Questions and Answers by Visākha and Dhammadinna


revised on 2019-05-26


Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw; Talk one to six, 11th to 17th December 1961

(I condense the story of Visākha and Dhammadinnā told by Sayadaw. It was based on Cūḷa-Vedalla Sutta, Sutta No.44 of Majjhima Nikāya.)

T1.

(King Bimbisāra invited the Buddha to his place and he gave talks there. Visākha, the merchant of Rājagaha listened to these talks 3 times separately. And each time he realized the Dhamma and the last time became a non-returner (anāgāmin). Later his wife Dhammadinnā, asked him permission for entering the bhikkhuṇī saṅgha. She went to a quiet place for 7 days and practiced there and became an arahant. After she came back from the retreat, Visākha went to see her and asked questions on dhamma.)

You'll have the chance to hear the questions and answers between Visākha and Dhammadinnā from identity-view (sakkāya diṭṭhi) to Nibbāna. (Then Sayadaw told the story of them.) Therefore, the Path Knowledge (magga ñāṇa) surely has the power of energy to destroy defilement (kilesas). What is sakkāya? It's the 5-aggregates (khandhas). The real existence of mind-body is sakkāya. People here (the audience) understand sakkāya diṭṭhi as a combination. It's the natural qualities of the aggregates (paramattha dhamma of the 5 khandhas) and they really exist, and you can call it sakkāya. (It's important to understand that the Buddha's Teaching is for practical purpose to end dukkha. Not for the philosophical thought games like later tradition.)

Some people say that you have a lot of sakkāya. It is wrong to use it in this way. Sakkāya is not a fault. It means mind-body, only wrong view is wrong. Form (rūpa) is sakkāya. If you take it as "I or me", become wrong view. People don't know that form is truth of dukkha and think it as I or me. Then it can lead to the woeful planes. I am cold, I am hot etc., in this way the "I" is interfering with sakkāya. Knowing form (rūpa) as form, and it becomes knowledge. "I have a good meal", this is "the I" interfering with feeling. So, viewing sakkāya in the wrong way becomes wrong view. "I perceive it", this interferes with the perception. "Don't misunderstand my intention", this interferes with the volition. At here, one has to remember that "I in speech" is not a fault but only take it as the real me. People already clear about this point and by using only in speech is not in fault with it. It's a relative truth and we need to use it for communication. The Buddha himself used it. People have wrong view not in this way, and they think it as real. If nobody explains for it, these thoughts are over run through in countless times. For the one who knows this point, they know that their speech and the reality are different things. "Don't test my mind"; it becomes wrong view in consciousness. If someone comes in and tests him what will happen. Then they become in a quarrel. The cause of wrong view is sure enough in this case. Regarding with wrong views, people are quarreling and fighting among them. If interfering with wrong view in anyone of the aggregates, it can become the view of the annihilation (uccheda diṭṭhi). For example, "If I die, I also die". "When my mind comes to an end, I also end". These are the ideas of totally cut off. "I'll die with this vedanā". This include both identify-view and annihilationism.

If you have wrong view and clinging to view will follow. Still alive we have view of permanence and near dying view of annihilation. When business is going well sassata diṭṭhi, and during illness uccheda diṭṭhi, not knowing about these things is living a bad long life. Wrong view is the seed of hell. Why? With it follows by clinging to view. I will never give up my view (become clinging) and do what I think (become action). Is it action (kamma) or wrong view (diṭṭhi) leading one to the woeful planes for rebirth? You may think beings fall into these planes are because of unwholesome actions. It is not so. Wrong view is making the programming and action has to follow it. (The same as craving – taṇhā, the Buddha mentioned wrong view as great taṇhā and greed – lobha as small taṇhā). "I can't overcome this vedanā", this is the I-ness go and mixed-up with vedanā. Vedanā is arising and passing away by itself. Have to observe it like a stranger. Painful feelings come and go. Good feelings also come and go. Neutral feeling is also in the same way. The observing mind is also the same. This is dispelling wrong view. Feeling arising on the body and the observing mind is happening inside. So, don't mixed-up. If you don't mixed-up these things, then wrong view can't come in. Take it as a stranger. Then you know it as not-self.

The knowledge of not-self comes into being. You must observe in the khandha, it appears as a guest and dies as a guest. It's equal to prato (stranger) (There were 10 contemplations in the suttas mentioned by the Buddha and Sāriputta. How to contemplate in 10 different ways on khandha? Prato was one of them). I will teach you the contemplation of not-self. The Buddha also had dukkha vedanā on the body but no mental feeling in the mind. This was different from the common beings. The Buddha only had bodily pain and no mental pain. Why is that? That is because he had the ability to observe or see it as a guest. All the 5-khandhas and whatever arising are guests. (It was just like guests come and go). Take it as the host, you will suffer. As an example, "If my son dies, it will hurt me". In reality it's nothing to do with you, he is only a guest. He came to you but not you wanted him. If you want him to go and he will not. If you are in tears, and already mixed up the guest with "the I". Most women are in tears, because they making the guests as hosts. In the words, "my daughter", "the mother's I" and "the daughter's I" are intermingling. The daughter's mind-body is nothing to do with the mother's mind-body. We are in tears is not because of misfortune, but the cause of intermingling. The mother's wrong view and the daughter's identity (sakkāya) become mixed-up. When it shows its not-self nature and it hurts me. The mother's string of wrong view goes and connects with the daughter's aggregates, and then clinging to view arises (diṭṭhupādāna). There will be no tears to fall without mixed-up wrong view with sakkāya. "Whatever changing in the world, my mind is not moving", this is someone does not have wrong view. Ariyas' mind is not moving when they encounter with the eight worldly winds; no connection with the string of wrong view. Someone here will be in stressful when something happens to one's own child in England. This is 6000 miles away. Too long is the string of wrong view. You are in tears because someone had tortured you or you went to mix thing up. Bind two oxen together with a rope. If one of them is falling into the cliff and the other is also. Without wrong view whatever happen to the mother, the daughter is all right. In the same way to the daughter, the mother is all right. In this way no painful rebirths will come to be and in this life also no suffering. Don't mixed-up one's own khandhas with one's wrong view. The Buddha said that there is no fault greater than wrong view. It can lead to commit the 5 heavy kammas. Killing one's own father is diṭṭhi; there is nothing it can't do. In the unwholesome dhammas, wrong view is the most fearful one.

If I die, vedanā also die, when the fire go out, the light also die out. So take the fire and light together. Fire and light are different things. Fire is heat and light is brightening. Different types of feeling arises in turn, these reveal its unstableness. So try to see the arising and passing away. In this way, no "I-ness" mixed up with the process. There is no I in the arising and also no I-ness in the passing away. Take all these as stranger. Living beings fall into painful rebirths are not by feeling but wrong view. Feeling is conditioning wrong view – vedanā paccaya diṭṭhi.

T2

Cūḷa-Vedalla Sutta is the answers to the questions of Dhamma. (Here Sayadaw told the story in brief) After became an anāgāmin (i.e., Visākha), his faculties were calm and serene. His Dhamma attainment was not suitable to this sensual world. By contemplating impermanence, the defilements become thin. Arriving at the knowledge of disenchantment, it becomes thinner. At the end it's eradicated. Therefore the practice is never wasting. Only this medicine can free someone from the danger of old age, sickness and death. This is the only refuge you can rely on. If you have samudaya (taṇhā – craving) dukkha will follow. Even knowledge of impermanence (vipassanā ñāṇa) is quite effective.

  1. What is sakkāya? It's only asking for sakkāya and not including the wrong view yet. It's the clinging of the 5-khandhas. What are the 5-khandhas? These are form aggregates, feeling aggregates, perception aggregates, fabrication aggregates and the consciousness aggregates. She answered it as the present 5-khandhas. Still he did not believe it, because it could be answered by book knowledge. It's important for you all to understand that. This present 5- khandhas is sakkāya.
  2. What is the cause of sakkāya (khandhas)? It comes from craving (taṇhā), craving for sensual pleasure (kamma taṇhā), craving for becoming (bhava taṇhā) and craving for non-becoming (vibhava taṇhā).The cause of mind-body is coming from craving. Khandhas arise from taṇhā, upadhā and kamma. The main source is craving. Without taṇhā dying out and sakkāya khandha will exist. With the khandha the dangers of old age, sickness and death follow behind it. All those arise by the craving of becoming and surrounded by many kinds of dukkha. Because of the fish smell flies are coming. In the same way because of sakkāya (the 5-khandhas) dangers are coming. By wind blow suffer from the danger of wind. Because of heat suffer from the danger of heat. The cause from wicked dhamma only brings wicked things. Only these are arising. If you can see the impermanence of sakkāya, you will transcend its empire. Sakkāya is the truth of dukkha. Seeing dukkha sacca and taṇhā samudaya must thin out. After thinning out taṇhā, dukkha become less and less. Someone with affection will encounter dukkha and hurt himself, with more affection more harmfulness. When sakkāya changes and samudaya also changes; then sorrow, grief and lamentation come in.
  3. Tell me the ending of sakkāya. If craving ends, it will end also. In short with the ending of samudaya and dukkha ends also. Taṇhā nirodho Nibbānaṁ appears – the cessation of craving is Nibbāna. The Buddha could enter into the Nibbānic state even during the Dhamma talk, within the period of in-breath and out-breath. He also started it from impermanence (arising and passing away) and instantly turned towards Nibbāna.
  4. Tell me the practice to the ending of sakkāya. It's the Noble Eightfold Path. If not entered any of the Path yet it has to contemplate with the 5 path factors (i.e. sammā-sati, sammā-vāyāma, sammā-samādhi, sammā-diṭṭhi, sammā-saṅkappa; right mindfulness, right effort, right concentration, right view, right intention; it's called pañca maggaṅga or kāraka maggaṅga (the working path factors).

After the first Path, proceed with the 8 path factors (i.e. from sakādagamin to arahantship). Why these factors called maggaṅga (i.e., the 5 path factors)? That is because it cuts off defilement temporary. If it can cut off defilement, and then become the dhamma to Nibbāna. Just contemplate impermanence and without doing anything, you are temporary in Nibbāna. Dāna, sīla and samatha are supportive factors for the maggaṅga. They are decisive support condition (upanissāya paccayo) and maggaṅga is path condition (magga paccayo). (i.e. the far and near causes) The Noble Eightfold Path is sīla, samādhi and paññā. Paññā is the leading factor.

  1. Tell me the clinging aggregates (upādānakkhandha). The 5-khandhas are the objects of clinging.
  2. Clinging and clinging khandhas are the same or separate? It's neither the same nor separate. How to understand it? For your clear understanding I have to come in. Khandhas exist by itself, as examples the khandhas of son and wife. If it's only sakkāya, then it becomes the sense objects and not the sense objects of clinging. The clinging from here goes to connect the other side of the khandhas and become the clinging khandhas. The other side is 5-khandhas and this side is craving, and these two connect together become clinging khandhas. Without connection it is not. It's only contact with the sense object and the sense organ (ārammaṇa and ārammaṇika). The khandhas and taṇhā are not the same. People have craving become clinging khandhas. We can't bear even mosquito bite. Therefore, it's connected. It's unbearable when it hurt our beloved khandhas. Khandhas are the place of clinging. Some people mix-up with it and some are not. Noble persons (ariyas) are not in it. When we are happy or unhappy we connect it. They are connected as cause and effect relationship. They are different nature that not the same (khandha and taṇhā). For someone who connects these not separate.
  3. Tell me sakkāya diṭṭhi. No intellectual knowledge and not listening to ariya's dhamma and then take the khandhas as me. With knowledge only sakkāya and not becomes wrong view. The khandha is sakkāya and wrong view is interfering with it. It's difficult to dispel wrong view without listening to dhamma. Therefore the causes for becoming a sotāpanna are:
1. Association with the wise
2. Listening the dhamma
3. Wise reflection on it (yoniso-manasikāra)
4. Practise according to the dhamma (dhammānu dhammappaṭipatti)

Where is intellectual knowledge come from? From listening to the dhamma, fulfilling these 4 factors will realize the Dhamma. Every day in talk I had mentioned sakkāya diṭṭhi as the seed of hell. It's more dangerous than greed, anger, delusion, envy and avarice. If sakkāya diṭṭhi is eradicated; 1/4 of greed, anger and delusion are destroyed, including envy, avarice and whatever combined with it. If you don't want to fall into painful rebirths have to destroy it first. Even you don't fear other kilesas must fear this one. Dāna, sīla, samatha can lead someone to good rebirths, but later pull one downwards to painful rebirths by wrong views. If you are not destroyed it only temporary rising upwards.

Nothing is more fearful than wrong view; because of this someone can kill one's own mother and father. The 5-heavy kammas come from it. In sotāpanna these kammas are never happened. People said they fear unwholesome dhammas. Don't be fear! If you destroy wrong view, no need to fear any unwholesome dhammas. It's leading other unwholesome dhammas and sending beings to the 8-great hells and 120-small hells. If you see sakkāya it dispels wrong view. Why? It becomes right view and the wrong view has to go away. Wrong view must exterminate by right view. Any illness has to be cured by its own medicine. Dāna, sīla and samatha can't overcome it. It's better to do wholesome kammas after dispel wrong view, if not will fall downwards again. The Buddha preferred the kinds of dāna, sīla and samatha enrich with vipassanā. There are 8-kinds of dāna and the best one is enriched with vipassanā. (Mentioned in the Aṅguttaranikāya) Sakkāya diṭṭhi arises because of not knowing the reality. Therefore, knowing the differences clearly and then do the merits. As an example, you shoot a bird with a poison arrow and hit the skin only. It continues to fly as long as the poison not spread enough to the whole body, and then spread enough it will fall down. In the same way any merits done with wrong view going upward temporary and later pull downward by wrong view.

T3

  1. Why does sakkāya diṭṭhi arise? At the time of the Buddha there were noble beings. People had identity-view because they didn't approach them and listened to their talks. Now a day people have this view because they don't have chance for hearing the Dhamma. Not hearing the Dhamma will never dispel this view. Nothing is more important than sakkāya diṭṭhi. When the 5-khandhas arise and don't know become sakkāya diṭṭhi. For example, there is stiffness in the body. Take the air, wind element as I am in stiffness. Someone who knows, it's just the alteration of wind element. Don't mixed-up with the I-ness. Wind element is just only wind element. Heat and cold also become, "I am in cold.", "I am in hot." It's just heat elements. Someone has diarrhea, "I don't know what happen to me." Take water element as me. Take the 4-great elements as me. "My body is itchy." Not knowing the aggregates of feeling arising and passing away become identity-view. "I forget." is making the I-ness to the lost memory. "I want to sleep." makes the I-ness to sloth and torpor, the aggregate of formation (saṅkhārakkhandha). "Don't test my mind." takes consciousness as me. Every time the phenomena of ultimate reality (paramattha dhamma) are arising become wrong view. How many times a day? Uncountable!
  2. Why there is no sakkāya diṭṭhi? Whatever arising, contemplate as this is not mine, not I am, not me, then dispel sakkāya diṭṭhi. Contemplate the arising of feeling, mind and mental states as impermanent, suffering, not-self. Someone who had dispelled sakkāya diṭṭhi will not fall into the 4-painful rebirths.
  3. What kind of dhamma can destroy sakkāya diṭṭhi? Developing the Noble Eightfold Path will overcome it. Are there any differences among them? Yes, they have. The differences are sīla, samādhi and paññā. (Explained the 3 sīlas) These are sīla maggaṅga (path factors of the precept). Why there are 3 differences in the samādhi factors? They can't do the job separately. With the help of mindfulness (sati) and effort (viriya) samādhi develops. The commentary gave this example. How do you take (pluck) a flower, which you can't reach out? One person (1st) has to bend his waist and gives his back to another person (2nd). This 2nd person has to climb on his (1st) back. A 3rd person standing beside the 1st person and gives his shoulder for the 2nd person to hold on it. In the same way in vipassanā the 1st person bends his waist and back is liked viriya. The 3rd person standing beside is similar to sati. Samādhi is like the 2nd person who plucks the flower. Sati and viriya support samādhi. It is impossible in vipassanā without putting effort (viriya) and mindfulness (sati). In vipassanā, not putting effort (viriya) and no mindfulness (sati) are impossible. Only then samādhi can go straight towards the object. Wanting to develop samādhi don't let go of mindfulness and don't reduce effort. Only then samādhi can catch hold of impermanence. If you can't discern impermanence, one of them is lacking for the mind going straight away towards the object. These 3-factors are important. Viriya is pushing from behind and sati is helping it to pluck there. It happens only by combining 3 together. If one of them is lacking, you must know the situation. If you can know and correct it, your samādhi will go towards the object of impermanence. Samādhi can't see impermanence, only leading towards it. It is the samādhi which can plunge the mind towards where one's need. Only wisdom (ñāṇa) is seeing impermanence. It is also not seen by sati, only pointing towards it. Three of them combine together and point towards a sense-object. They can't see impermanence. You must know this point. It's important for the yogis. Samādhi only reaches to the flower. It can't choose good or bad. Why is that? It's only pointing to an object. This one is impermanent (anicca) and conditioned phenomena (saṅkhāra). These are not concerned with samādhi, it only helps the wisdom factors.

Tell me wisdom factors. It's Right View and Right Thought. Why these are together? The eyes are in good shape. But to choose a thing for good or bad, there need to be something to turn around the object to be observed. For example, you look at an object and see only this side. It can't see the other side. For seeing the other side, you need to turn over the object. This side is like this and the other side is like that. Right Thought providing the view, the view of impermanence.

Wisdom is observing the object. Arising is something and passing away is another thing. Someone has to provide this for the seeing. Seeing only the arising and not the passing, and only the passing and not the arising, and then right thought is poor.

Sammā is right and saṅkappa is thinking (turning around) or providing the view. The example I want to give is: using the power glasses for the poor eye sight. In this way will see like a young boy, will see clearly with the help of the glasses. Without the glasses you can see but not clear. Here the eyes are sammā-diṭṭhi and the glasses are right thought. In this way can see the whole process. If you can't see clear, then helping with right thought. It means vitakka, and it gives strength for the contemplation. Therefore samādhi and paññā factors need helps.

Then why have sīla factors with the 3-diffenent nature? If one of them exists, other two are not included. Right speech and right action do their own different jobs respectively. Therefore, one can't help the other during its performance. They have different actions (kamma). Because of their abstaining, they have the same name as sīla but different in jobs. For the yogi who is practicing, it is sometimes with 5-factors and sometimes with 6-factors. Samādhi and paññā can come in together. But sīla can't come in together, and can't help each other. They can't be included during vipassanā contemplation. If one is included the other are not. When are they coming together? It is at the time of inclining towards Nibbāna element. If not, they will never come together. You KEEP the sīla only during meditation. Unstability of sīla is one of the reasons that they cannot come together. The sīla is unstable before one have right view. Right view develops vipassanā. Someone who has wrong view can't rely on sīla because he is easily to break it. There were monks who had sīlas but couldn't dispel wrong view born as nāga (a type of magical snake) and louse (the 1st one was from the Buddha Kassapa's time and the 2nd one was during the Buddha Gautama). Freedom from the 4-painful rebirths is by destroying wrong view. It's the seed of hell which I mention to you every day, it is becoming clear.

If you can get rid of sakkāya diṭṭhi, sassata and uccheda diṭṭhis also gone. Both of them originate from this one. Only diṭṭhi dies out that you realize the First Path (magga). Diṭṭhi nirodho Nibbānaṃ – Cessation of wrong view is Nibbāna. After it had gone there are no dhammas can prevent or hinder for the higher Paths. The Dhamma will lead onwards. One also wants to continue. After destroyed wrong view no need to teach him for the higher Paths. The Buddha only taught the 4-causes for stream entering (sotāpanna) and not for the higher Paths. After diṭṭhi is gone and doubt also. Therefore, basically preventing all the Paths is diṭṭhi. After destroyed diṭṭhi no one will continue for more then 7-life times. It's easy to dispel diṭṭhi. Every time seeing paramattha dhamma (conditioned phenomena) contemplate as this is not mine, not I am and not myself. Contemplate as impermanent nature.

Where is wrong view stuck in? It pierced inside of each 5-khandhas as latent defilement (anusaya kilesa). If you see the impermanence of any khandha and it can't come in. As an example; the dukkha vedanā that you are in pain for a long time happens because you can't see the impermanence or cut through the continuity (santati). You take the khandhas as permanence and it comes in. If you can observe the impermanence in details and it will nearly fall away. Seeing it as now arising and now passing away, diṭṭhi cannot come in. Seeing the impermanence without a gap is very important. If not, diṭṭhi will come in. Therefore, I am asking you that do you see impermanence more and more. What do you think why I am asking at you? I am worry that diṭṭhi will come in. If you discern anicca such as you can't put the tip of a needle inside the whole body. Then diṭṭhi cannot come in. If you see this way, it becomes weak and becomes right view. By its nature the body is packing with impermanence and without gaps. In a second, the mind is arising and passing away at the speed of 10 ^ 13 times (hundred thousand billion times). So it's without a gap. Form is at the speed of 5×10 ^ 11 times/sec. (five thousand billion times). If wrong view has the strength impermanence will become intermittently. If right view has the strength impermanence becomes more accelerated. They are combating each other. Don't think what's happening to me today. It was influenced by diṭṭhi. If diṭṭhi is too strong even can't see it. If right view is too strong even in the beginning of sitting can see it. May be you want to ask me, with only to discern the speed of impermanence in 1013 and 5×1011 times/sec. can be realized Nibbāna? You can realize Nibbāna without this kind of rate. It's depended on your own power of discernment. Why? These were the view of someone who had finished the path.

They talked about it by their own discernment. It's not for the one who is still in practice. Discernment comes by one's own right view. These were the discernment of arahants. With one's own discernment will realize the path. If you ask can other discern in billion times. Again, the answer is it's the view of completion. How can it be the same, the views of worldlings and the noble ones? Why? We have a lot of defilement come in, therefore a lot of life continuum (bhavaṅga cittas) between the processes. The Buddha's discernment had only 2-bhavaṅga cittas between. Sāriputta's discernment had only 16-bhavaṅga cittas between. Our discernments have many bhavaṅga cittas between for each seeing. Bhavaṅga cittas are not the problem, because not kilesa-cittas. If kilesa comes in it will become problem. Therefore, in the Aṅguttara Nikāya, the Buddha said that if kilesa not came in between, practicing in the morning and would realize in the evening. Not mentioned about the bhavaṅga citta. Bhavaṅga cittas are normal and the law of dhamma. The numbers of bhavaṅga cittas are depending on the root of the mind (hetu dhamma).

T4.

The Noble Eightfold Path is the middle way. We had never been on the middle way in the whole round of rebirths (Saṁsāra). If we had been, would never return. On the path samādhi is important.

  1. What is samādhi? It's called one-pointedness of the mind (ekaggatā citta). It can take one object. What is one object? If feeling and only feeling, the mind and only the mind and not together. (Fragment, not a sentence?) Pointing towards on an object and it's called the mind is in one-pointedness. Concentrating on an object is ekaggatā. If you can concentrate on an object defilement can be overcome.
  2. What is the sign of samādhi? It's the 4-Satipaṭṭhāna, contemplation on the body, feeling, mind and dhamma. Samādhi follows sati towards an object. If it's on feeling, it will fall on feeling straight away. In this way know about feeling. If one-pointedness is on the mind and sati fall on it. One-pointedness must work with the Satipaṭṭhāna objects. The sign of samādhi is the body disappeared and knowing the feeling or mind etc. As examples, in the contemplation of feeling it just falls on feeling, and on the mind and it just falls on the mind. Then it becomes the sign of Satipaṭṭhāna. If discern impermanence, it's also the sign (nimitta). Sati fall on the object and its permanent sign disappeared and impermanent sign appeared in the mind also the sign of Satipaṭṭhāna. By seeing the impermanent sign appeared, the form and shape of man or woman is disappeared. Therefore, by seeing the sign of impermanence is the sign of Satipaṭṭhāna. Can it be by itself alone leads to realization? It must include the other member of Satipaṭṭhāna. It's effort (viriya). By putting effort towards the object the permanent sign disappears and sati-paññā see the sign of impermanence. This seeing is helping by effort. Viriya and samādhi are the factors of samādhi. Sati and paññā are the factors of discernment (wisdom). Its qualities we are talking in different ways and in discerning anicca all factors are there. Can it be realized Nibbāna in this way? It needs to be contemplating for many times (bhāvetabba). Why? Kilesa impurities are like a copper bowl, it can be shone only by polishing. From births we had impurities with us like the copper bowl. By not doing the Satipaṭṭhāna practice, one-pointedness practice and not putting effort for practice, then the mind becomes more and more defiled like the bowl. To do this kind of task, you have to meet a teacher and has the kind of ear to listen to the Dhamma. From the days of birth, we are grown up with craving mother and ignorance father. We are grown up on their hands and care. They are very worry that we realize the Path and Fruit and liberate from their hands. Ignorance covers up the Four Noble Truth and craving teaches us for affection to mother, sons and properties. We are doing things what they want us to do.

So impurities pile up every day. How long it had been? In the whole round of existence it had not been polished before. Between them we also have body guards of wrong view. Diṭṭhi always control us and tell us this is your dad and this is your mom. Normally we leave it and never wash and polish it. So it piles up with impurities. This is the reason we can't realize Nibbāna. The volume of ignorance, craving and diṭṭhi are increasing. Therefore, it needs to contemplate for many times. By polishing again and again the copper bowl which we left for a long time is becoming shining. Must contemplate for many times and put continuous effort. Contemplate continuously decrease ignorance, craving and diṭṭhi. For insight knowledge to contemplate again and again is needed and not for Path Knowledge. Path Knowledge sees Nibbāna once only. Even though Path Knowledge arises only once; it's similar to cross a river by a boat. The boat-man puts the loads in a boat and rows it to the other shore. The boat is doing 4-jobs. 1. Leaving this shore. 2. Arriving at the other shore. 3. Carrying the loads. 4. Crossing the water. In the same way, the boat liked the Path is crossing the water of defilement only once. Leaving this shore of sakkāya diṭṭhi and arriving at the other shore of Nibbāna is also the boat or the Path. The boat is also carrying the loads of khandhas. Path Knowledge happens once and finishes 4-jobs. From the impermanence of khandhas it sees the permanence of Nibbāna. Cutting through defilement is the Path and crossing towards Nibbāna, which is without dukkha khandhas is also the Path.

During the practice, one-pointedness is important, and also the sign of Satipaṭṭhāna. The helping of effort is also important. All these things happen one time is not enough. It needs to contemplate many times. The Buddha emphasized this point by giving the simile of the mother hen and the eggs. The hen has 3 duties to do. You also have the 3 duties of working with anicca, dukkha and anatta. Without these duties, all the eggs become spoiled and your knowledge becomes blunted. With continuous contemplation the shells of ignorance become thinner. Liquid of craving become dried up. The knowledge of spiked claws (the chicks inside the eggs) becomes sharper. You must spread your body of contemplation on the eggs of impermanence. Only kilesa liquid dries up and the shells of ignorance become thinner. The spiked claws become sharp; the chicks can kick the shells from inside and hatch out. It was like the hen, you have to sit on the eggs very often. If not, it's impossible. Light appears means realize Nibbāna. When the kilesa liquid dry up and the shells of ignorance thin out will see the light. The spiked claws which are similar to knowledge become sharp. The Buddha said that the one who contemplated would destroy the taints (āsavas). With kilesa the mind can't penetrate. Even kilesa itself is inconstant. It has the power of repetition condition (āsevana-paccaya). Therefore, the mind can't penetrate. When you go back home observe the body, don't see it as a lump of form. Contemplate feeling, the mind, and if you know how to do it, the form will disappear. If you can't, the form of hand, feet, hair... etc, the 32-parts of the body can be appeared. Only the form disappears you are reaching the point.

She (Dhammadinnā) talked about the factors of awakening. The analysis of qualities as a factor of awakening (dhammavicaya sambojjhaṅga) is the path factors of right view (sammā-diṭṭhi). She used the factors of awakening there. It is the way to Nibbāna that use it as bodhi (awakening). Bodhi means knowing. It also included contemplation for many times (bhāvita bahulīkata) in the factors of awakening. Therefore, right view and analysis of qualities are the same things. Right view is not enough for seeing only, but need to contemplate for many times as the factors of awakening show it. People may think path factors are no need to contemplate for many times. So, I talk about them here. Both of them are wisdom factors. If you do the path factors again and again including awakening factors. Why talk about two things? Path factors talk about cutting off defilement and awakening factors about increasing the factors. By contemplating again and again and not seeing Nibbāna yet, but don't take it as wasting time. The Buddha gave this simile – the handle of a carpenter's adze. Using it for one time the handle was eroded once. If you're continuously using it, it continuously eroded. It can't come to be by prayers (as later traditions). At first the handle becomes smooth out, and then slowly the fingers' print appears on the handle. The thickness of kilesa developed from the round of rebirths is so thick that without continuous contemplation can it be thinned out? Therefore, insight meditation has the outcome of reducing kilesa. Don't be disappointed and giving up. If kilesa thins out, the practice is developing. Every time seeing impermanence every time it's thinning out. Seeing more and more it becomes thinner and thinner. Contemplation is stopping the process of dependent arising to continue. First kilesa thin out and later with its extinction. Effort also has to develop. You might think it's not including rapture (pīti). Already it's inside the samādhi. I am talking about only the leading factor. It's included as association with samādhi. Every good feeling of contemplation includes pīti. Not as the leader of the path factors but as follower. Contemplation without pīti, laziness will follow. Therefore, the Buddha asked to contemplate with joy and interest. Seeing something as you'd never seen before, so contemplate with gladness. I will explain the matter of seeing something never seen before. With the eyes of the Brahma gods can see a needle in the human world. They can see the needle from four hundred billion (4×10 ^ 10 miles) yojanas far away (1 yojana = 10km). But they do not see the anicca.

They saw it with the worldly eyes (lokiya). Here we see with the supermundane eyes. So your discernment of anicca is better than the views of the Brahma gods. A rock tablet falls from the Brahma world to the earth will take one and a half months to arrive here. Theirs are the divine eyes. The eyes belong to the time of outside the Buddha's teaching. They're samādhi eyes. Here are the knowledge eyes (ñāṇa eyes). It's not easy to have this knowledge. Here it's itching and here it's passing away. Feeling appears and disappears. So it's ñāṇa eyes. Dhammavicaya eyes or you can call it the eyes of right view or knowledge eyes. The worldling gods and Brahma gods don't realize Nibbāna, because they are lacking of this eyes. Therefore after they are passing away will return to the human world and to the animal realm.

Hundred thousand years before the Doomsday, human beings become fear of the day to come. Therefore many people would develop the Divine-abiding (Brahmavihāra Dhamma) and most of them became the Brahma gods. All these are by samatha practice and when the time come will fall back again. Even though this eye can see the small needle from far away can't discern the nature of the 3-characteristics. They practiced samatha for the craving of becoming (bhava-taṇhā). They also had the unwholesome kammas with them. After falling from the Brahma realms even some of them become pigs (not directly from there but devatas can. See Subrahmā Deva's story). You all had become Brahmas before, and as devatas for uncountable times. But you had never been free from old age, sickness and death; and never had the eyes of insight before. Nothing is more valuable than this eye. The pleasures of heavenly gods are good but Sakka (king of the Tāvatiṃsa Heaven) himself came down to the earth for practice. He had the kammic eyes and not the knowledge eyes. Discerning impermanence is nobler than Sakka and the great Brahma gods. After seeing anicca, then come the Knowledge of Disenchantment (nibbidā ñāṇa) and the ending of anicca are sure for the realizing of Nibbāna. You must work hard to get these eyes. In the future you can't meet a good teacher and the sāsanā like this. Comparing with the whole world very few people have these eyes. Therefore, you have to contemplate in order to see more and more and clearer. Don't exchange with them (the status of heavenly gods and Brahma gods). You are gold and they are salt. You must know one's own value. They have to be make wishes for becoming human beings to get this knowledge.

T5.

Visākha asked Dhammadinnā on the attainment of cessation (nirodha samāpatti). This is nothing to do with you all and useful. So let us continue to another question. How many feelings are there? There are 3-feelings in the body: pleasant, unpleasant and neutral feelings. If one of them exists the other not, and always one of them is there. Every time it needs to catch on with one of them. For our practice, let us extend the knowledge about them. At the physical body pleasant or unpleasant feelings or sensations can appear. From the eye, ear, nose and tongue are neutral feelings. Why? In the seeing just seeing only, because it is neutral feeling. After seeing, it's better not to continue. In hearing just hearing, do not become pleasant or unpleasant about it. In smelling just smelling and also stay neutral. If you react to it as disappointment then the mind arrives at the active phase of cognitive process (i.e. javana citta). It becomes the mind with aversion. In the beginning state it was neutral. In eating just eating is also neutral. Reacting to it as I like or I don't like and it becomes a javana citta. There are itches, aches, and pains etc. These are happening at their own places. When the body is cold, unpleasant feeling arises, and by warming with fire become comfortable → → (i.e. pleasant feeling).

Today, we're using feeling on practice. If you have some satisfaction in the heart, it's pleasant mental feeling (somanassa vedanā). No satisfaction is unpleasant mental feeling (domanassa vedanā). Whatever happening, it is all right and become neutral feeling. All the feelings which I had just mentioned; if one of them is there then the other are excluded. Why the Buddha called them the feeling aggregate? It's because feelings are happening all the times. Do you need to look for feeling or don't know their arising? On the body pleasant and unpleasant feelings (sukha and dukkha), and in the heart pleasant and unpleasant mental feelings (somanassa and domanassa), exclude the tips of the hairs, tips of the finger and toe nails, and everywhere feeling can arise. Feeling is conditioned phenomena, e.g. feeling arises in the eyes is by the contact of the eyes and form. If the eyes are blind can't arise. It is only saṅkhāra and fall into anicca. Sabbe saṅkhāra anicca – all conditioned phenomena are impermanent. Its arising is conditioned by others. If you can contemplate anicca, it becomes mindfulness of feeling. If you don't, after seeing it becomes wanting, then continues to craving, clinging and action (taṇhā, upādāna, kamma). [Note: Sayadaw always uses the Dependent Arising in his talks; therefore, we need to understand the 12-Links of Paṭiccasamuppāda.] Seeing the thing as disgusting, then the anger of dependent arising process continues. Seeing without mindfulness become unknowing which lead to the dependent arising of ignorance. No insight meditation from the eye door creates the 3-ways of dependent arising for the round of rebirths. By not knowing these we think that it doesn't matter.

But to the Buddha not knowing the dependent arising, it's better to use the hot iron bar to poke the eyes. This makes for dying once. Every time seeing without knowing leading to painful rebirths and will die for many times. While seeing contemplate quickly as conditioned phenomena and inconstant, then the dependent arising is cutting off the 3-unwholesome dhammas to arise (i.e. lobha, dosa and moha).

Dhammadinnā answered the question and I show you how to use it for practice, then it becomes clearer. Knowing the arising and passing away can be freed from the taints (āsava). From seeing if craving arises, it becomes the taint of sensual pleasure. Not knowing is the taint of ignorance. It's easy to talk. In the real contemplation it becomes late. Can you stop at just seeing? If you can't stop, then contemplate impermanence quickly. The Buddha said that by contemplating impermanence of feeling near death could become arahant or destroyed the taints. Sāriputta realized the first Path (magga) by contemplating on the body and the later 3-Paths by feeling. His realization came by during the time of listening to the Buddha's talk. The mind became sharper by contemplating on the inconstancy of feeling. This is contemplating of feeling and at the same time by following of the Buddha's Teaching. Realization can't come by just listening to the talk. Listening and contemplation together can become stream-enterer to arahantship in stage by stage. Therefore, I taught you very often that the ears listening to the talk and the mind observing the khandhas. Just by listening only and without contemplation can't develop the enlightenment. The mind can't sharp, can't see the truth, can't erode defilement and can't see Nibbāna. By listening and put effort in practice. Don't listen only just for merits. In the suttas it mentioned that by listening and also contemplating. Without this can't stop craving and wrong view.

In hearing, also the same, it's conditioned phenomena. Without knowing conditioned phenomena can't know anicca. In the body whatever arising is conditioned phenomena. Their nature is ending with impermanence. Its arising is becoming and passing away is dying. If you can contemplate in this way, it is pajānāti – means knowing. What do you know? Knowing the inconstancy of conditioned phenomena.

Dīghanakha listened to the same talk and contemplated impermanence and then became a sotāpanna. (He was Sāriputta's nephew. Both of them listened to the talk on vedanā given by the Buddha.) You can contemplate in this way and three ways of dependent co-arising will not arise. Tongue and taste are also in the same way. Yadā paññāya passati – observe with wisdom when they're arising. The contact of the physical body and outside objects are also in the same way. Body sensitivity (kāyapasāda) comes into existence by kamma. If a being is still alive, this kamma is not finished yet, and then body sensitivity will continue to exist. "It is too cold", then become aversion to it. Therefore, if you know it is cold, then instantly – Yadā paññāya passati – contemplate it as impermanence. You know the conditioned phenomena is arising, it has to be arising (samudaya) and passing away (vaya). In reality you see the truth of dukkha (dukkha sacca).

Seeing is the truth of the path (magga sacca). If you discern dukkha completely, then it becomes the Path knowledge. Not complete discernment is only insight knowledge. Why were Visākha and Dhammadinnā talking about feeling? Because it is the quickest way to arahantship. It was also mentioned by the Buddha (Sayadaw quoted the Pali verse from a sutta). Therefore, contemplation on feeling was included in Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta because it can reach the goal by itself. Sāriputta and Dīghanakha finished the practice with feeling and no other contemplation. By contemplating feeling others also include. In contemplation take it as a main contemplation. Not knowing the arising does not know the passing away, and then it conceals the truth of dukkha. The Buddha also mentioned that all phenomena arising from the body are the truth of dukkha. Not seeing saṅkhāra can't contemplate anicca. In the Q and A of Visākha and Dhammadinnā, they talked about the types of insight only (Both of them already knew the details). Here I use it for describe the practice. Contemplate impermanence of whatever feeling is arising. They are arising all the times. I only concern you of not knowing the arising. Not knowing is ignorance. Whatever arising is dukkha sacca. Dukkhe añāṇaṁ – not knowing dukkha is ignorance.

Ignorance does not stay in this way, and will do something according to its own power. Physical action, verbal action and mental action will follow behind ignorance. I'll talk about it later. If ignorance comes in, one will become shameless and fearless of consequence like an animal. These words came from the Avijjā Sutta of Mahā Vagga Saṃyutta (SN 45. 1, Avijjāsuttaṃ). How bad it is? Not knowing of whatever arising at the 6-sense doors, doesn't know the truth of dukkha. In this way one is creating actions (kamma), mostly unwholesome actions every day.

In short insight meditation is contemplation of the truth of dukkha. The contact of thought and mind sensitivity (mind-door) create pleasant or unpleasant feelings. These are conditioned phenomena. If become Dukkhe ñāṇaṁ (knowing dukkha), then it is knowledge. Avijjā nirodha saṅkhāra nirodho – with the cessation of ignorance, volitional formation also ceases (wholesome and unwholesome actions). And then saṅkhāra nirodha viññāṇa nirodho – with the cessation of volitional formation, consciousness also ceases. Birth is ended. It is the cessation of birth. Ajāti (without birth) is Nibbāna. It is clear that contemplation has the benefit of cutting through dukkha. By doing the job of knowing dukkha, craving (samudaya) is ceased, and realizes the cessation of dukkha (nirodha). Every time knowing dukkha is factors of the Path (magga), it done the duty of the Four Noble Truths at the same time. By contemplation of impermanence knows the others. (Sayadaw continued to talk about neutral feeling of the mind.) Every moment of contemplation realizes the momentary Nibbāna. It is worthy of doing it. You have to contemplate the 5 kinds of feeling. The Path Knowledge appears after craving ceases. One clears up one's own dangers by contemplation. Greed, anger and delusion are inner enemies. If you are giving many reasons for not doing it, you are following the reasoning of the defilement of craving. It is just for your own suffering.

T6.

Visākha asked, "Not contemplate pleasant, unpleasant and neutral feelings, what will happen?" Not contemplate pleasant feeling latent defilement of craving will follow. She answered shortly. But you must know that craving, clinging and action will follow. It continues to becoming (existence) which birth will follow. This is the natual law. If died with the pleasant feeling, so called "peta jāti" (the birth of hungry ghost). From the point of taints, it's followed by taint of sensual pleasure (kāmāsava). It refers to greed. With kāmāsava and bhavāsava (taint of becoming) will follow behind. It is very rare to find someone with contemplation. People are smiling with pleasant feeling. Not contemplate unpleasant feeling anger will follow. This anger arise from ignorance will lead to animal birth. This is followed by the taint of ignorance (avijjāsava). This taint follows up to the highest heavens (i.e. Arūpa Brahma Gods) and the knowledge of change of lineage (Gotrabhū ñāṇa) in insight meditation. When these feelings are arising, make effort to contemplate. If not, it is the path to peta and animal realms. Not contemplate neutral feeling the taint of ignorance will follow. This feeling is subtle, only for someone who has knowledge can know about it. Mostly it leads to the animal rebirth. Is it not frightening? Even performing merits without surrounded by insight and then ignorance following with it. It gives advantage to craving. With ignorance that people perform prayers with craving. Then follow by the taints of sensual pleasure, becoming and ignorance. Therefore, there are more merit makings for the continuation of rebirth than liberation from it. These are not the results of merits. It is the cause of ignorance without knowing and continues with one's own wishes. Indeed, it is rare to find a teacher who can teach people what the Buddha intended for.

Visākha asked, "Do these 3 latent defilements follow behind feelings all the time?" The answer was not always. A person who practices insight meditation is not followed by them if he contemplates impermanence. This is one way of admonishing. I have to admonish you the second way the Buddha mentioned that merits could give the results up to jhānas, paths and fruits. But wrong knowledge becomes the cause of repeated births. It is the cause of the merit makers. Generosity (cāga) is giving up so it is killing the craving (taṇhā). It is giving up mine, so killing wrong view. Therefore, dāna is the dhamma of killing taṇhā and diṭṭhi. If you don't know how to do it; it becomes I have so I give, then diṭṭhi come in. I give it so I will enjoy the fruit and then craving come in. (So, knowledge and wisdom are very important in our daily lives.)

It is depending on the guidance of a wise teacher. Must know how to choose the teaching and always think about that these teachings are reaching to the heart or not (connection with the 4 Noble Truths). If leading to the truth it is precious. The Buddha admitted that he himself did not know the truth before had to wander for a long time in the round of rebirth. Someone has moral virtue (sīla), what should he do? Have to contemplate anicca, dukkha, anatta… etc., the 11 contemplations (disease, tumor, dirt, misery, affliction, alien, disintegrating, empty, anicca, dukkha and anatta). It was questioned by Mahākoṭṭhita (or Mahākoṭṭhika) and answered by Sāriputta. Someone has sīla and practice vipassanā can realize the path and fruit.

Dhammadinnā described on the practice. When pleasant feeling arises it is pleasant, and passing away it is dukkha. Therefore, contemplate as dukkha sacca, and then it cut off the taint of sensual pleasure in the dependent co-arising. When unpleasant feeling arise it is painful, and passing away it is sukha. For neutral feeling, someone has sharp faculty discerns anicca. Unpleasant feeling is the opposite of pleasant feeling. We have to contemplate when they arise. Only one can arise. When sukha arises contemplate sukha, and dukkha arises contemplate dukkha. Contemplate both as the truth of dukkha. What is their opposite? Neutral feeling, it means when it arises the other two are not there. When upekkhā arises must contemplate upekkhā. If not, we think that nothing is there. One of them is always arising. Don't say we can't find anything to contemplate. It is similar to say as there is no impermanence. It is also like seeing Nibbāna. All the feelings cease is Nibbāna. Therefore, continue to contemplate until all feelings are ended. When the mind can't penetrate these 3-feelings it can be mixed up because the mind follows late. The khandha arise quicker than the mind which is observing. That means defilement come in between them. This makes the realization slower. During contemplation sometime sukha or dukkha or neutral feeling continuously arising. For example for sukha vedanā – as with one sukha and with one knowing (i.e. ñāṇa) etc., each feeling with each contemplation defilement cannot come in between them. For example, if pain arises and it's continuously painful, then the mind can't penetrate it. And aversion comes in between them. If pleasant feeling continuously pleasant the mind can't penetrate it either. Kilesa comes in between them. For the yogis this point is very important. If neutral feeling continues, the mind can't penetrate it. Ignorance comes in between them. Greed follows behind sukha, anger follows behind dukkha and ignorance follows behind neutral feeling respectively.

It is not easy to talk about these things. In real practice you have to know that kilesa really come in or not. Is your mind able to catch on with each anicca? You have to observe it. If you don't, then increase your effort. You will realize Nibbāna. Not realizing is because of kilesa come in between the practice. Insight knowledge (vipassanā ñāṇa) is the forefront knowledge. The first thing has to develop. The right view of insight knowledge comes before hand. Only then the right view of Path Knowledge, which is seeing Nibbāna, will follow. In these two right views; vipassanā right view becomes sharper and Nibbāna becomes closer. Without laziness in the practice, then you will realize it. Without vipassanā right view the leader of the Path right view can't arise. It was mentioned in the Sagāthā Vagga Saṃyutta. (SN.1.46; (6). Accharāsuttaṃ, Āditta-Vaggo, Devatā-saṃyutta, Sagāthā Vagga, Saṃyutta.)

The knowledge of conformity (anuloma ñāṇa) is still in the stage of anicca. It conditions the knowledge of change of lineage (gotrabhū ñāṇa) which sees Nibbāna with proximity condition (anantarapaccayo). Why I use it here? It describes the natural process without a being. It will arise accordingly to the natural law. Knowledge of the Path comes only after the knowledge of change of lineage and seeing Nibbāna. Therefore, without the knowledge of insight and Path Knowledge can't happen, even stand between them is the knowledge of change of lineage. Don't let disappointment and doubt come in. May be I am a 2-rooted person (duhetuka). Had I done something wrong to someone? So I can't realize Nibbāna. Don't let these mental states come in. The Buddha guaranteed that if you could listen to the truth of dhamma and discerned anicca, and then you would realize it (from Aṅguttara Nikāya). If no defilement comes in between anicca and contemplation, you will realize it. Don't think about these things. In some people their doubts and remorse lead them into painful rebirths, preventing them from realization.

There comes the knowledge of change of lineage after the insight knowledge; and next comes the Path Knowledge. These are the process of the law of vīthicitta (consciousness belonging to a cognitive process). They are always in this process. Worry and remorse (kukkucca) are very bad dhamma and danger of the path. Yogi will destroy himself. All the practices never become fruitless. The Buddha also gave encouragement. During the dying moment the practicing yogi by putting effort in contemplation can enter the stream to non-returner. If not happen in this way by dying with the mind of insight knowledge will take rebirth in the heavenly realm. As soon as born there and enter the stream. The Buddha mentioned this definitely (Aṅguttara Nikāya). If kukkucca comes in, contemplate its impermanence. After that continue one's own contemplation, e.g. vedanā, mind etc. For someone who contemplates on feeling, worry is unpleasant mental feeling (domanassa). In contemplation of mind, worry is mind with aversion. Don't look for it. It comes for contemplation. This point is very important.

Visākha asked, "What is the opposite of neutral feeling?" Dhammadinnā answered," It's ignorance." It is true, every time neutral feeling arise and not knowing it is ignorance. And then what is the opposite of ignorance. The answer is knowledge or knowing (vijjā). If one of them there the other is not. Therefore, your contemplation is the path of knowledge. This is the work of true knowledge arising (vijjā udapādi) and discernment knowledge arising (ñāṇa udapādi). What is the opposite of vijjā? It is fruition (phala). Vijjā is ñāṇa (knowledge). Fruition is the free mind (vimutti citta). What is the opposite of fruition? It is Nibbāna. Why? For the fruition mind to arise have to practice a lot. It is conditioned phenomena (saṅkhata dhamma). Nibbāna exist as unconditioned dhamma and without cause. So they are opposite. Visākha was very pleased with her answer. And then the Buddha asked to contemplate fruition as impermanence, because it is conditioned (from the Paṭṭhāna). It is saṅkhata dhamma so ending with anicca. For Nibbāna just only incline towards it. Whatever impermanence contemplates impermanence. Those which is permanent just incline towards it. It means stay with the peaceful mind. Therefore I have to mention that incline the mind to the ending of arising and passing phenomena as ending. Don't contemplate Nibbāna. It is not a dhamma for contemplation. It is a reviewing dhamma (paccavekkhana), an investigating dhamma. What is its characteristic and quality? Can it be investigated in this way? It does not matter. The Path is impermanent and Fruition also impermanent. Contemplate conditioned as impermanence (saṅkhata). As for unconditioned Nibbāna, reviewing as "That it's", "That it's".

For ending the dhamma talk, to realize Nibbāna start from the conditioned, conditioned knowledge is not the Path Knowledge, only insight knowledge. The kinds of knowledge which come out from the conditioned are Path Knowledge and Fruition Knowledge. Insight knowledge is taken the objects of conditioned. Contemplate conditioned as anicca is insight knowledge. After the ending of the insight knowledge, you will see the unconditioned, i.e. Nibbāna. Why? It is free from the conditioned. Vipassanā practice is finished when the practice of the conditioned is ended. Then the knowledge incline towards the unconditioned will happen. You can't find Nibbāna inside the province of conditioned. If it is possible, it must be Diṭṭhi-Nibbāna (wrong view Nibbāna). Eating is good, drinking is good, and people take these things as momentary Nibbāna. It is wrong view Nibbāna. Therefore, if you want Nibbāna, have to come out from the province of conditioned. If you don't know the condition, then can't find out the exit. The arising is conditioned and the passing away is anicca. If you can't see, this then it is impossible. At first, make oneself from blind worldling into right view worldling (kalyāṇa puthujjana). And then realize the Path Knowledge of noble view and you will see Nibbāna. Blind worldling does not see the conditioned but good worldling see it. If he sees the unconditioned then becomes a noble person must develop in these ways. Before encountering a spiritual friend, everyone is blind. If you find one, you'll become a good worldling. For example, when Sāriputta and Mahā-Moggallāna met Sañjaya (their first teacher), they were blind worldlings. They became good worldlings after met with Assaji (one of the first 5-disciples of the Buddha), later becoming noble persons. Don't take the blind worldling as 3-rooted or 2-rooted person (tihetuka or duhetuka) only as without a good spiritual friend. Before not met the Buddha, all were in blindness. Therefore, don't have doubt about it.


revised on 2019-05-26; cited from https://oba.org.tw/viewtopic.php?f=22&t=2945&p=32935#p32938 (posted on 2016-07-23)


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