commentary)|
|[BpitFn056]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 056) Amahaggata citta: (kāmāvacara citta): The mind as generally found in the sensuous realms, (The Commentary)|
(BurmaPiṭakaA 057) 'Sa-uttara', and 'anuttara' are relative terms, indicating inferior and superior states of mind. A state of mind that has some other state of mind superior to it, and is therefore inferior, is sa-uttara citta; a state of mind that is superior to some other state of mind is anuttara citta. Kāmāvacara citta, the state of mind of the sensuous realms, is inferior to the rūpa and arūpa jhāna states of mind. The rūpa jhāna state of mind is inferior to the arūpa jhana state of mind, but is superior to the kāmāvacara state of mind. In vipassanā practice, the arūpa jhāna state of mind is superior to both the rūpa jhāna and the kamavacara states of mind. Within the stages of the jhānas themselves, each jhāna is relatively inferior or superior, progressing to the nevasaññānāsaññāyatana jhāna which is the highest state of mind. An ordinary yogi who has no experience of jhāna cannot concentrate on the mahaggara or anuttara states of mind.
As a matter of fact, anuttara is normally an epithet for Lokuttarā citta or Magga-phala citta. However, in vipassanā practice, the yogi can concentrate only on the five upādānakkhandhas, the five Aggregates which form the objects of Clinging. He cannot concentrate on Magga-phala citta. Therefore, jhānas are given the epithet anuttara. (The Commentary)
|[BpitFn058]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 058) Samāhita citta is the mind that has samādhi, which is mental concentration on an object. According to the Commentary, Samāhita citta has (1) upacāra samādhi, and (2) appanā samādhi, (i.e., jhāna). Upacāra samādhi is samādhi that precedes, and is close to appanā samādhi, helping the latter to take place. Appanā samādhi fixes the mind on the mental object. The mind with upacāra samādhi generally belongs to the sensuous state of existence. The mind with appanā samādhi belongs to the rūpa (fine material) and arūpa (non-material) jhānas.|
|[BpitFn059]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 059) Asamāhita citta: The mind without the two kinds of samādhi. (The Commentary)|
|[BpitFn060]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 060) Vimutta citta: Here it means the mind temporarily liberated from moral defilements (kilesas). (The Commentary)|
|[BpitFn061]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 061) Avimutta citta: The mind not liberated from moral defilements. (The Commentary)|
|[BpitFn062]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 062) I.e., citta — and perceives its impermanent, insecure, and soulless nature|
|[BpitFn063]||(BurmaPiṭakaA 063) The causes of the appearing of the mind are: Ignorance of the four Ariya Truths, craving, kamma, the complex of mental and physical aggregates (nāma-rūpa). The disappearances of these causes result in the dissolution of the mind.|
…，…，…， 這種文句冗長的特性，另外還有一個原因，那就是在長時期中三藏經典只以口授相傳。 …，…，…，
…，…，…， 巴利文經典令人生厭的機械性的重覆敘述，也可能一部分是由於僧伽羅人(Sinhalese)不願遺失外國傳教師傳授給他們的聖語 …，…，…，
（節錄自： 巴利系佛教史綱 第六章 聖典 二 摘錄 ）