namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa

皈敬世尊、阿羅漢、正等正覺者


法句經 第二十二:地獄品 多譯本對讀(段層次) Dhammapada (Dhp.) 22. Nirayavaggo




偈頌目錄
Dhp306 Dhp307 Dhp308 Dhp309 Dhp310 Dhp311 Dhp312
Dhp313 Dhp314 Dhp315 Dhp316 Dhp317 Dhp318 Dhp319

本對讀包含下列數個版本,請自行勾選欲對讀之版本 (感恩 Siong-Ui Te 師兄 提供程式支援):

Dhammapada Dhp. 306
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
  1. Niraya vaggo.
306. Abhūtavādī nirayaṃ upeti yo cāpi katvā na karomīti cāha
Ubho'pi te pecca samā bhavanti nihīnakammā manujā parattha.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]

22. Nirayavaggo

306. Abhūtavādī nirayaṃ upeti, yo vāpi [yo cāpi (sī. pī. ka.)] katvā na karomi cāha [na karomīti cāha (syā.)];
Ubhopi te pecca samā bhavanti, nihīnakammā manujā parattha.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3]

二十二:地獄品

三0六 說妄語者墮地獄,或已作言『我無作』。此二惡業者死後,他世同受(地獄)苦。 [MettFn22-01]

漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]

第廿二:地獄品

306 說妄語的人墮入地獄,做後說「我沒做」者亦同。
他們倆都是造惡業者,來世去到同樣的地方。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:妄語地獄近,作之言不作,二罪後俱受,是行自牽往T4,570a
  2. 出曜經:妄語地獄近,作之言不作,二罪後俱受,是行自牽往T4,663c
  3. 法集:妄語入地獄,作之言不作,二罪後俱受,是行自牽去T4,781b
4. 鼻奈:妄語地獄近,作之言不作,二罪後俱受,是行自牽去T24,878c
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

Chapter 22 Woeful State

LIARS SUFFER

  1. The speaker of untruth goes to a woeful state, and also he who, having done aught, says, "I did not". Both after death become equal, men of base actions in the other world.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7]

Dhp XXII Hell

306. The liar goes to the state of woe; also he who, having done (wrong), says, "I did not do it." Men of base actions both, on departing they share the same destiny in the other world.

英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

Dhp XXII Hell

306

He goes to hell,
the one who asserts
what didn't take place,
as does the one
who, having done,
says, 'I didn't.'
Both — low-acting people —
there become equal:
after death, in the world beyond.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]

Chapter 22 The Abyss

306
He’s doomed, the person speaking lies,
And he who sins, but that denies.
These two, at death, are equalised
In hell, where both will re-arise.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10]

Chapter XXII: The Downward Course

306 He who says what is not, goes to hell; he also who, having done a thing, says I have not done it. After death both are equal, they are men with evil deeds in the next world.

英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]

Chapter 22: The Hell

DhP 306
One, who speaks lies, goes to hell.
And also the one, who having done a deed, says, "I did not do it".
Both these people of low actions are equal,
in the other world, after they die. [DLMBSFn-V306]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 二十二:地獄品 Dhp. 306
Dhammapada Dhp. 307
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
307. Kāsāvakaṇṭhā bahavo pāpadhammā asaññatā
Pāpā pāpehi kammehi nirayaṃ te upapajjare.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
307. Kāsāvakaṇṭhā bahavo, pāpadhammā asaññatā;
Pāpā pāpehi kammehi, nirayaṃ te upapajjare.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三0七 多袈裟纏頸,惡行不節制,惡人以惡業,終墮於地獄。 [MettFn22-02]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
307 許多身穿袈裟的人,性格惡劣且不克制,
他們因自己的惡業,造惡者死後墮地獄。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:法衣在其身,為惡不自禁,苟沒惡行者,終則墮地獄T4,570a
  2. 法句經:袈裟披肩,為惡不損,惡惡行者,斯墮惡道T4,572b
  3. 法句譬喻經:袈裟披肩,為惡不損,惡惡行者,斯墮惡道T4,604b
  4. 出曜經:袈裟被肩,為惡不捐,惡惡行者,斯墮惡道T4,679b
  5. 法集:袈裟在肩披,為惡不捐棄,常念行惡者,斯則墮惡道T4,782c
6. 善見:外袈裟繞頸,內行不淨法,已行惡法故,死即墮地獄T24,755c
7. 鼻奈:法衣在其身,為惡不自禁,苟為惡行者,命逝墮地獄T24,878c
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

CORRUPT MONKS SUFFER

  1. Many with a yellow robe on their necks are of evil disposition and uncontrolled. Evil-doers on account of their evil deeds are born in a woeful state.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7] 307. There are many evil characters and uncontrolled men wearing the saffron robe. These wicked men will be born in states of woe because of their evil deeds.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

307-308

An ochre robe tied 'round their necks,
many with evil qualities
 — unrestrained, evil —
rearise, because of their evil acts,
  in hell.

Better to eat an iron ball
 — glowing, aflame —
than that, unprincipled &
  unrestrained,
you should eat the alms of the country.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
307
Many men who in the ochre cloth are robed
Have wicked natures and are uncontrolled.
Such men, by conduct that’s depraved,
Will after death arise in hells ablaze.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 307 Many men whose shoulders are covered with the yellow gown are ill-conditioned and unrestrained; such evil-doers by their evil deeds go to hell.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 307
There are plenty of those who are wearing monk's robe but are of evil nature and without self-control.
These evil ones will be reborn in hell because of their evil deeds. [DLMBSFn-V307]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 二十二:地獄品 Dhp. 307
Dhammapada Dhp. 308
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
308. Seyye ayoguḷo bhutto tatto aggisikhūpamo
Yañce bhūñjeyya dussīlo raṭṭhapiṇḍaṃ asaññato.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
308. Seyyo ayoguḷo bhutto, tatto aggisikhūpamo;
Yañce bhuñjeyya dussīlo, raṭṭhapiṇḍamasaññato.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三0八 若破戒無制,受人信施食,不如吞鐵丸──熱從火焰出。 [MettFn22-03]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
308 去吞下火紅的鐵球,燒得像烈火的鐵球,
好過壞戒無自制者,食用人們所供之食。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:無戒受供養,理豈不自損,死噉燒鐵丸,然熱劇火炭T4,570a
  2. 法句經:寧噉燒石,吞飲洋銅,不以無戒,食人信施T4,571c
  3. 出曜經:寧噉燒鐵,吞飲洋銅,不以無戒,食人信施T4,668a
  4. 法集:寧吞熱鐵丸,渴飲洋銅汁,不以無戒身,食人信施物T4,781c
5. 中含:寧噉鐵丸,其熱如火,不以犯戒,受世信施T1,436c
6. 雜含1075:寧食熱鐵丸,如熾然炭火,不以犯禁戒,而食僧信施T2,280b
7. 因緣:寧食大鐵丸,焦熱如火焰,破戒不應受,得信檀越食T17,572a
8. 佛藏:寧噉燒石,吞飲洋銅,不以無戒,食人信施T15,792c
9. 有部律:寧吞熱鐵丸,猛焰燒身遍,不以破戒口,噉彼信心食T23,697a
10. 有部律:寧吞熱鐵丸,猶如猛火焰,不以破戒口,噉他信心食T23, 761a
11. 有部尼律:寧吞熱鐵丸,猶如猛火焰,不以破戒口,噉他信心食T23, 966c
12. 善見:鐵丸熱火炎,寧可吞取死,若有破戒者,不應吞信施T24,755c
13. 鼻奈:無戒受供養,街巷乞不慚,死噉燒鐵丸,極熱劇赤火T24,879a
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

BE NOT IMMORAL

  1. Better to swallow a red-hot iron ball (which would consume one) like a flame of fire, than to be an immoral and uncontrolled person feeding on the alms offered by people.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7] 308. It would be better to swallow a red-hot iron ball, blazing like fire, than as an immoral and uncontrolled monk to eat the alms of the people.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

307-308

An ochre robe tied 'round their necks,
many with evil qualities
 — unrestrained, evil —
rearise, because of their evil acts,
  in hell.

Better to eat an iron ball
 — glowing, aflame —
than that, unprincipled &
  unrestrained,
you should eat the alms of the country.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
308
For one lacking restraint and immoral,
For him it is better to swallow
A globule of metal aflame
Than to eat any alms he obtains.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 308 Better it would be to swallow a heated iron ball, like flaring fire, than that a bad unrestrained fellow should live on the charity of the land.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 308
It is better to eat an iron ball, hot like a fire's crest,
than to eat a country's almsfood, immoral and without self-control. [DLMBSFn-V308]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 二十二:地獄品 Dhp. 308
Dhammapada Dhp. 309
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
309. Cattāri ṭhānāni naro pamatto
Āpajjati paradārūpasevī
Apuññalābhaṃ na nikāmaseyyaṃ
Nindaṃ tatiyaṃ nirayaṃ catutthaṃ.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
309. Cattāri ṭhānāni naro pamatto, āpajjati paradārūpasevī;
Apuññalābhaṃ na nikāmaseyyaṃ, nindaṃ tatīyaṃ nirayaṃ catutthaṃ.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三0九 放逸淫人妻,必遭於四事:獲罪睡不安,誹三地獄四。 [LChnFn22-01][MettFn22-04]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
309 與他人之妻通姦者、放逸的人得此四事:
得惡業及睡不安眠、三受譴責四墮地獄。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:放逸有四事,好犯他人婦,臥險非福利,毀三淫泆四T4,570a
  2. 出曜經:放逸有四事,好犯他人婦,危嶮非福利,毀三婬妷四T4,640b
  3. 法集:放逸有四事,好犯他人婦,初獄二尠福,毀三睡眠四T4,779a
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

ADULTERY IS EVIL

  1. Four misfortunes befall a careless man who commits adultery: acquisition of demerit, disturbed sleep, thirdly blame, and fourthly a state of woe.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7] 309. Four misfortunes befall the reckless man who consorts with another's wife: acquisition of demerit, disturbed sleep, ill-repute, and (rebirth in) states of woe.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

309-310

Four things befall the heedless man
who lies down with the wife of another:
a wealth of demerit;
a lack of good sleep;
third, censure;
fourth, hell.

A wealth of demerit, an evil destination,
& the brief delight of a
  fearful man with a
  fearful woman,
& the king inflicts a harsh punishment.
  So
no man should lie down
with the wife of another.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
309 & 310

Four disasters will betide
A fool who beds another’s wife:

Acquisition of bad kamma;
When in bed at night, insomnia;
Thirdly, words of condemnation;
Fourth, he’ll suffer in damnation.

For that pair, there’s trepidation;
Guilty bliss of short duration;
Evil kamma generation;
From the king, harsh castigation.

Hence the moral obligation
To avoid participation
In adulterous violation.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 309 Four things does a wreckless man gain who covets his neighbour's wife,--a bad reputation, an uncomfortable bed, thirdly, punishment, and lastly, hell.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 309
The negligent man, who chases after others' wives,
will get into these four states:
accumulation of demerit, uncomfortable bed,
blame as the third, hell as the fourth. [DLMBSFn-V309]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 二十二:地獄品 Dhp. 309
Dhammapada Dhp. 310
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
310. Apuññalābho ca gatī ca pāpikā
Bhītassa bhītāya ratī ca thokikā
Rājā ca daṇḍaṃ garukaṃ paṇeti
Tasmā naro paradāraṃ na seve.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
310. Apuññalābho ca gatī ca pāpikā, bhītassa bhītāya ratī ca thokikā;
Rājā ca daṇḍaṃ garukaṃ paṇeti, tasmā naro paradāraṃ na seve.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三一0 非福並惡趣,恐怖樂甚少,國王加重罪,故莫淫他婦。 [MettFn22-04]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
310 這有惡業又會墮入惡趣,受驚男女之歡樂很短暫,
而且國王又會判重刑罰,故男人不應通奸他人妻。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:不福利墮惡,畏惡畏樂寡,王法重罰加,身死入地獄T4,570a
  2. 出曜經:不福利墮惡,畏而畏樂寡,王法重罪加,制意離他妻T4,641a
  3. 法集:無福利墮惡,畏而畏樂寡,王法加重罪,身死入地獄T4,779a
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]
  1. There is acquisition of demerit as well as evil destiny. Brief is the joy of the frightened man and woman. The King imposes a heavy punishment. Hence no man should frequent another's wife.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7] 310. Such a man acquires demerit and an unhappy birth in the future. Brief is the pleasure of the frightened man and woman, and the king imposes heavy punishment. Hence, let no man consort with another's wife.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

309-310

Four things befall the heedless man
who lies down with the wife of another:
a wealth of demerit;
a lack of good sleep;
third, censure;
fourth, hell.

A wealth of demerit, an evil destination,
& the brief delight of a
  fearful man with a
  fearful woman,
& the king inflicts a harsh punishment.
  So
no man should lie down
with the wife of another.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
309 & 310

Four disasters will betide
A fool who beds another’s wife:

Acquisition of bad kamma;
When in bed at night, insomnia;
Thirdly, words of condemnation;
Fourth, he’ll suffer in damnation.

For that pair, there’s trepidation;
Guilty bliss of short duration;
Evil kamma generation;
From the king, harsh castigation.

Hence the moral obligation
To avoid participation
In adulterous violation.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 310 There is bad reputation, and the evil way (to hell), there is the short pleasure of the frightened in the arms of the frightened, and the king imposes heavy punishment; therefore let no man think of his neighbour's wife.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 310
Accumulation of demerit; and a bad rebirth.
The pleasure of the frightened couple is very small.
And the king inflicts a serious punishment.
Therefore a man should not chase after others' wives. [DLMBSFn-V310]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 二十二:地獄品 Dhp. 310
Dhammapada Dhp. 311
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
311. Kuso yathā duggahito hatthamevānukantati
Sāmaññaṃ dupparāmaṭṭhaṃ nirayāyupakaḍḍhati.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
311. Kuso yathā duggahito, hatthamevānukantati;
Sāmaññaṃ dupparāmaṭṭhaṃ, nirayāyupakaḍḍhati.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三一一 不善執孤沙,則傷害其手;沙門作邪行,則趣向地獄。 [LChnFn22-02][MettFn22-05][MettFn22-06]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
311 猶如沒握好的古沙草會割傷手,
胡亂的出家生活拖該人入地獄。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:譬如拔菅草,執緩則傷手,學戒不禁制,獄錄乃自賊T4,570a
  2. 出曜經:譬如執菅草,執緩則傷手,沙門不禁制,獄錄乃自賊T4,678c
  3. 法集:譬如執利劍,執緩則傷手,沙門不禁制,地獄縛牽引T4,782c
4. 四分:猶如人執箭,執緩自傷手,沙門不善良,增益於地獄T22,782c
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

CORRUPT LIVES ENTAIL SUFFERING   A LIFE OF DUBIOUS HOLINESS IS NOT COMMENDABLE   WHAT IS PROPER SHOULD BE DONE WITH ONE'S WHOLE MIGHT

  1. Just as kusa grass, wrongly grasped, cuts the hand, even so the monkhood wrongly handled drags one to a woeful state.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7] 311. Just as kusa grass wrongly handled cuts the hand, even so, a recluse's life wrongly lived drags one to states of woe.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

311-314

Just as sharp-bladed grass,
if wrongly held,
wounds the very hand that holds it —
the contemplative life, if wrongly grasped,
drags you down to hell.

Any slack act,
or defiled observance,
or fraudulent life of chastity
bears no great fruit.

If something's to be done,
then work at it firmly,
for a slack going-forth
kicks up all the more dust.

It's better to leave a misdeed
  undone.
A misdeed burns you afterward.
Better that a good deed be done
that, after you've done it,
won't make you burn.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
311
Improperly clasped sharp-bladed grass will gash the hand:
By improperly handled monastic existence a man is damned.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 311 As a grass-blade, if badly grasped, cuts the arm, badly-practised asceticism leads to hell.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 311
Just like a wrongly taken kusa grass cuts the hand,
wrongly grasped monkshood drags one towards the hell. [DLMBSFn-V311]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 二十二:地獄品 Dhp. 311
Dhammapada Dhp. 312
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
312. Yaṃ kiñci sithilaṃ kammaṃ saṃkiliṭṭhaṃ ca yaṃ vataṃ
Saṅkassaraṃ brahmacariyaṃ na taṃ hoti mahapphalaṃ.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
312. Yaṃ kiñci sithilaṃ kammaṃ, saṃkiliṭṭhañca yaṃ vataṃ;
Saṅkassaraṃ brahmacariyaṃ, na taṃ hoti mahapphalaṃ.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三一二 諸有懈惰行,及染污戒行,懷疑修梵行,彼不得大果。 [MettFn22-06]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
312 散漫的行為、腐敗的修行、
可疑的梵行,皆無大果報。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:人行為慢惰,不能除眾勞,梵行有玷缺,終不受大福T4,570a
  2. 法句經:行懈緩者,勞意弗除,非淨梵行,焉致大寶T4,572b
  3. 出曜經:夫行舒緩,善之與惡,梵行不淨,不獲大果T4,678b
  4. 出曜經:行懈緩者,勞意弗除,非淨梵行,焉致大寶T4,767a
  5. 法集:習行懈緩者,勞意勿除之,非淨則梵行,焉致大財寶T4,797a
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]
  1. Any loose act, any corrupt practice, a life of dubious [NāradaFn22-01] holiness - none of these is of much fruit.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7] 312. Any loose act, any corrupt observance, any life of questionable celibacy — none of these bear much fruit.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

311-314

Just as sharp-bladed grass,
if wrongly held,
wounds the very hand that holds it —
the contemplative life, if wrongly grasped,
drags you down to hell.

Any slack act,
or defiled observance,
or fraudulent life of chastity
bears no great fruit.

If something's to be done,
then work at it firmly,
for a slack going-forth
kicks up all the more dust.

It's better to leave a misdeed
  undone.
A misdeed burns you afterward.
Better that a good deed be done
that, after you've done it,
won't make you burn.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
312
Neither perfunctory endeavour,
Nor tarnished religious observance,
Nor a practice of dubious integrity
Will yield a monk any great benefit.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 312 An act carelessly performed, a broken vow, and hesitating obedience to discipline, all this brings no great reward.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 312
A lax action, an impure vow,
a doubtful monk's life - all this does not bring much fruit. [DLMBSFn-V312]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 二十二:地獄品 Dhp. 312
Dhammapada Dhp. 313
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
313. Kayirā ce kayirāthenaṃ daḷhamenaṃ parakkame
Saṭhilo hi paribbājo bhiyyo ākirate rajaṃ.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
313. Kayirā ce kayirāthenaṃ [kayirā naṃ (ka.)], daḷhamenaṃ parakkame;
Sithilo hi paribbājo, bhiyyo ākirate rajaṃ.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三一三 應作所當作,作之須盡力!放蕩遊行僧,增長於欲塵。 [MettFn22-06]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
313 應做之事應當做,應當堅定地做它,
散漫的出家生活,激起更多的塵埃(煩惱)。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:常行所當行,自持必令強,遠離諸外道,莫習為塵垢T4,570a
  2. 出曜經:智者立行,精勤果獲,行人執緩,轉更增塵T4,678b
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]
  1. If aught should be done, let one do it. Let one promote it steadily, for slack asceticism scatters dust all the more.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7] 313. If anything is to be done, let one do it with sustained vigor. A lax monastic life stirs up the dust of passions all the more.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

311-314

Just as sharp-bladed grass,
if wrongly held,
wounds the very hand that holds it —
the contemplative life, if wrongly grasped,
drags you down to hell.

Any slack act,
or defiled observance,
or fraudulent life of chastity
bears no great fruit.

If something's to be done,
then work at it firmly,
for a slack going-forth
kicks up all the more dust.

It's better to leave a misdeed
  undone.
A misdeed burns you afterward.
Better that a good deed be done
that, after you've done it,
won't make you burn.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
313
When a monk’s obliged to do a duty,
May he do it, and may he do it vigorously!
For should a monk pursue the holy life half-heartedly,
Then all the more he’ll raise the dust-clouds of impurity.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 313 If anything is to be done, let a man do it, let him attack it vigorously! A careless pilgrim only scatters the dust of his passions more widely.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 313
If something is to be done, one should then do it and undertake it firmly.
A lax life as a monk will only heap up more dust of hindrances. [DLMBSFn-V313]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 二十二:地獄品 Dhp. 313
Dhammapada Dhp. 314
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
314. Akataṃ dukkataṃ seyyo pacchā tapati dukkataṃ
Kataṃ ca sukataṃ seyyo yaṃ katvā nānutappati.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
314. Akataṃ dukkaṭaṃ seyyo, pacchā tappati dukkaṭaṃ;
Katañca sukataṃ seyyo, yaṃ katvā nānutappati.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三一四 不作惡業勝,作惡後受苦。作諸善業勝,作善不受苦。 [MettFn22-07][MettFn22-08]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
314 沒造惡業比較好,惡業過後折磨人。
造了善業比較好,做了善事不需悔。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:為所不當為,然後致欝毒,行善常吉順,所適無悔恡T4,570a
  2. 出曜經:非造非無造,前憂後亦然,造者為善妙,以作不懷憂T4,751b
  3. 法集:非造非無造,前憂後亦憂,造者為善妙,以作不懷憂T4,793c
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

DON'T DO EVEN A SLIGHT WRONG

  1. An evil deed is better not done: a misdeed torments one hereafter. Better it is to do a good deed, after doing which one does not grieve.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7] 314. An evil deed is better left undone, for such a deed torments one afterwards. But a good deed is better done, doing which one repents not later.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

311-314

Just as sharp-bladed grass,
if wrongly held,
wounds the very hand that holds it —
the contemplative life, if wrongly grasped,
drags you down to hell.

Any slack act,
or defiled observance,
or fraudulent life of chastity
bears no great fruit.

If something's to be done,
then work at it firmly,
for a slack going-forth
kicks up all the more dust.

It's better to leave a misdeed
  undone.
A misdeed burns you afterward.
Better that a good deed be done
that, after you've done it,
won't make you burn.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
314
Misdeeds are better left undone: they will torment you in the future. It is better to do good deeds, which will not later torment you.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 314 An evil deed is better left undone, for a man repents of it afterwards; a good deed is better done, for having done it, one does not repent.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 314
It is better not to do a bad deed. One is tormented by remorse after a bad deed.
It is better to do a good deed, which one does not regret when it is accomplished. [DLMBSFn-V314]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 二十二:地獄品 Dhp. 314
Dhammapada Dhp. 315
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
315. Nagaraṃ yathā paccantaṃ guttaṃ santarabāhiraṃ
Evaṃ gopetha attānaṃ khaṇo vo mā upaccagā
Khaṇātītā hi socanti nirayamhi samappitā.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
315. Nagaraṃ yathā paccantaṃ, guttaṃ santarabāhiraṃ;
Evaṃ gopetha attānaṃ, khaṇo vo [khaṇo ve (sī. pī. ka.)] mā upaccagā;
Khaṇātītā hi socanti, nirayamhi samappitā.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三一五 譬如邊區城,內外均防護,自護當亦爾。剎那莫放逸。剎那疏忽者,入地獄受苦。 [MettFn22-09]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
315 猶如邊界之城市,內外都需要防護,
你們應如此護己,莫要捨棄此機會,
錯失了機會的人,到地獄時就悲痛。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:如備邊城,中外牢固,自守其心,非法不生,行缺致憂,令墮地獄T4,570b
  2. 出曜經:猶如防邊城,內外悉牢固,當自防護,時不再遇,時過生憂,墜墮地獄T4,652b
  3. 法集:猶如防邊城,內外悉牢固,當自善防護,後剎那虛悔,時過則生憂,須臾墮地獄T4,780a
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

GUARD YOURSELF LIKE A FORTIFIED CITY

  1. Like a border city, guarded within and without, so guard yourself. Do not let slip this opportunity, [NāradaFn22-02] for they who let slip the opportunity grieve when born in a woeful state.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7] 315. Just as a border city is closely guarded both within and without, even so, guard yourself. Do not let slip this opportunity (for spiritual growth). For those who let slip this opportunity grieve indeed when consigned to hell.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

315

Like a frontier fortress,
guarded inside & out,
  guard yourself.
Don't let the moment pass by.
Those for whom the moment is past
grieve, consigned to hell.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
315a
A border town is guarded both within and without. Guard yourself likewise!

315b
Do not miss the opportunity to practise. [VaradoFn-V315] When the opportunity is lost, people grieve, consigned to hell.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 315 Like a well-guarded frontier fort, with defences within and without, so let a man guard himself. Not a moment should escape, for they who allow the right moment to pass, suffer pain when they are in hell.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 315
Just like a border city is guarded within and without,
so you should protect yourself. Let no moment escape you.
Those who let the right moment go by grieve, consigned to hell. [DLMBSFn-V315]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 二十二:地獄品 Dhp. 315
Dhammapada Dhp. 316
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
316. Alajjitāye lajjanti lajjitāye na lajjare
Micchādiṭṭhisamādānā sattā gacchanti duggatiṃ.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
316. Alajjitāye lajjanti, lajjitāye na lajjare;
Micchādiṭṭhisamādānā, sattā gacchanti duggatiṃ.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三一六 不應羞而羞,應羞而不羞,懷此邪見者,眾生趨惡趣。 [MettFn22-10]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
316 羞恥於無需恥,應恥的不羞恥,
持邪見的有情,將會墮入惡趣。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:可羞不羞,非羞反羞,生為邪見,死墮地獄。T4,570b
  2. 出曜經:不羞反羞,羞反不羞,不畏現畏,畏現不畏,生為邪見,死入地獄T4,702c
  3. 法集:不羞而反羞,反羞而不羞,不畏而現畏,畏現而不畏,生為人邪見,死定入地獄T4,785a
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

BE MODEST WHERE MODESTY IS NEEDED   HAVE NO FEAR IN THE NON-FEARSOME

  1. Beings who are ashamed of what is not shameful, and are not ashamed of what is shameful, embrace wrong views and go to a woeful state.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7] 316. Those who are ashamed of what they should not be ashamed of, and are not ashamed of what they should be ashamed of — upholding false views, they go to states of woe.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

316-319

Ashamed of what's not shameful,
not ashamed of what is,
beings adopting wrong views
go to a bad destination.

Seeing danger where there is none,
& no danger where there is,
beings adopting wrong views
go to a bad destination.

Imagining error where there is none,
and seeing no error where there is,
beings adopting wrong views
go to a bad destination.

But knowing error as error,
and non-error as non-,
beings adopting right views
  go to a good
  destination.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
316
People ashamed of what is innocent, and unashamed of what is despicable, by upholding wrong views, suffer unhappy rebirths.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 316 They who are ashamed of what they ought not to be ashamed of, and are not ashamed of what they ought to be ashamed of, such men, embracing false doctrines enter the evil path.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 316
They are ashamed of what is not shameful. They are not ashamed of what is shameful.
Believing in wrong theories, the beings go to a miserable existence. [DLMBSFn-V316]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 二十二:地獄品 Dhp. 316
Dhammapada Dhp. 317
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
317. Abhaye bhayadassino bhaye cābhayadassino
Micchādiṭṭhisamādānā sattā gacchanti duggatiṃ.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
317. Abhaye bhayadassino, bhaye cābhayadassino;
Micchādiṭṭhisamādānā, sattā gacchanti duggatiṃ.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三一七 不應怖見怖,應怖不見怖,懷此邪見者,眾生趨惡趣。 [MettFn22-10]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
317 視無險為有險、視危險為無險、
持邪見的有情,將會墮入惡趣。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:可畏不畏,非畏反畏,信向邪見,死墮地獄T4,570b [NandFn22-01]
  2. 出曜經:不畏現畏,畏現不畏,生為邪見,死入地獄T4,702c
  3. 法集:不畏而現畏,畏現而不畏,生為人邪見,死定入地獄T4,785a
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]
  1. Beings who see fear in what is not to be feared, and see no fear in the fearsome, embrace false views and go to a woeful state.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7] 317. Those who see something to fear where there is nothing to fear, and see nothing to fear where there is something to fear — upholding false views, they go to states of woe.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

316-319

Ashamed of what's not shameful,
not ashamed of what is,
beings adopting wrong views
go to a bad destination.

Seeing danger where there is none,
& no danger where there is,
beings adopting wrong views
go to a bad destination.

Imagining error where there is none,
and seeing no error where there is,
beings adopting wrong views
go to a bad destination.

But knowing error as error,
and non-error as non-,
beings adopting right views
  go to a good
  destination.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
317
Those who see danger in safety, and safety in danger, by upholding wrong views, suffer unhappy rebirths.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 317 They who fear when they ought not to fear, and fear not when they ought to fear, such men, embracing false doctrines, enter the evil path.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 317
Being afraid of what is not frightful and not fearing the frightful thing,
believing in wrong theories, the beings go to a miserable existence. [DLMBSFn-V317]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 二十二:地獄品 Dhp. 317
Dhammapada Dhp. 318
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
318. Avajje vajjamatino vajje cāvajjadassino
Micchādiṭṭhisamādānā sattā gacchanti duggatiṃ.
巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
318. Avajje vajjamatino, vajje cāvajjadassino;
Micchādiṭṭhisamādānā, sattā gacchanti duggatiṃ.
漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3] 三一八 非過思為過,是過見無過,懷此邪見者,眾生趨惡趣。 [MettFn22-11]
漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
318 思無過為有過,視有過為無過,
持邪見的有情,將會墮入惡趣。
漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:可避不避,可就不就,翫習邪見,死墮地獄T4,570b
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]

SEE NO WRONG IN WHAT IS NOT WRONG   SEE WRONG AS WRONG AND RIGHT AS RIGHT

  1. Beings who imagine faults in the faultless, [NāradaFn22-04] and perceive no wrong in what is wrong, embrace false views and go to a woeful state.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7] 318. Those who imagine evil where there is none, and do not see evil where it is — upholding false views, they go to states of woe.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

316-319

Ashamed of what's not shameful,
not ashamed of what is,
beings adopting wrong views
go to a bad destination.

Seeing danger where there is none,
& no danger where there is,
beings adopting wrong views
go to a bad destination.

Imagining error where there is none,
and seeing no error where there is,
beings adopting wrong views
go to a bad destination.

But knowing error as error,
and non-error as non-,
beings adopting right views
  go to a good
  destination.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
318
People who think an offence is purity, or that purity is an offence, by upholding wrong views, suffer unhappy rebirths.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 318 They who forbid when there is nothing to be forbidden, and forbid not when there is something to be forbidden, such men, embracing false doctrines, enter the evil path.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 318
Thinking to be faulty what is not and not seeing a fault where it is,
believing in wrong theories, the beings go to a miserable existence. [DLMBSFn-V318]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 二十二:地獄品 Dhp. 318
Dhammapada Dhp. 319
巴利原典 (PTS) [1]
319. Vajjaṃ ca vajjato ñatvā avajjaṃ ca avajjato
Sammādiṭṭhisamādānā sattā gacchanti suggatiṃ.

Nirayavaggo dvāvīsatimo.

巴利原典 (CSCD) [2]
319. Vajjañca vajjato ñatvā, avajjañca avajjato;
Sammādiṭṭhisamādānā, sattā gacchanti suggatiṃ.

Nirayavaggo dvāvīsatimo niṭṭhito.

漢譯( 了參 法師 譯, 文言文版) [3]

三一九 過失知過失,無過知無過,懷此正見者,眾生趨善趣。 [MettFn22-11]

地獄品第二十二竟

漢譯( 敬法 法師 譯, 白話文版) [4]
319 知有過為有過,知無過為無過,
持正見的有情,將投生到善趣。

地獄品第廿二完畢

漢譯(相當之古漢譯對應經典) [5]
  1. 法句經:可近則近,可遠則遠,恒守正見,死墮善道T4,570b
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Nārada Thera ) [6]
  1. Beings knowing wrong as wrong and what is right as right, embrace right views and go to a blissful state.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ) [7] 319. Those who discern the wrong as wrong and the right as right — upholding right views, they go to realms of bliss.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ) [8]

316-319

Ashamed of what's not shameful,
not ashamed of what is,
beings adopting wrong views
go to a bad destination.

Seeing danger where there is none,
& no danger where there is,
beings adopting wrong views
go to a bad destination.

Imagining error where there is none,
and seeing no error where there is,
beings adopting wrong views
go to a bad destination.

But knowing error as error,
and non-error as non-,
beings adopting right views
  go to a good
  destination.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Ven. Varado Bhikkhu ) [9]
319
People who regard an offence as an offence, and purity as purity, by upholding right views, enjoy happy rebirths.
英譯(Translated from the Pali by Friedrich Max Müller) [10] 319 They who know what is forbidden as forbidden, and what is not forbidden as not forbidden, such men, embracing the true doctrine, enter the good path.
英譯(Cited from DLMBS) [12]
DhP 319
Having known the fault as the fault, non-faulty as non-faulty,
believing in right theories, the beings go to a pleasurable existence. [DLMBSFn-V319]
巴利註解漢譯 [11] 請參考 巴利《法句經》註解 摘譯 二十二:地獄品 Dhp. 319

備註:

[1](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14) 〔註001〕  巴利原典 (PTS) Dhammapadapāḷi 乃參考 Access to InsightTipitaka : → Dhp{Dhp 1-20} ( Dhp ; Dhp 21-32 ; Dhp 33-43 , etc..)
[2](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14) 〔註002〕  巴利原典 (CSCD) Dhammapadapāḷi 乃參考 `【國際內觀中心】(Vipassana Meditation (As Taught By S.N. Goenka in the tradition of Sayagyi U Ba Khin)所發行之《第六次結集》(巴利大藏經) CSCD ( Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana CD)。網路版原始出處(original)請參考: The Pāḷi Tipitaka (http://www.tipitaka.org/) (請於左邊選單“Tipiṭaka Scripts”中選 Roman → Web → Tipiṭaka (Mūla) → Suttapiṭaka → Khuddakanikāya → Dhammapadapāḷi → 1. Yamakavaggo (2. Appamādavaggo , 3. Cittavaggo , etc..)。]
[3](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14)

〔註003〕 本譯文請參考: 文言文版 ( 了參 法師 譯,台北市:圓明出版社,1991。) 另參:

一、 Dhammapada 法句經(中英對照) -- English translated by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ; Chinese translated by Yeh chun(葉均); Chinese commented by Ven. Bhikkhu Metta(明法比丘)Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita ( 佛護 尊者 ) 英譯; 了參 法師(葉均) 譯; 明法比丘 註(增加許多濃縮的故事)〕: PDFDOCDOC (Foreign1 字型)

二、 法句經 Dhammapada (Pāḷi-Chinese 巴漢對照)-- 漢譯: 了參 法師(葉均) ; 單字注解:廖文燦; 注解: 尊者 明法比丘PDFDOCDOC (Foreign1 字型)

[4](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14) 〔註004〕 本譯文請參考: 白話文版敬法 法師 譯,第二修訂版 2015,pdf原始出處,直接下載 pdf ; (初版 )
[5](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14)

〔註005〕 取材自:【部落格-- 荒草不曾鋤】-- 《法句經》 (涵蓋了T210《法句經》、T212《出曜經》、 T213《法集要頌經》、巴利《法句經》、巴利《優陀那》、梵文《法句經》,對他種語言的偈頌還附有漢語翻譯。)

參考相當之古漢譯對應經典:

[6](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14) 〔註006〕 此英譯為 Ven Nārada Thera 所譯;請參考原始出處(original): Dhammapada -- PĀLI TEXT AND TRANSLATION WITH STORIES IN BRIEF AND NOTES BY Ven Nārada Thera
[7](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14) 〔註007〕 此英譯為 Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita 所譯;請參考原始出處(original): The Buddha's Path of Wisdom, translated from the Pali by Ven. Ācharya Buddharakkhita : Preface with an introduction by Ven. Bhikkhu Bodhi ; I. Yamakavagga: The Pairs (vv. 1-20) , Dhp II Appamadavagga: Heedfulness (vv. 21-32 ) , Dhp III Cittavagga: The Mind (Dhp 33-43) , ..., XXVI. The Holy Man (Dhp 383-423)
[8](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14) 〔註008〕 此英譯為 Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu ( 坦尼沙羅尊者 所譯;請參考原始出處(original): The Dhammapada, A Translation translated from the Pali by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu : Preface ; introduction ; I. Yamakavagga: The Pairs (vv. 1-20) , Dhp II Appamadavagga: Heedfulness (vv. 21-32) , Dhp III Cittavagga: The Mind (Dhp 33-43) , ..., XXVI. The Holy Man (Dhp 383-423) (Access to Insight:Readings in Theravada BuddhismTipitakaDhp (Dhammapada The Path of Dhamma)
[9](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14) 〔註009〕 此英譯為 Ven. Varado Bhikkhu and Samanera Bodhesako 所譯;請參考原始出處(original): Dhammapada in Verse -- Inward Path, Translated by Bhante Varado and Samanera Bodhesako, Malaysia, 2007
[10](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14) 〔註010〕 此英譯為 Friedrich Max Müller 所譯;請參考原始出處(original): The Dhammapada : A Collection of Verses: Being One of the Canonical Books of the Buddhists, translated by Friedrich Max Müller (en.wikisource.org) (revised Jack Maguire, SkyLight Pubns, Woodstock, Vermont, 2002)
[11](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14) 〔註011〕 取材自:【部落格-- 荒草不曾鋤】-- 《法句經》 (涵蓋了T210《法句經》、T212《出曜經》、 T213《法集要頌經》、巴利《法句經》、巴利《優陀那》、梵文《法句經》,對他種語言的偈頌還附有漢語翻譯。)
[12](1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14) 〔註012〕 取材自: 經文選讀佛學數位圖書館暨博物館 --- 語言教學. 巴利語教學
[LChnFn22-01]〔註22-01〕 下二頌連貫。
[LChnFn22-02]〔註22-02〕 「孤沙」(Kusa),香草的名字。
[MettFn22-01]

〔明法尊者註22-01〕 佛陀的僧團日見壯大,受到敬愛、敬重、尊敬與供養。相對的,外道所受的尊敬與供養減少,於是他們找來孫陀利(Sundarī),要她表現好像與佛陀私通。後來,外道顧用殺手,殺害她,把她的屍體埋在祇園精舍附近,並放出風聲孫陀利失蹤,並報告國王,經過搜查,結果在祇園精舍附近找到屍體。國王經過調查發現真兇。因此事件,佛陀了此偈。

PS: 請參 法句經故事集 ,二十二~一、陷害佛陀的陰謀 (偈 306)。

[MettFn22-02]

〔明法尊者註22-02〕 大目犍連尊者與勒叉那尊者下山時,大目犍連尊者見到骷髏鬼,而微笑。此餓鬼原在迦葉佛時為比丘作惡多端,他們已在地獄受苦十萬年之久,現在尚有殘餘業報,感受自體之苦。(cf. V iii90 → Vin.Pārā.III,107.ff.;S.19.1~21.)

PS: 請參 法句經故事集 ,二十二~二、自食惡果的人 (偈 307)。

[MettFn22-03]

〔明法尊者註22-03〕 毘舍離(Vesāli)發生饑荒,某些比丘為了有足夠的食物,他們互相讚嘆證到上人法(聖果),所以得到豐富的食物供養。佛陀因此制定︰若妄稱證得上人法者,犯波羅夷罪(失去比丘身份的罪)。(Vin iii90 → Pārā.III,87.ff)

PS: 請參 法句經故事集 ,二十二~三、假裝已經證得聖果的比丘 (偈 308)。

[MettFn22-04](1, 2)

〔明法尊者註22-04〕 纖磨(Khemaka)是美男子,給孤獨長者的侄子,多次犯邪淫,有三次被抓到,因為國王敬重給孤獨長者,所以每次譴責之後,就放過他。給孤獨長者帶纖磨去見佛陀,佛陀跟纖磨說邪淫的後果嚴重。

PS: 請參 法句經故事集 ,二十二~三、假裝已經證得聖果的比丘 (偈 309~310)。

[MettFn22-05]〔明法尊者註22-05〕 孤沙 :Kuso,一種香茅草,其草葉有刺。
[MettFn22-06](1, 2, 3)

〔明法尊者註22-06〕 有位比丘向另一位比丘懺悔砍草(tiṇaṁ chinditvā)的惡作行為,但那位比丘不在意此事,甚至自己用雙手拔草。當佛陀告誡他時,他才明白,身為比丘,要克制身口意。(cf. S.2.8./i.49)

PS: 請參 法句經故事集 ,二十二~五、固執的比丘 (偈 311~313)。

[MettFn22-07]〔明法尊者註22-07〕 不作惡業勝 ︰Akataṁ(已不作) dukkaṭaṁ(惡作) seyyo(勝)。DhA.CS:pg.2.303.︰ dukkaṭanti sāvajjaṁ apāyasaṁvattanikaṁ kammaṁ.( 惡作 ︰有過失的,涉及惡趣的業。)
[MettFn22-08]

〔明法尊者註22-08〕 從前,有一位嫉妒心重的婦女,發現丈夫和女僕私通。她將該女僕手腳綁起來,割掉她的耳朵和鼻子,並且關在密室裡。然後,她陪同丈夫到祇樹給孤獨園。他們出發後不久,這女僕的來訪的親戚,進門之後,發現有機竅,找到女傭,就將她鬆綁,並帶她到給孤獨園去。她更站在群眾當中,讓大眾親眼目睹她家女主人的殘酷手段。佛陀因此說:「犯惡行,以為‘別人不知道我的惡行’,小惡都不應作,但善行可以悄悄的做。遮掩作壞事,作了會懊悔,而善行只會帶來喜悅。」 (cp. Dhp. 068 ; cf. S.2.8./I,49.)

PS: 請參 法句經故事集 ,二十二~六、嫉妒心重的女人折磨女傭 (偈 314)。

[MettFn22-09]

〔明法尊者註22-09〕 一群比丘在邊境的村落雨安居,第一個月村民很照顧他們,第二個月該村被搶劫,之後,村民因此就無法妥善照顧他們。雨安居後,當他們到祇樹給孤獨園向佛陀請安,也報告雨安居的困境。世尊因此說了此偈。 (cf. A iv228)

PS: 請參 法句經故事集 ,二十二~七、自求多福的比丘 (偈 315)。

[MettFn22-10](1, 2)

〔明法尊者註22-10〕 裸形外道用布遮缽(防灰塵及眾生),卻不用布遮身。世尊因此說了此偈。

PS: 請參 法句經故事集 ,二十二~八、觀念錯誤的裸形外道 (偈 316~317)。

[MettFn22-11](1, 2)

〔明法尊者註22-11〕 外道信徒不希望他們的孩子和佛教徒的孩子在一起,某次因緣,佛陀要這些孩子進來,講法給他們聽,後來他們的父母知道了,說「他們毀了的話」,有佛教信仰的鄰居聽到,過來跟他們談佛法,他們才開始到給孤獨園聞法,對三寶有信心。 (Dhp. 318 cp. Dhp. 316 )

PS: 請參 法句經故事集 ,二十二~九、孩童拜訪佛陀 (偈 318~319)。

[NāradaFn22-01](Ven. Nārada 22-01) Saṅkassaraṃ = to think or remember with suspicion.
[NāradaFn22-02](Ven. Nārada 22-02) The birth of a Buddha, a congenial habitation, a healthy body, the possession of right views, etc.
[NāradaFn22-03](Ven. Nārada 22-03) Nigaṇñha, literally, "free from ties or bonds" is the term applied to Jaina ascetics, who, according to this story, cover their pudenda. Acelaka ascetics wander completely naked.
[NāradaFn22-04](Ven. Nārada 22-04) Avajja means right belief and vajja means wrong belief.
[VaradoFn-V315](Ven. Varado V.315) Verse 315: "Do not miss the opportunity (khano)". PED (khano): opportunity, as well as moment.
[DLMBSFn-V306]

(DLMBS Commentary V306) The Buddha had many followers. Some of them had been disciples of other teachers and came to the Buddha after hearing and realizing the Dharma. The other teachers did not much like this and some of them came up with a plan.

They instructed a young woman named Sundarī to make it appear as if she had an affair with the Buddha. In the evening, she would go in the direction of the monastery and in the morning return from that direction to the city. To anyone interested she would say that she is the Buddha's mistress. Then the plotters hired some killers to kill Sundarī and dumped her body near the Buddha's monastery.

The body was found and the plotters started to go around the city, saying that not only the Buddha had a mistress; he also killed her when the fact became known. The Buddha remained calm, he just replied with this verse.

The king decided to investigate the matter further. Thus his men learned about the hired killers. When these were arrested, they admitted to being hired by the evil plotters. They were made to go around the city, proclaiming their own crime and the Buddha's complete innocence in the matter. The fame of the Buddha was much enhanced and he had even more followers than before.

[DLMBSFn-V307]

(DLMBS Commentary V307) Venerable Moggallāna once saw a group of hungry spirits (peta). When he returned to the monastery, he asked the Buddha about the spirits. The Buddha said that these were monks a long time ago. But they did not pay any attention to their spiritual development and committed a lot of evil deeds. Because of that, they were suffering in hell for a long period of time and now were still reborn in a woeful state.

The Buddha then added this verse, saying that if a monk does not take the monkshood seriously, he can expect bad results.

[DLMBSFn-V308]

(DLMBS Commentary V308) Once there was a famine. In order to have enough food, some monks pretended in front of lay followers that they have attained Arahantship. The lay followers offered them only the best food, leaving almost nothing for themselves.

At the end of the Rain Retreat, the monks went to see the Buddha. Whereas all the other monks were pale and undernourished, this group was very healthy and fat. The Buddha asked them how that was possible. They told him what happened. The Buddha spoke this verse, saying that for a monk to pretend some level of attainment was one of the worst things to do.

[DLMBSFn-V309](DLMBS Commentary V309) The famous benefactor Anātha Piṇḍika had a nephew named Khema. He was not only very rich, but also very handsome. Women fell attracted to him and Khema committed adultery often. He was caught several times, but the king did not take any actions against him, out of respect for his uncle. When Anātha Piṇḍika found out, he took Khema to see the Buddha. The Buddha spoke this verse (and the following one, Dhp 310) enumerating the bad results of adultery. Khema changed his behavior and observed the code of morality, the Five Precepts.
[DLMBSFn-V310](DLMBS Commentary V310) The story for this verse is identical with the one for the previous verse (DhP 309).
[DLMBSFn-V311]

(DLMBS Commentary V311) There was a monk who once unintentionally cut of some plants. He felt very remorseful and confessed to another monk his offence. This second monk just laughed at him, saying that cutting of plants is only a very minor offence. To show, what he felt about it, this monk started to uproot plants around him.

When the Buddha heard about this, he advised this monk by this verse (and two following one, DhP 312 and DhP 313) not to think little of minor rules. Plants are also living beings and should not be destroyed without reason. At first, the monk was obstinate, but later he realized the importance of the monk's precepts. Thereafter he followed the moral code strictly and practiced the meditation diligently. Later he attained the Arahantship.

[DLMBSFn-V312]

(DLMBS Commentary V312) The story for this verse is identical with the one for the previous verse (DhP 311) and the following one (DhP 313).

Again, we are reminded, that the life of a monk is not easy. We should not think it to be very undemanding. This life is very difficult and full of hardships. A monk must endure them all, without trying to bend the rules of monastic conduct. Only then will the monastic life bear the ultimate fruit - the attainment of Arahantship.

[DLMBSFn-V313]

(DLMBS Commentary V313) The story for this verse is identical with the one for the previous two verses (DhP 311, DhP 312).

When one becomes a monk, it is because "there is something to be done". The task is - the complete liberation from the cycle of rebirths. All the energy should be applied to this task. If a monk is lax, there is no progress possible. The only result will be "heaping up" of more and more "dust" - hindrances and obstacles on the way to this final goal.

[DLMBSFn-V314]

(DLMBS Commentary V314) In Sāvatthi there lived a very jealous woman. She found out that her husband was having an affair with her maid. So one day she tied up the maid, cut off her ears and nose and locked her up in a room. Then she accompanied her husband to the Jetavana monastery.

The relatives of the maid immediately found out what happened. They freed her and took her to see the Buddha. The maid told the whole congregation (where the woman with her husband were also present) what had happened. The Buddha admonished the woman with this verse, saying that it is better not to do any kind of evil, not even in secret - because everything will be known at the end. The woman realized her mistakes and strove to uproot her jealousy.

[DLMBSFn-V315]

(DLMBS Commentary V315) Some monks were staying at the border city. At the beginning the people of the city took good care of them and provided them with all the necessities. But later some bandits attacked the city, plundered it and took many citizens away. As a result, the city had to be rebuilt and the people did not have enough to look after the monks as much as before.

After some time, the monks went to see the Buddha and told him the story. The Buddha told them they should not be greedy and be satisfied with a little. He further admonished them with this verse, saying that just like the citizens guarded their city, so a monk should be always on guard and practice earnestly.

[DLMBSFn-V316]

(DLMBS Commentary V316) A group of monks once saw some naked ascetics on their almsround. They were naked but they had their bowls covered with a piece of cloth. The monks remarked that perhaps they should put the cloth on the front part of the body. The naked ascetics retorted that they cover their bowls because they do not want insect and miniature life-form to enter the bowl and be killed by them later.

The monks returned to the monastery and told the story to the Buddha. The Buddha reacted with this verse (and the following one, DhP 317), saying that one who is ashamed of what is not shameful, but not ashamed of a shameful thing, surely will undergo a bad rebirth.

[DLMBSFn-V317]

(DLMBS Commentary V317) The story for this verse is identical with the one for the preceding verse (DhP 316).

We should be ashamed and afraid of things that are truly bad. Causing suffering to others in any way is bad and we should be always ashamed and afraid of doing so.

On the other hand, being afraid and ashamed of something that is not bad at all (as for example the naked ascetics from the story) will not help us in any way on the road to the Awakenment. Thus we will only accumulate demerit and suffer a bad rebirth in the next life.

[DLMBSFn-V318]

(DLMBS Commentary V318) All members of a certain family in Sāvatthi were followers of an ascetic. They did not want their children to mix with the Buddha's followers' children. They specifically forbade their children to go to the Jetavana monastery.

But once all the children were playing in the vicinity of the monastery and got thirsty. They asked one of their friends, whose parents were followers of the Buddha, to go to the monastery and bring them some water. The boy went inside and paid his respects to the Buddha. He told him about his friends who were not allowed to enter.

The Buddha invited the children in to have a drink and gave them a discourse. At the end, the children became his followers.

When they came home, they told their parents what happened. The parents were very angry and accused their children of disloyalty. But the neighbors, who were the followers of the Buddha, were able to change their view gradually and before long the whole family converted to the Buddha's teaching.

When the Buddha heard about this, he spoke this verse (and the following one, DhP 319).

[DLMBSFn-V319]

(DLMBS Commentary V319) The story for this verse is identical with the one for the previous verse (DhP 318).

In order to ascertain a good future existence, both in this life and in the next one, we must always understand and distinguish right from wrong, good from bad. We also must use our understanding and insight to be able to decide which is which. Without this understanding we might choose wrongly and believe the good to be bad and vice versa. In this way, our future existence will not be good.


校註:

[NandFn22-01]〔校註22-01〕 原參考處無;而 Dhp. 316: 法句經:可羞不羞,非羞反羞,生為邪見,死墮地獄。可畏不畏,非畏反畏,信向邪見,死墮地獄T4,570b


巴利文經典最突出的特點,同時也是缺乏同情心的讀者最感厭倦的特點,就是單字、語句和整段文節的重複。這一部分是文法或至少是文體所產生的結果。 …,…,…,

…,…,…, 這種文句冗長的特性,另外還有一個原因,那就是在長時期中三藏經典只以口授相傳。 …,…,…,

…,…,…, 巴利文經典令人生厭的機械性的重覆敘述,也可能一部分是由於僧伽羅人(Sinhalese)不願遺失外國傳教師傳授給他們的聖語 …,…,…,

…,…,…, 重覆敘述不僅是說教記錄的特點,而且也是說教本身的特點。我們持有的版本,無疑地是把一段自由說教壓縮成為編有號碼的段落和重覆敘述的產品。佛陀所說的話一定比這些生硬的表格更為活潑柔軟得多。

(節錄自: 巴利系佛教史綱 第六章 聖典 二 摘錄 )