- Comparison with the four vipers discourse
- The abandonment of defilement at the 3rd stage of samādhi
- Analysis of the three stages of purification of the mind
- Development of Insight
- Purification of View
- Contemplation of mind and matter in the Six Sets of Six Discourse
- Contemplate on the Contemplative Knowledge
- Contemplation of the mind with the attention on the worldly sensual concepts
- Contemplation on the mind (dhamma-ārammaṇa) of the skeleton
- Contemplate from the skeleton to particle object
- Contemplate the past mind objects
- Contemplation on the future mind objects
- The existence of the three worlds
- The connection between internal and external worlds
- Note on the existence of the internal world
- Insight contemplation with the first and second bhavaṅga samādhi
- U Candima's view on this point
- Contemplation on mind contact and feeling with the body movements
- Purification by Overcoming Doubt
- Purification of the path and not-path
- Purification of the way
3. The Third Stage of Purification of The Mind
This samādhi can keep the mind from greed and distress for long as wish.
After fall into the 2nd bhavaṅga mind, yogi continues with sati staying with the cessation of the mind (i.e., mūla-kammaṭṭhāna). At the cessation for three hours, the strength of sati becomes weak and moha sticks back unknowingly. The mind with weariness and effort becomes weak and is able to arise. If there is an association with a clinging object, it will encounter an enemy. In one's own knowledge, yogi knows that he is still not discerning the paramatā mind and form. Therefore, when the time spent on the cessation becomes longer, the sati becomes weaker and the waiting kilesas stick back to the mind. The yogi knows that one's sati is still not free from the control of the enemy. He sees the flaw of sati becoming vulnerable with time. Therefore, he has to continue the practice by not letting sati move away from the object of cessation. With sati and ñāṇa (nyan) stay with the cessation of conceptual object. Keeping the sati to the object with a bit more desire and mind process arises. If staying with the object of cessation without clearly and moha arises. If the nature of dissatisfaction arises, it becomes refined dosa. Here it's important to have very purified sati. There is not even any trace of dirt in the purified sati. Sometimes yogi has pleasantness on the clear mind, and also clear light can appear. He must give up the desire for these objects, only in the absence of other mind, stay on the cessation with sati and knowledge.
[Sayadaw U Candima gave the following instruction—how to develop the practice vigorously.]
Take care of your body's needs (i.e., wash your face, go to the bathroom and eat breakfast) from 5 to 6 a.m. and do walking meditation with sati. Do sitting meditation from 6 a.m. to 11 a.m. if it's necessary. Continue the practice from 12 p.m. to 10 p.m. Take care of the bodily needs From 10 p.m. to 11 p.m. Continue the practice from 11 p.m. to 5 a.m. Now it is arriving at the level of getting rid of the enemy completely, so yogis have to do the practice without getting up. The reason for the longer time is that after 3–4 hours the worldly sensual thinking comes in because the sati is unstable and unclean. Therefore, he has to practise vigorously until it's stable and clean with the cessation.
With more care, yogi must not let sati disappear.
During being mindful, yogi should not concern about the situation, it should be ignored; it is a worldly habit, an unwholesome mental factor (cetasika). With over effort, the mind wanders and bhavaṅga vibrates, which destroy samādhi. With weak sati, it becomes moha and conceptual mind arises again. Dosa arises from one's unsatisfied desires, and lobha arises by thinking about the desire to achieve. Check lobha, dosa and moha with paññā and do not let them stick together with sati, while paying attention to the nature of cessation and worldly sensual minds.
In practice, there are two groups of dhamma, i.e., form (rūpa) group and mind (nāma) group. The mind group is led by sahetu viññāṇa (unwholesome and wholesome mind consciousness). Defilement, hindrances and concepts (unwholesome) and sati, paññā are in this mind consciousness. Therefore, it's only using the sahetu mano-viññāṇa to contemplate sahetu viññāṇa. This is contemplating the preceding mind with the following mind. In what follows, U Candima compared the four ways of such contemplation (these refer to the four vipassanā systems).
The preceding mind (sahetu viññāṇa) with hindrances and anicca. The following contemplating mind (sahetu mano-viññāṇa) with sati contemplates the preceding mind as anicca and the preceding, mind ceases (at any one mind moment only one mind can exist). In this way, if the yogi can contemplate without gap and all the preceding mind with hindrances are ceased for temporary abandonment (tadaṅga vikkhambhana) (For example, if there is an hour in an hour of meditation). But these cessations cannot last for two hours, because when the body is afflicted with pain and soreness, dosa and domanassa come up and it becomes invalid.
Another way is the preceding mind with concepts (e.g., see an object, hear a sound, etc.).
Next is the contemplative mind with concepts (e.g., seeing, seeing; hearing, hearing, etc.)
When pains and aches arise, it doesn't last for two hours.
The preceding mind with concepts and the contemplating mind with concepts, which contemplates the preceding mind as if there is nothing. When pains and aches arise, it doesn't last for two hours.
The preceding mind with concepts and the contemplating mind with no concepts and has sati.
In this system, sati can stay with the cessation at least for 8–9 hours without moving, even can be more than that. This is U Candima's way.
The above four ways of contemplation are the same. One, two, three practices are only temporary abandonment (tadaṅga) with sīla and samādhi, because they cannot abandon the faculty of pain (dukkhindriya) that in long term it fails. No. 4 practice is abandoned taṇhā from dukkha vedanā that it has no suffering and free from khandha dukkha (body pain but not the mind) and samādhi becomes stable.
The contemplating mind at the 3rd stage of samādhi, sati is clean with vīthi-citta (mind movement) and cannot have uncertainty of dust. It must be free from the past and future of conceptual objects, must not have all worldly perceptions (saññā). The mind must not have worldly sensual habits and behaviours. Sati and knowing are going together with stability. This is not letting the 14 unwholesome mental factors sticking with the mind during this samādhi (see Abhidhamma for these 14 akusala cetasikas). This knowing mind is called a purified mind. If the contemplating mind of the practising yogi does not possess the above-mentioned qualities, he cannot enter the state of insight knowledge with the knowledge of the three characteristics (lakkhaṇa ñāṇa). They must be considered for this (without becoming truly insightful).
When the purified, calm and stable sati is staying with stability at the nature of cessation and in the chest for the 3rd time, there is a refined feeling that arises. It's for the 3rd time the mind falls into bhavaṅga samādhi. As soon as it happens, the mind stays at the clear element of bhavaṅga. The clear bhavaṅga is the paramatā mind element. This is also the birthplace of the minds. The sati at the 3rd stage of bhavaṅga samādhi is not fading away again that in this Samādhi. The group of unwholesome mental factors are totally cased. It only has sati and paññā (knowledge—ñāṇa) [It seems to me that the sati and paññā referred to by the Thai forest monks could be this kind of samadhi. ]
Some yogi said, at this place there was only knowing existed. When the contemplating mind arrives at samādhi-indriya it becomes very refined. Because different kinds of worldly sensual concepts, worldly sensual minds, worldly sensual behaviour are totally ceased in this samādhi. Therefore, no impurities appear again to stick with the mind and during the samādhi 14 unwholesome mental factors are ceased. This cessation of the minds is not Nibbāna element. (This is done with the power of samādhi, not by wisdom—paññā. In other systems, this could be mistaken for Nibbāna.) There is no more reason to purify the mind. The mind can stay at the clear element of the bhavaṅga without moving.
A yogi stays with this samādhi frees from the five sense objects; and also from the past and future mind objects (dhamma-ārammaṇa). He also frees from the objects with lobha, dosa, moha and diṭṭhi kilesas for some periods (vikkhambhana).
Therefore, sahetu mind which is completed with right-samādhi (samma-samādhi) only taking the object of bhavaṅga. According to the Six sets of six Discourse (Chachakka Sutta, Majjhima N.) it was mentioned that yogi also had to discern the mind (māna or mano). Now this attainment of samādhi discerns the clear element of the mind (māna), because of this power of upekkhā ekaggatā-samādhi which just only taking the object of clear bhavaṅga that it can stay there as one's wishes the clear element is the sign (nimitta) with no concepts. It's free from the worldly sensual concepts of perception (saññā). It's completed with samādhi-indriya that frees from the defilement with perception which disturb this samādhi. Defilement signs are ceased in clear bhavaṅga. Therefore, it's free from the perceptions of signs. This samādhi frees from the desire of perception. Sensual objects (kāma-ārammaṇa) and defilement are ceased there, that it frees from the perception of wrong attention (ayonisomanasikāra).
It doesn't need to look after the defilement that is sīla-visuddhi (purity of virtue). With the cessation of the polluted defilement, the mind becomes pure, which is citta-visuddhi (purity of mind). The causes that make the mind shake disappears, and this is samādindriya (the faculty of samādhi).
It just stays on the clear bhavaṅga, and the mind and form processes that would arise in the present moment due to the contact of sense objects cannot arise there. The contemplating mind protects the bhavaṅga there, and the mind objects (dhamma-ārammaṇa) don't have the chances to arise. Because sahetu viññāṇa is completed with samādindriya which continuously inclining toward the clear bhavaṅga as an object. It stays with the bhavaṅga for many hours.
The mind of this samādhi focuses only on observing the resemblance images presented in the "bhavaṅga" mind door, and will not accept any worldly conceptual objects. There is no "mind action" (citta-saṅkhāra) that takes worldly concepts as objects, and all mind action with transcendental (paramatā) "perceptions" about the object (the seeming images presented in the "bhavaṅga mind") does not exist in the mind. This can be said that there is no perception (saññā). It cannot be said that it does not exist at all, because if mind exists, perception also exists.
To continue the practice, yogi has to move away from the clear bhavaṅga and contemplate the paramatā objects. This is moving away from the abandoning of the six sense-doors (abandonment of six sense-doors is chaḷaṅgūpekkha). Yogi's contemplative mind must have completion with the quality of abandoning the six sense-doors to contemplate the nature of mind and form (rūpa). [This is the same as upekkhā ekaggatā samādhi, samādindriya, samma-samādhi, etc.]
In the Buddha's teaching (i.e., suttas), the luminous mind or bhavaṅga citta is at the moment of unwholesome active cognitive mind process (akusala citta vīthi) is defiled, and at the moment of wholesome active cognitive mind process (kusala citta free from defilement. Yogis have to be aware of this point in the Suttas. This third stage of samādhi or purity of mind is liberated from the defilement can stay at the clear bhavaṅga. Therefore, the practice mentioned here is in accordance with the Buddha's teaching.
Yogi has to come out from the clear bhavaṅga if he wants to develop great insight (mahā-vipassanā). He can discern the clear bhavaṅga that he can contemplate the arising phenomena which arisen by the contacts of objects from the five sense-doors at the five clear elements (pasāda) [these are sight, sound, etc. and eye clear element, ear clear element, etc.] According to the Chachakka Sutta he can discern the six pairs of clear elements.
Sayadaw U Candima's view: There are many basic meditation objects, such as at the top of the head; noting at the rise and fall of the abdomen; contemplate the preceding mind and the following mind (i.e., contemplative mind); doing ānāpāna with strong breathing or soft breathing; practising with momentary samādhi (khaṇika samādhi); practising with dry insight system (suddha vipassanā); etc. Teachers are using all these methods or systems to teach and instruct yogis to practice these methods (in Burma). If yogis still do not discern the six pairs of clear elements and the six consciousnesses, it means that their discernment is still not true and correct. (This problem does not arise in the Thai forest tradition, which follows the sutta tradition without confusion. See the tradition of Ajahn Mun and the teachings of Ajahn Chah.
Comparison with the four vipers discourse
The practices from the 2nd bhavaṅga to third bhavaṅga can be compared as follows. Falling into the 2nd bhavaṅga is free from the five murderers (the five khandhas) and continue to run from the sixth murderer or the intimate companion (delight and lust—nandi-rāga). The latent craving (ānusaya-taṇhā) or nandi-rāga is stuck with the mind in the whole round of existence (saṁsāra). So every mind arises already there. When the mind falls into bhavaṅga for the 3rd time, the “pleasure and lust” (nandirāga) mind ceases with the active cognitive mind process. After coming out from the clear bhavaṅga, it is free from the 6th murderer of intimate companion and arrives at the safety place.
The abandonment of defilement at the 3rd stage of samādhi
The following objects are able to contemplate or discern with the 3rd bhavaṅga samādhi:
- If one of the six senses of object contacts to the clear element of bhavaṅga at the present moment, this samādhi mind is able to contemplate the corresponding mind object (e.g., sight, sound, etc.)—dhamma-ārammaṇa with its ahetuka viññāṇa (i.e., mind and form with no roots). This is the internal arising element.
- able to contemplate the two elements of knowing nature and unknowing nature of the clear bhavaṅga. These are internal base elements.
- able to contemplate the mind and form arising at the five sense-doors at the present moment, as an example, when a sight object contacts with the eye element (cakkhu-pasāda) the arising form object (rūpārammaṇa) and eye consciousness (cakkhu viññāṇa) This is internal base elements (eye clear element to body clear element).
- able to contemplate the five kinds of contact which like an electric current toward the clear bhavaṅga from the clear elements (i.e., cakkhu-pasāda, sota-pasāda, etc.) of the five sense-doors. These are internal contact elements.
- every time one of the five contacts (phassa) hits the clear bhavaṅga at the clear bhavaṅga mind and form arise that is the same kind as mind and form which appear there (e.g., a visual object appears at the eye door and the same object also appears at the mind door). The samādhi mind is able to contemplate similar minds and forms that appear at the door of the mind. This is an internal arising element.
- able to contemplate the mind contacts (mano-samphassa) which incline back to the corresponding pasāda (e.g., eye clear element) after the mind and form appear at the mind door (mano-dvāra). This is the internal contact element.
- every time after a mind contact arises an experience of feeling (mental feeling) arising at sahetu viññāṇa. This samādhi is able to discern or contemplate it. This is an internal arising element. The following sahetu viññāṇa contemplates the preceding sahetu viññāṇa (i.e., mind contemplates a mind).
- with this samādhi able to contemplate the above-mentioned mind and form natural process as mind and form, as contact (phassa), as feeling (vedanā) with perceptions (saññā) or contemplate as anicca, dukkha, anatta, etc. with perceptions.
- able to discern the particles of 32 parts of the body which appear at the bhavaṅga as dhamma-ārammaṇa of form.
(10) able to give the perceptions of man, woman, tree, etc. to the form objects which arise or appear at bhavaṅga, if don't want to give the perceptions also possible.
- During the practice (i.e. mahā-vipassanā), the mental states concerning, boredom, distraction, etc. do not arise by themselves as far as the span of time is concerned.
- The benefits of this samādhi are:
A yogi can contemplate the above conditioned mind and forms (saṅkhata nāma-rūpa), their variations (vikāra), their characteristics (lakkhaṇa) and conceptual nature in any posture and at any time (such as driving a car, eating, talking, doing, etc.) according to his or her desire.
In the beginning, the yogi had the desire to see the paramatā mind and form the objects of contemplation that searching and practising for it. Now he is discerning them, so the matter of finding them is over. Now he only needs to contemplate and develop them with the three universal characteristics until taṇhā, māna and diṭṭhi are rooted out from the mind (the anusayas).
[Here we can see the importance of samma-samādhi—upekkhā ekaggatā samādhi or the 4th jhāna. Also, it is the most difficult part of the practice as mentioned by Ajahn Lee with the analogy of building a bridge across a river. Samādhi was like the middle part of the bridge. A very well-known Burmese teacher said as follows (It may be Soon Loon Sayadaw). It's more difficult to make something not exist before than with something already existing. The first referred to samādhi and the 2nd way insight (the three lakkhaṇas)].
If the yogic with this samādhi does not pay attention to the paramatā objects and instead takes the objects of worldly sensual conceptual objects, he will see, hear, smell, etc. the same as ordinary people.
The above purity of mind (3rd Samādhi) is according to the Snakes Discourse:
- free from the dangers of four viper snakes, (2) the five murderers, (3) the sixth murderer or the intimate friend and the yogi finds out the village with six houses and the six bandits [i.e., the six clear elements of eye, ear, etc. and the six sense objects of sight, sound etc. with the six consciousnesses (viññāṇa)]. With the connection of the Six Sets of Six Discourse continue with insight practice the yogi discerns the six clear elements (pasāda), the six sense objects, the six consciousnesses, the six contacts the six feelings and the six cravings (taṇhā). Now the yogi is at the place of crossing the river to the other shore of Nibbāna. To reach the one fourth of the river, i.e., to give up diṭṭhi-ānusaya (the potential defilement of the ego view), he must develop the insights from purification of views (diṭṭhi-visuddhi) to purification by knowledge and vision (ñanadassana-visuddhi).
Analysis of the three stages of purification of the mind
Three stages of bhavaṅga and its views
U Candima gives the following example for the three stages of bhavaṅga and its views.
A house has three doors inside a compound. These are: the main compound door, the entrance door into the house, and a door into a sleeping room. When the house owner is inside the bedroom he can only see the things inside it, but he cannot see the things in the main room, in the compound and all the external things outside the compound.
If the owner wants to come out from the bedroom, he has to open the bedroom door, and close it again. Outside the room, he cannot see the things inside the bedroom. He can only see the things in the main room. He also cannot see the things in the compound and outside the compound.
From the main room, if he wants to go outside the compound, he has to close the main room door and go out and close it again. Then he'll see only the things in the compound, but not the things in the bedroom, in the main room and outside of the compound.
From the compound, if he wants to go outside, he has to open the compound door and close it back. Outside the compound he only sees the things there, but he'll not see the things in the compound, in the main room and in the bedroom.
If the owner wants to go back to his bedroom from outside, he has to do it in the reverse order as mentioned above.
We can compare the above experiences of the house owner with the yogi's experiences with his attainments of the three stages of purified mind or three bhavaṅga samādhis
- the 3rd time yogi falls into bhavaṅga is like closing the bedroom door. The doors here are in restricting the boundaries, going in and coming out. The things inside the bedroom are similar to the paramatā objects of mind and form mentioned in the Six Sets of Six Discourse (Chachakka Sutta).
- the 2nd time the mind falls into bhavaṅga (the cessation of sensual perceptions of mind—kāma saññā of the mind) is like closing the main room door. The things inside the main room are similar to the groups of particles discerned by the yogi.
- The first time the mind falls into bhavaṅga is like closing the compound door. The things inside the compound are similar to the phenomena there and in accordance with the attentions (manasikāras) of them [(1) 32 parts of the body; (2) the four great elements, (3) the affliction of form (rūpa), mind contact (mano-samphassa) and feeling (vedanā).] The things outside the compound are like all the objects of the external world. The mind takes them as worldly sensual conceptual objects.
- The house owner is like the yogi's contemplative mind (sahetu mano-viññāṇa, mind consciousness with roots—here is wholesome root).
If we observe and analyse the above comparison, the objects of mind and form are not easily seen and contemplated according to our own desires. In accordance with the different levels or stages of samādhi or bhavaṅga; and the mind and form are also quite different. The contemplative knowledges (ñāṇas) which contemplate the paramatā mind and form are also different according to their purity. A yogi who had attained the 3rd level of samādhi or bhavaṅga will not see or discern the different kinds of paramatā mind and form if he does not enter into the three levels of bhavaṅga and in normal way. It was like the house owner stayed outside the compound.
Note: In the following, Sayadaw U Candima has published his comments in the book.
Whoever is looking for dhamma by using whichever method or system, the dhamma phenomena of six clear elements (pasāda) in them are also the same. The six sense objects falling on the six clear elements are also the same. The six consciousnesses are also the same in them. The six contacts (phassa), the six feelings (vedanā), and the six cravings (taṇhā) are also the same in them. Therefore, the discernment of mind and form also should be the same.
It should not be that the yogis’ discernment are different like this or like that. Paramatā mind and form are clean or purified objects (not defiled). The samādhi which discerns them is also purified samādhi. These minds and forms are penetrated by oneself. In insight (vipassanā) there is no such thing as coolness, clearness like a mirage, with light, floating around, don't know anything and attaining of insight knowledges by the confirmation of a teacher, etc. Yogis have to be careful about these things (It seems to me these are some yogis’ experiences in other methods or systems. I don't know what any of this really means. But there will be some yogis who talk about their experiences in many different ways, some of which may be misunderstood or misleading.)
Three types of bhavaṅga three enemies and three coverings of concepts
I have explained the three bhavaṅga and its views with the example of the owner and the house. I'll base on this example again to explain the abandoning of the hindrance on the process to these bhavaṅgas.
Let us assume the owner had the most expensive ruby kept in the bedroom. The owner employed three security guards to protect his house. The first guard took his place outside the compound main door, the 2nd one was inside the compound to protect the main entrance door into the house, the 3rd one was inside the house at the outside bedroom door.
A notorious bandit wanted to own the ruby. So at first he had to kill the guard outside the compound, he opened the main compound door and closed it again. He had to kill the 2nd guard at the main house entrance door, he opened its door and closed it again. In the house, he had to kill the 3rd guard at the bedroom door, which he opened and closed again. The fourth time he had to kill the owner who was clinging to the ruby.
In the above example, the analogy is as follows.
- The guard outside the compound was like a worldly sensual concept with different objects and the poison of the four vipers.
The analogies of the above-mentioned situations are:
To kill the first guard outside the compound was like before falling into the first bhavaṅga abandoning the defilement which disturb the contemplating mind. Opening the compound door was like falling into the first bhavaṅga.
To kill the 2nd guard inside the compound was like abandoning the defilement which disturb the contemplating mind and opening the main house door was like falling into the 2nd bhavaṅga.
To kill the 3rd guard inside the house was like abandoning the defilement which disturb the contemplating mind and opening the bedroom door was like into the 3rd bhavaṅga. Killing the house owner was like coming out from the bhavaṅga, and owning the ruby was like discerning the 36 objects of mind and form (i.e., six sets of six objects mentioned in the Chachakka Sutta).
The paramatā mind and form (rūpa) are the objects of insight knowledge, it's very refined and subtle, arising and passing away very quickly. If the contemplative mind is covered with delusion (moha), clinging to the concepts as reality, the mind is coarse with lobha and dosa, no stability on the present object with dispersion, etc., it cannot discern the 36 kinds of paramatā mind and form. Even though we are talking about mind and form, there are great differences between the appearance of mind and form and the seeing or discerning of mind and form (it can be said as thought or speculation and direct seeing or discerning). Yogis must take care about this point (Sayadaw's point is without right samādhi or the 4th level or the 3rd bhavaṅga samādhi). It is right if the yogi can contemplate and discern the paramatā mind and form arising in the present moment through the object of contact in a second.
The practice of samatha-yānika way to arrive at the right samādhi (samma-samādhi) or the purification of the mind exists as only one way and vipassanā-yānika way also only one way. In his book (i.e., U Candima's “The Way to Stream Entry”), no.(1) Basic ānāpāna kammaṭṭhāna is abandoned craving (taṇhā) for temporary (tadaṅga pahāna). (see the list of the first level of the purification of the mind). Ānāpāna scales like samādhi practice abandoning of taṇhā directly, instead in competition with taṇhā to control the mind to abandon lobha, dosa, moha for temporary (tadaṅga) and longer period (vikkhambhana).
[In his center, U Candima did not teach his students for realization with this system, but he taught them only how to develop this Samādhi. Then in the future if they like it and can use it. The-inn Gu Sayadaw used this samādhi for insight. In my opinion, it is simpler than using U Candidma’s system of practice.
No.(4), no.(5) and no.(6) practices are to contemplate on taṇhā directly and abandon taṇhā completely (samucceda-pahāna). This taṇhā connects with diṭṭhi and dosa to the mind (the usage here abandon taṇhā completely not with paññā, only with samādhi).
The first stage of purification of the mind ends here. The active mind process of taṇhā and domanassa is calmed down that for the first time the tension at the bhavaṅga also calmed down.
The second stage of purification of the mind is practising by making sati stable at the cessation of many mental states of the mind, these are taking the objects of past, present and future, mind with hindrances, the mind gives the perceptions on objects with many kinds of concepts, greedy mind on objects, mind with uncertainty of delusion (moha). This is stabilizing of sati at the cessation of all these mental states. The second time with the cessation of unwholesome active mind process that the tension of bhavaṅga calms down for the 2nd time. With the cessation of the above defilement, the mind temporarily calms down and over a period of time it becomes purified.
The practice of the 3rd stage of purification of the mind is that the refined and subtle of the above defilement (i.e., at the 2nd stage) are a bit insecure. When they are arising again practising by making sati totally stable and controlling them, that sati becomes a faculty (satindriya). When mindfulness becomes satindriya the above-mentioned defilement with the refined active mind process are ceased that the refined bhavaṅga calmed down again. In the mind the hindrances of lobha, dosa and moha, and all the minds give the perceptions of concept are purified, and then the mind completed in purity. The mind becomes the faculty of samādhi, in other way a mind completed with right samādhi (samma-samādhi).
With this purified mind, yogi can discern or contemplate the clean paramatā mind and form. And then he can continue with the insight contemplation
Note: Sayadaw U Candima wrote five chapters on the whole practice of stream entry in his book—"the Way to Stream Entry". It's quite a detailed exposition.
The five chapters are:
- Chapter four: The Nature of the Contemplative Knowledge (ñāṇa)
In this chapter, he explained about the other four purifications of views, overcoming doubt, purification of the path and not-path and purification of the way. This chapter is on insight practice—mahā-vipassanā.
(5) Chapter five: the Nature of the Noble Path (Magga) It's about purification through knowledge and vision. This is the 7th purification of the mind.
In my book, I have no plan to describe Sayadaw U Candima's whole practice. His book was already translated and whoever is interested in it can find it on the internet, www.amazon.com. I will continue to describe the insight practice very roughly. This is related to Chapter Four.
Development of Insight
Entering into right samādhi (sammā-samādhi)
After attaining the 3rd bhavaṅga samādhi, yogi prepares for his sitting posture. To arrive back to one's attainment of samādhi, with mindfulness (sati) taking the object of the cessation of mind with worldly concept. At that time, the active mind process which takes the object of external world (loka) temporary ceases (tadaṅga). Because of the active mind process, the tension of the bhavaṅga calms down (This is the first bhavaṅga samādhi). With the calming down of the bhavaṅga, the physical body (kara-ja khandha) and the mind connection are cutting off. The active mind process of connection with taking care of the body also stops at the same time. Even though the four elements are afflicted, the yogi's mind has no suffering.
The body in sitting also has no movement. The physical body is like a stone statue and has stability even for a 10 hours long period. (U Candima takes this samādhi equal to the first rūpa jhāna. In the West, some teachers had a different view on this point and confused people.)
Let sati stay continuously with the cessation of all the minds, and then for the 2nd time the bhavaṅga calm down again. Because of the samādhi, the mind doesn’t want to sit longer period; the mind with lethargy; the mind does not want to stay quiet with thinking this and that; the mind wants to move freely with wrong attention; the mind with sleepy condition, etc.; all these unwholesome active minds with the tension of the bhavaṅga are calmed down. After the 2nd time, the bhavaṅga falls in the mind with sati stays put and without any movement.
At that time, if the yogi is looking at his own physical body (kara-ja khandha) with ñāṇa (knowledge), he does not know its shape and form, because the 2nd samādhi kept away the concepts. In other way, it's taking the object of cessation that no arising of the worldly minds (lokiya cittas).
With sati continuing stays at the cessation again it abandons the refined active mind process, because of it the tension of the bhavaṅga calms down again. This mind is staying by itself at the clear element (pasāda) of the bhavaṅga mind. There is no movement of the mind with its sati, because the mind with the mental factor of darkness (moha) is cut off from the mind. After it falls into third bhavaṅga, it becomes right samādhi (samma-samādhi). It's completed with samādhi-indriya. It frees from abhijjhā, domanassa and moha with stability. Giving the names of concepts to the six sense objects also cease in stability. It's transcending the worldly concepts and penetrating the mind element (mano-dhātu) of lokiya-paramatā dhamma
When yogi arrive at this samādhi, all the refined level of active mind process is ceased and calmed down, and his closed eyes open themselves a little. His eye-lashes are also not moving at all with the opened eyes.
In the following, I will only describe the insight practice very roughly.
[Diṭṭhi-visuddhi—Specially purified view—Discernment of mind and matter]
Purification of View
Contemplation of mind and matter in the Six Sets of Six Discourse
Let's assume Mr. Brown is the yogi, and he has a son named John. When Mr. Brown is in the 3rd bhavaṅga samādhi, John stands in front of him. When he looks up at John who is standing in front of him, and he cannot incline the mind toward him. Mr. Brown can only take the object on the clear element of the eyes. Previously, he thought that every time he saw any external object, the mind would go out and find that object. That the mind takes an external object and sees it is a wrong view.
The external object contacts the clear eye element and the mind takes the internal object at the clear eye element with seeing and knowing is the right view. With the right seeing by contemplating the clear eye element is not me, not him, there is no life with the soul and the creator. It's expressing the nature of sight object which falls on it. It cannot prevent the clear eye element from receiving the sight object. Here, the object of contemplation is the clear eye element; the contemplative knowledge is the following path factors of mind. (This is discerning of form or matter and mindfulness of the body—rūpa-pariggaha ñāṇa and kāyanupassanā satipaṭṭhāna)
During the contemplation of form or sight object with their nature of characteristic (sabhāva lakkhaṇa) another thing find out is nearly the same as sight object but different seeing nature of a mind. Here, the object of contemplation is the preceding eye consciousness; the contemplative knowledge is the following path factors mind consciousness with roots—sa-hetuka viññāṇa maggan. This is mindfulness of the mind—cittanupassanā satipaṭṭhāna. This seeing mind consciousness is not taking the external object of John, but only taking the object at the clear eye element by itself. These seeing mind consciousness and the form object are nearly the same but have different qualities, one is knowing nature and the other is not knowing nature (i.e., mind and form).
This mind consciousness does not have the nature of me, no nature of “I see it”, there is no naming of John—my son, no criticism of good or bad, not seeing as a soul, not seeing with clinging as a person or a being, just existing as knowing. Before taking the seeing consciousness as my mind and I see it. Now Mr. Brown knows that the seeing mind is doing its own task. Mr. Brown's wrong view is falling away at the moment of contemplation by seeing it. This is the discernment of the mind and mindfulness of the mind (nāma-pariggaha ñāṇa and cittanupassanā satipaṭṭhāna).
Mr. Brown contemplates nature of elements of mind and form analytically as not me with not-self or non-self insight knowledge. This is discernment of mind and form (nāma-pariggaha ñāṇa). During his contemplation of form at the eye door and its seeing mind, he finds out another significant nature. This nature that arose from the eye door was like an electric current element, i.e., eye contacts (cakkhu-samphassa). When he is carefully observing it, that is running toward the bhavaṅga clear element, and hitting at it. There is no creator or master at this nature, no existence of person and being and no expression of a soul which Mr. Brown Sees it clearly with discernment. The preceding object is eye contacts (cakkhu samphassa), the following contemplating knowledge is the path factors mind consciousness with roots (sahetu viññāṇa magginga). This is nāma-pariggaha ñāṇa and cittanupassanā satipaṭṭhāna).
Continuing the contemplation, Mr. Brown finds out a mental image (picture), appears at the bhavaṅga clear element. This mental image is the same as John outside, and the same image as on the eye clear element. (three of them are the same). The object of contemplation is mind object (dhamma-ārammaṇa), the following contemplating knowledge is the path factors mind of mind consciousness with roots (sahetu viññāṇa magganga). This is discernment of mind abject (rūpa pariggaha ñāṇa) and mindfulness of dhamma (dhammānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna).
Again Mr. Brown observes and investigates, mind object (dhammarūpa) and he finds out another mind element even though it's similar to the dhamma form, but it has the knowing nature of mind consciousness with no roots (ahetuka viññāṇa), because dhamma form has the nature of not knowing anything. This mind element is not giving the concepts of name to that dhamma object (dhamma-ārammaṇa), there is no like or dislike, not making any decision, not doing any wholesome or unwholesome actions, there is no making of with see it or changing with the self to it, it only has the nature of knowing (not more than that). This mind consciousness without roots accepts the mind object only with knowingness. Mr. Brown discerns it with direct knowledge. The object of contemplation is the preceding mind consciousness without roots, the contemplating mind is the following path factors mind consciousness with roots. This is discernment of mind and mindfulness of the mind.
During the observation with contemplation of mind and form at the bhavaṅga; from bhavaṅga to the eye door an element (mind contacts—mano-samphassa) comes out and inclining toward the eye clear element like a lighting. This contemplation is not taking the objects of the eye door and mind door, only contemplating the connection of these two doors. This element, like an electric current, is very quickly arising and passing away. When carefully observe this nature, they are arising in turn like a lightening of two elements from eye to (i.e., from the eye to bhavaṅga and from bhavaṅga to the eye). These are cakkhu-samphassa with mano-samphassa.
The nature of these elements is not me and also not myself (atta), not arisen by my order. No creator exists, no soul exists, etc. This is nāma-pariggaha ñāṇa and cittanupassanā satipaṭṭhāna.
Whenever these two elements arose, Mr. Brown carefully observed and contemplated the connection between them. This is observing and investigating with a very refined, subtle, penetrative samādhi. Every time these electric currents fall on to bhavaṅga and there is an element (i.e., vedanā) arising which experiences the object with them together (i.e., eye and mind contacts). This aggregate of feeling nature is not me nor my self (atta); not arisen by my order; there is no creator and soul. This is discernment of the mind, and mindfulness of feeling with mind consciousnesses have no roots and roots. These are ahetuka viññāṇa and sa-hetuka viññāṇa—referred to cakkhu-samphassa and mano-samphassa.
Contemplate on the Contemplative Knowledge
After the contemplation of the objects of mind and form and discerning them as not a person, nor a being and not me, Mr. Brown wants to know about the contemplative knowledge.
Therefore, he takes the object at the eye-door and at the same time the contemplative knowledge arises to contemplate them as the nature of mind and form. Again, he contemplates the preceding contemplative knowledge with the following contemplative k. At the moment, the preceding mind ceases. Here the object is the preceding mind consciousness with roots, the contemplative k. is path factors mind consciousness with roots This contemplative mind with knowledge of concept (vijjā-māna paññatti) arises is not my creation, but arises by itself. This knowledge of mind is not me, nor my self, and not a person nor a being.
And then he contemplates the feeling which arises with the preceding mind k. With the following contemplative mind k., He discerns its rise and fall. With changing of the objects and minds are also changing.
[Note: Here I don't want to continue the following contemplation with experiments. Now the readers have the general idea of the insight practice.]
Contemplation of the mind with the attention on the worldly sensual concepts
Based on the above-mentioned mind and form process, Mr. Brown takes the object of mind and form appearing at the clear element of bhavaṅga, and he pays attention to it, With the worldly sensual concept (avijjā māna-paññatti, such as “this is John, my son” Then it changes into the mind clinging with a person and a being of defilement by itself. These mind consciousness with roots arise based on the worldly sensual concept by giving the perception (saññā) because they arise from the fetters of defilement taṇhā, māna and diṭṭhi which are not abandoning yet.
Experience (feeling of) this dhamma object also arises with it. Based on this feeling with wrong view as my son and clinging with taṇhā—affection infiltrate the mind (vedanā conditions taṇhā). From taṇhā clinging arises (taṇhā paccaya upādāna). This clinging (upādāna dhamma) does not exist at the present moment because of clinging to the past mind object of John, which appeared at Mr. Brown’s bhavaṅga. Mind object of John with the mind group of mind consciousness with no roots is becoming (bhava), this is a clinging conditioning action for becoming.
The following mind consciousness with roots arising together with clinging is birth (jāti)—bhava paccaya jāti. This becoming of birth (bhava-jāti) is discerned by the following contemplative mind with roots. Here the dhamma object is form dhamma, the following mind with no roots and with roots (i.e., ahetuka and sa-hetuka cittas) know the dhamma object is mind dhamma.
(The readers should read these two paragraphs carefully from the above until now. These are the arising of the clinging five khandhas by concept. U Candima shows them with dependent co-arise. The whole process is simple, but his expression is complex.)
Mr. Brown contemplates the preceding mind with mind object and vedanā, and the mind with kilesa are ceased. Here the dhamma object is form, the experience (feeling) of the dhamma object is mind. This is discernment of mind and matter (nāma-rūpa pariggaha ñāṇa).
In this way, at present life, there are many mind processes of clinging with becoming, birth (upādāna, bhava, jāti) arise. [Here also I will not continue the following dhamma experiments of U Candima. The readers now have the general idea about this section.]
Eye clear element, sight (object), eye-consciousness, mind object (dhamma-ārammaṇa), mind consciousness (mano-viññāṇa), feeling, eye contacts (cakkhu-samphassas and mind contacts (mano-samphassa), and then conceptual object with mind consciousness with roots are the five khandhas (mind and form) of 36 kinds mentioned in the Six Sets of Six Discourse. Here Mr. Brown can contemplate them and discerns the five khandhas which are mentioned there. According to the Vipers Discours this is seeing the six villages, six houses and six bandits. And according to the Ant Hill Discourse is seeing the tortoise.
Contemplation on the mind (dhamma-ārammaṇa) of the skeleton
Based on the above-mentioned form and mind process, Mr. Brown makes the attention to the dhamma object of John appears at the bhavaṅga as a skeleton body. Because of this contemplative mind, the original image of John ceases and a new image of its skeleton arises. If the mind changes, the attention of the object and the dhamma object also changes. Mr. Brown knows this nature with his knowledge (ñāṇa) (rūpa pariggaha ñāṇa; dhammānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna). Again he contemplates with the following mind to this mind object with its concept as a skeleton, and it passes away. (the preceding mind anicca and the following mind maggaṅga; nāma pariggaha ñāṇa and cittanupassanā). This skeleton conceptual mind is not my creation, not me nor self (atta) and it arises by itself and passes away by itself (Mr. Brown contemplates in this way). Again he contemplates the feeling of the preceding mind with the object of the skeleton. The essence of this feeling is that there are no good and bad nature (i.e., not as desirable and undesirable-iṭṭharamana and aniṭṭha ārammaṇa), but only as mere sensations (nāma pariggaha ñāṇa, vedanā satipaṭṭhāna).
Mr. Brown is reflecting in the following way on the form object of the mind (rūpa-dhamma-ārammaṇa) which similar to John at the bhavaṅga element. The mind can never directly relate to external objects. The mind is imprisoned inside the bhavaṅga, the jail room which exists in the four elements of prison with the five doors (Here the mind = prisoner, bhavaṅga = jail room, the physical body= prison, the five prison doors = the five sense-doors). When the five sense objects enter the prison doors (friends or relatives), the five conscious guardians (warders) are receiving them, and the contact jailers bring them to the prisoners of the mind.
Mr. Brown discerns it that way. Before that he thought as the mind was inclining toward the external objects directly and dealing with them. This was wrong believing. With the following contemplative ñāṇa (i.e., sahetu mano-viññāṇa) he discerns the cessation of taṇhā, māna, diṭṭhi minds by itself which is based on the mind knowledge on the skeleton (these minds are with the concepts of my son, John, clinging, person, being, etc.). This knowledge is nāma-pariggaha ñāṇa with cittanupasana satipaṭṭhāna (vīta-raga, vīta-dosa, vīta-moha cittanti pajanati)— it means the mind is without passion, without aversion, without delusion, he discerns them.
Contemplate from the skeleton to particle object
Mr. Brown takes the skeleton object at the bhavaṅga and changes the skeleton to the particles group of object by changing its attention as particles, because bone are not existed as a lump only as a group of particles. At the time, the skeleton image of the bhavaṅga changes into a group of particles, i.e., becoming (bhava). (rūpa-pariggaha ñāṇa, dhammānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna)
[Here, we must pay attention to the point that the skeleton cannot become a particle without disappearing. It disappears first, and in its place a new object arises. It is not something that can be taken as a soul, as some Mahāyanists think; that is just a change of veneer (or outer appearances).] Based in this group of particles dhamma object and Mr. Brown's sahetu viññāṇa which knows this object arises, i.e., birth (jāti). [Here the readers can be confused without the abhidhamma knowledge.] This preceding mind arises and the following mind sahetu viññāṇa discerns it. (cittanupassanā satipaṭṭhāna). When contemplate like this, the mind knowing as the particles ceases (i.e., death—maraṇa). Here also discerning of the vedanā which experiences the object of particles with the preceding knowing mind.
If Mr. Brown abandons the attention of the mind object (dhamma-ārammaṇa) at the bhavaṅga as skeleton or particles or John, then all the mind objects and all the other minds based on these objects are ceased; and then the following mind—sahetu viññāṇa stops at bhavaṅga with just seeing. The following contemplative mind—sahetu viññāṇa discerns these natures (the preceding mind object with the mind dhamma is anicca; the following mind is magga / nāma-rūpa pariggaha ñāṇa; dhammānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna) During at this stage of samādhi, if John was not outside form dhamma object (rūpa-dhamma-ārammaṇa) appears at the bhavaṅga will cease and leaving only with bhavaṅga clear element, and the contemplative mind continues to stay at the bhavaṅga. Even though an outside object exists, if the mind not pay attention to it, the mind still can stay with the bhavaṅga.
Contemplate the past mind objects
After Mr. Brown contemplated the mind-body processes of John which appeared at the bhavaṅga clear element, he based on this mind object of John changes into the childhood of John by paying attention to its past image which he remembers. Then the present image of John appears at the bhavaṅga disappears and the child-hood of John image appears at its place (dhammānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna).
The knowing of changing mind also appears together by itself, vedanā which experiences it also appears with them by itself. Based on the object of this mind and Vedanā in that mind, clinging to the little boy John as a son (clinging view—diṭṭhi-upādāna), my son (clinging to being—atta-vādupādāna) and affectionate mind (kāmupādāna), and other clinging dhammas then appear in his mind (feeling is the condition of craving and clinging OR "feeling" as a result of "craving" and "clinging"). At the present it does not exist but clinging to the past object that mind object appears at the bhavaṅga (clinging conditions becoming—bhava)
[Note: Here we know the importance of abhidhamma teaching. It makes more clear and profound how the mind with mental states work by conditioning].
The following contemplative mind (sahetu mano-viññāṇa) discerns the arising mind (bhava conditions jāti—birth) with clinging (dhamma object is form dhamma, the preceding minds of ahetuka and sahetu are nāma-dhammas.)
This contemplative mind also discerns the feeling which experiences the object with the preceding mind (dhamma-ārammaṇa is form dhamma, feeling the object is mind dhamma; nāma-rūpa pariggaha ñāṇa). The above mind with kilesa comes to cessation by contemplating the feeling (i.e., jāra and maraṇa).
[In the following U Candima continues with his experiments with contemplation as mentioned above like the others. I will not continue it because readers have the general idea.]
Contemplation on the future mind objects
Let us assume Mr. Brown wants to become a monk in the future. He pays attention to the bhavaṅga and thinks about himself as a monk image, at the moment his image of a monk appears there. (upādāna → bhava). At the same time, the mind knows the object also arises with it (bhava → jāti). And then Mr. Brown’s gladden mind arises on the mind object (monk image). It connects to taṇhā (vedanā → taṇhā). He contemplates this mind with its vedanā, and the gladden mind ceases. He discerns this cessation of the following contemplative mind (i.e., from vedanā and taṇhā stops).
Mr. Brown continues the contemplation with the skeleton mind object of the future and the particles object of the future. All these contemplations are already mentioned before with the present and past objects (please see them).
In these ways he contemplates many times the natural characteristics of mind and form dhammas by changing the mind objects differently (these are dhammānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna). The following knowledge arises in him. Before the practice he was thinking and planning with the past and future mind objects and took them as really exist, but it was not true. In reality because of one's clinging that the clinging objects which were the fake images arose at the bhavaṅga. It only exists at the time of clinging to them, and when the clinging cease they disappeared.
They are unstable, with no essence and not really exist like a romantic art. He discerns them with knowledge (ñāṇa). These obsessions are tormenting and oppressing the clinging mind. A man who makes his own fire is only burning himself, and does no good, but only brings bad results. Mr. Brown becomes fearful and wearisome to the clinging phenomena.
Note: From here onward, I will explain U Candima's instruction on vipassanā practice only in gist.
He continues to explain the contemplation on sound, smell, taste and body touch which are related to the past and future mind and form processes. The way of contemplation is already mentioned as above.
Ordinary people knows that their thinking and mind objects are in the minds, but they do not have the 3rd level of samādhi or purification of mind (vipassanā khaṇika samadh—here he refers it as such, but as in the beginning he already explained that this khaṇika vipassanā samādhi is according to the Visuddhi Magga and other commentaries equal to the jhanic levels. Not an ordinary moment to moment sati (here the 3rd bhavaṅga samādhi is equal to the 4th jhāna.) that cannot know, see and contemplate as really is— i.e., yathābhūta Ñāṇa.
All these refer to the bhavaṅga clear element, the objects appear at the bhavaṅga clear element, the true nature of mind consciousness with roots (sahetu mano-viññāṇa) and its changes. Therefore, they wrongly know these things as “I see”, “I think”, etc. They do not see the objects appear at the bhavaṅga with wrongly take them as at external or in the past or future.
Note: U Candima's view on true insight
The contemplative knowledge (ñāṇa) of an insight yogi must be able to discern the paramatā objects as mentioned before. It's not by speculation and thought, but analytically seeing and discerning. Only with this kind of ability to discern analytical skills, the inversion or perversion or distortion (vipallāsa dhammas) which latent and covered one's mind will become extinct. In this way, the yogi must be able to discern the contemplating objects of mind and form (paramatā) which are free from raga, dosa and moha and have the nature of rise and fall. These are their true nature as it really is. At the present moment, discerning of the rise and fall of paramatā nāma-rūpa is the true insight knowledges of non-self with inconstancy (i.e., anatta vipassanā and anicca vipassanā ñāṇas). It's also the discernment of the truth of dukkha. He also makes an important point related to the ending of rising and falling. In the present of practice, the ending of rising and falling is the clinging khandhas of sahetu viññāṇa group (yogis should not mistake the resultant khandhas of present life).
The contemplative mind is able to discern the paramatā objects of the main cause is right samādhi or the purity of mind. Before the mind not arriving yet at this level of purity and contemplating with thinking and speculation as true insight is wrong. The profound and difficult practice of insight becomes easily attainable in a short time. This is the sign of the degeneration or decline of paṭipatti-sāsana. (This is not only in Burma, but also in the West. See Buddhism in the West.)
The existence of the three worlds
After contemplation of the mind objects related to the past and future of the five sense objects (i.e., eye, car, nose...) the following knowledge arises to Mr. Brown. Even though the mind consciousness cannot go out from the mind-door (manodvāra) or except the manodvāra cannot incline toward other doors, it can pay attention to any desire object and clinging object. He can investigate and experience directly the nature of the mind and its characteristics and wondrous nature, that his insight knowledge of non-self nature becomes more clear and able to make his own decision on it. Therefore, he understands that if there is no mind and there will be no world (loka), and if loka exists, it depends on the decision of the mind.
Note: An arahant takes the object of Nibbāna, even though he has the mind not clinging to it as the world (loka). He just stops at seeing, hearing, just stops at knowing, etc. that liberate from the concept of loka.
After understanding of them Mr. Brown looking at the Sun in the sky and go into the 3rd bhavaṅga samādhi. At the bhavaṅga the mind object of the Sun with the sky appears on it. Mind consciousness with rootless (ahetuka viññāṇa) appears by taking this object. Prior to this experience, he believed that the world of the sky and the sun existed outside, which was wrong. The Sun and the sky appear at the bhavaṅga are form dhamma and it's the physical world (okāsa-loka). Knowing this dhamma object as sky and the Sun, the clinging mental mind world is only staying at the bhavaṅga. This dhamma object of sky and the Sun will not appear if one has no mind. Human beings are taking the world with clinging as external, but in reality it exists at one's own bhavaṅga. This knowing is knowing the existences of the physical world (okāsa-loka) and ahetuka mano-viññāṇa- the world of beings. (satta-loka).
The knowing mind with the concept takes the objects of that world (i.e., mind object and ahetuka mind consciousness) knows it as the Sun and concept is the following arising of the other world (i.e., sahetu mind which is the world of being, the same world as a hetuka mind). With the contemplative mind, contemplates the arising satta loka. These okāsa-loka and satta loka (i.e., mind object and these two knowing minds) are arisen by itself with conditionings. The mind discerns it as one of the worlds, i.e., conditioned world (saṅkhāra-loka). When taking the object at the eye-door, the sky with the Sun of physical object (rūpārammaṇa) also appear there and the mind discerns it. This is okāsa-loka. The eye-consciousness knows this object is satta-loka. These two lokas are arisen by causes and conditions and exist as rising and falling is conditioned world (saṅkhāra-loka). The contemplative ñāṇa knows these three worlds is knowledge of the worlds.
From the above direct experience, Mr. Brown discerns the following dhamma. The eye and mind doors are the places for the existence of the world, only these lokas exist, there is no I-ness exists and not me; also not others; not a person nor a being; not man nor woman; not a place for love and hate and not a place for clinging with fetters. He discerns and understands it that the falling away for the identity view (sakkayadiṭṭhi) becomes more purified Mr. Brown continues with other objects with the contemplation (including family members, etc.) for many times.
The connection between internal and external worlds
From the above experiences, Mr. Brown understands that there are three worlds that exist as mind and form phenomena. (i.e., okāsa, satta and saṅkhāra-lokas, The sunlight colour is form (rūpa) phenomenon and okāsa-loka, and it dispels darkness by conditioning that also saṅkhāra-loka. This loka contacts with the eye clear element of okāsa-loka and eye-consciousness of satta-loka arises.
This satta-loka of eye-consciousness inclining toward the okāsa-loka of form object that it also called saṅkhāra-loka. These three lokas contact together by conditioning that phassa-satta-loka and saṅkhāra-loka arise, which is the result. This phassa-loka changes the physical object-loka at eye clear element-loka into mind object-loka (dhamma-ārammaṇa) by sending it to the bhavaṅga-loka via the nerve system loka.
With the contact of the dhamma-object loka of the Sun and the bhavaṅga of satta-loka and the conditioned ahetuka viññāṇa of satta-loka arises. These three lokas are also saṅkhāra-loka and come to contact again. Because of this cause phassa of satta-loka arises and this loka conditions the form (rūpa) object at the eye-door as dhamma object loka and sends it to the bhavaṅga loka for conditioning. For this dhamma object loka of desirable or undesirable experience, it connects to vedanākkhandha of satta-loka. Based on these vedanākkhandha satta-loka and the form dhamma of okāsa-loka objects, with the arising and experience of the sahetu viññāṇa of satta-loka, becoming greedy when happy and painful when unhappy, leads to the mind process of loka existence.
[In this section Sayadaw U Candima gives his view on the true nature of the mind and right or true insight as follows:
The mind is except from the bhavaṅga which is at the hadaya-vatthu (i.e., heart basis) does not go out anywhere. This point is also mentioned by Mogok Sayadawgyi in the wrong view of ordinary people - such as atta or soul, and even some Chinese monks use this way when teaching people the subject of rebirth. Therefore, the external five sense objects fall on the five sense-doors and arrive at the bhavaṅga. The tastes of desirable and undesirable sense objects also arrive at bhavaṅga. The objects of past and future also rely on the bhavaṅga. With the contact with objects, the bhavaṅga mind consciousness arises. Taṇhā, man, diṭṭhi arise if the mind with unwholesome mental factors. It becomes sīla samādhi, paññā mind if combined with wholesome mental factors. Therefore, all the objects fall on to bhavaṅga only and the mind consciousness can reflect their natures. For insight contemplation, if one's contemplative mind is still taking the external object for attention or reflection (or) one's body form of concept, then it's still not the right contemplative knowledge. Because as explained above all the objects on the bhavaṅga and mind consciousness with roots (here contemplative mind) also at the bhavaṅga contemplates the objects with its characteristics. Therefore, if the yogi still does not see the clear element of bhavaṅga, then he still does not see the phenomena of mind (dhammas) or the true Dhamma.
There is a saying by the wise, i.e., “Knowing and seeing two views purify wrong view; seeing the bhavaṅga attain the right way.” The objects of worldly sensual concept and the worldly paramatā objects only appear at the bhavaṅga. The yogis contemplate the appearing objects at the bhavaṅga. In this way, it arrives at purification of view by two knowing and two seeing. Ledi Sayadawgyi wrote in his book with “Uttama-purissa Dīpanī” as follows: "If someone penetrates the bhavaṅga he should know that is an outstanding man." All the dhammas appear at the bhavaṅga and contemplation also at this place. The three worlds also exist at the bhavaṅga and transcending the worlds also at this place. This transcending comes from the cessation of clinging in the mind, which based at this bhavaṅga.
Note on the existence of the internal world
Mr. Brown understands the internal existence of the world as mentioned above. These are at the bhavaṅga clear element the appearance of the image of the dhamma objects (i.e., mind object) of the near past, the appearance of the image of the dhamma objects of the far distant past and the future and at the present time objects. He reflects their nature with the following analogies.
The bhavaṅga clear element is like a white canvas, attention (manasikāra) is like a paint brush, clinging is like paint; a painter with thought (vitakka) thinking about one's desirable object and with his hand like volition (cetanā) draws a picture (one's desirable object) on the canvas and the five khandhas of mind object loka appear on it.
The meaning here is at the bhavaṅga clear element a sight of mind object loka appears if pay attention of a form object (rupārammaṇa) which one had seen before in the past. In the same way, the other objects of sound, smell, taste and touch the mind objects (lokas) of them appear or arise at the bhavaṅga clear element respectively. It's also the same at the present, the five sense objects fall on the five senses of door and arise at the bhavaṅga if paying attention to them, the five sense objects appear at it and become lokas.
Many uncountable Buddhas and arahants (including pacceka-buddhas) were liberated from the three lokas (okāsa, satta and saṅkhāra lokas) of the three internal lokas, which are the causes of the clinging mind. The external three lokas are always existing as the changing processes. Mr. Brown has understood this point.
The internal sense bases (ajjhatta-āyatanas) are true paramatā and essence of natural phenomena, which are profound and difficult to discern. We cannot know about them by speculation, hearing and studying knowledge (e.g., genesis, evolution etc.). The writer (refers to his present books) did not write about it by imagination, study and hearing. It was like he himself put the most valuable ruby in his hand and discerned it clearly. To be able to know and see it is quite difficult, and he must put his life and body to realize it. Even though he had to write about it and also be aware that it would be rare for someone able to put forth the effort to see them. It’s unable to discern them with ordinary faith and effort. The Buddha himself said this to Prince Bodhi—Bodhirājakumāra Sutta, MN 85, Majjimanikaya (also can be found at MN 26, The Noble Search).
Insight contemplation with the first and second bhavaṅga samādhi
After the contemplation of the mind and body nature with the 3rd Samādhi, Mr. Brown abandons it and goes down to the 2nd samādhi.
He knows the cessation of the bhavaṅga clear element in the 2nd samādhi. There are no worldly sense concepts of the object and paramatā object, and knowing the cessation only with the samādhi. With the following contemplative knowledge of sahetu viññāṇa he knows the preceding samādhi mind of sahetu viññāṇa there. At that time, taking the objects of 36 kinds of paramatā mind and form in the 3rd samādhi are not there any more (or) he does not see it.
Even though making the effort of attention for many times it does not appear, only the attention mind arises once and ceases there. This is like the analogy mentioned before, when the owner of the house comes out of the bedroom and then closes the door, he can no longer see what is inside the bedroom, only what is outside the bedroom. He also does not see the thing inside the house compound and outside of it. The object of cessation is like the object outside the bedroom.
If he comes out from the object of cessation and pays attention to the physical body will discern the refined particles are changing very thickly. These refined particles also like the object outside the bedroom.
The discernment of particles with the 3rd samādhi are the mind object particles (dhamma-ārammaṇa) which appear at the bhavaṅga clear element. The discernment of the particles with the 2nd samādhi is not this one, it's the paramatā rūpa particles (kalāpas) of the physical body. Mr. Brown contemplates the changing particle because it has no sign of shape or form and exists only as a group of particles. It's changing, not according to my will. At this changing process, I do not exist. This changing form (rūpa) is not my creation. There is no life and soul in these changing particles. It does not have the nature of stability, and only exists as change. It is itself the (nature of ) "conditioning form".
Again, Mr. Brown changes his samādhi into the first bhavaṅga samādhi. At that time, the first level purified mind (contemplative mind) discerns the inclining mind (mano-samphassa) from the mind-door (mano-dvāra) toward the hotness of the form (the afflicted form). Once this inclined mind (mano-samphassa) reaches the most prominent place (i.e. the hottest place), this mind will have a concept (as heat) when the following contemplative mind investigates it and sees or discerns it with the arising mind as the concept of heat. You cannot change the awareness of the hot mind to the awareness of the cold. The following contemplative mind contemplates the arising hotness of mind of its nature non-self (anatta). The perception of the hotness of mind is not by my creation and not me; he is contemplating with insight. Again with mindfulness he contemplates it as only the nature of form (rūpa) and the preceding mind taking the concept of hotness cease by itself and the mind knowing with paññā of the changing nature of form arises; he investigates them with the three universal characteristics.
Again Mr. Brown contemplates the mano-samphassa which from the bhavaṅga inclining toward the afflicted form (rūpa). This inclining nature does not have life or soul; there is no I-ness exists and not my creation (also not by God or Mahābrahma); there are no instigators (or others). This is the natural characteristics of the mind which inclining toward the afflicted form by itself to connect rūpa with the bhavaṅga; he contemplates it with insight knowledge.
Again, when he contemplates with insight to the following result of the inclining mind he discerns the experience of feeling (vedanā) which feels the undesirable nature of afflicted form at the mind-door (mano-dvāra); this is the feeling nature of experience on the object. This is not my feeling; there is no me in the nature of experience nor life and soul in it; there is no creator, etc. He contemplates the nature of vedanā with insight.
When contemplating only its nature of vedanā and in one's own mind, there is no pain and pleasure (dukkha and sukha). If not contemplating vedanā as just only feeling nature and let the following mind relates it with self (diṭṭhi) nature and with the undesirable taste of vedanā, then the mind with concepts (hot, tense, pain, etc.) arises for not wanting to experience it (i.e., undesirable or unpleasant objects). The following contemplative mind with the three characteristics of insight contemplates the arising conceptual mind. Again change the contemplation to vedanā as just feeling nature then the original perception of the mind with the hotness and pain, not wanting to feel, all these mental states cease by themselves. This can be discerned with contemplative knowledge.
This is not the kind of abandoning with one's own will or desire, also not the kind of cessation by changing the posture. This is also not the kind of cessation by running away from the object during the arising. It's seeing the characteristic of the mind experience of vedanākkhandha (feeling aggregate) the sakkāya-paramatā dhamma (which means the true existence, not like the self or soul) that the cessation of dosa with domanassa. In other way the discernment of the truth which is the true knowledge (vijjā—ñāṇa) that from feeling (vedanā) and craving (taṇhā) ceases.
With the attainment of right view (sammā-diṭṭhi) there is only the feeling of the mind nature exists, no I-ness exists. With the discernment of it's only the changing nature of form (rūpa) and feeling of the mind nature and the non-self insight knowledge arises. Discernment of these with khandhas is seeing the truth of dukkha.
If contemplate the feeling as me and with feel it which is related with diṭṭhi and taṇhā, and the original concept of hotness with not wanting to feel domanassa mind arises again by itself. This is the mind changing by changing the object of attention taking the object of concept as reality then diṭṭhi and taṇhā mind arises, if contemplate the reality of paramatā dhamma diṭṭhi and taṇhā ceases.
Again, take off the inclining mind contact (mano-samphassa) from the object and return it to the mind-door, then contemplate on the original form element with knowledge and cannot give the perception (saññā) of hotness to the conceptual object. It can be given the perception that it has the quality of paramatā form that is only constantly changing. These are existing as changing form paramatā and the inclinable volitional formation of the mind (saṅkhārakkhandha) which are mind and form. There is no person nor being exists, the non-self insight knowledge arises.
Again, take off the inclinable mind from the original form object of fire element (hotness) and return to the bhavaṅga, and then with one's desire, change the object with another object. Mr. Brown discerns the mind contact (mano-samphassa) from the mind-door, it inclines toward the changing object (new object). It happens by attending to the new object (manasikāra) with the mind, at that time, with knowledge sees the mind contact inclining toward the new object from the bhavaṅga. Again, with one's desire relaxes (i.e., let go off), the attention on the new object and the inclining mind contact ceases by itself, and a new mind contact arises by itself toward the original distinctive heat element of form (tejadhātu). Mr. Brown discerns all of them with knowledge (directly). He is able to do these things like a cat getting a mouse and playing with it—i.e., the arising of the inclinable nature of the mind by itself, controlling the inclining mind and changing the inclination toward a new object with one's desire.
U Candima's view on this point
Experiencing the Dhamma and discerning of the truth of dukkha mean discernment with analytical knowledge on the natural qualities of the paramatā mind and form objects, which is like seeing a priceless ruby in one’s hand. With one’s own thought and speculation, contemplate on feeling (vedanā) as it’s experiencing or feeling the object. It will only become the insight of appearance (in Burmese athim-vipassanā; athim means appearance). And then the valuable insight dhamma becomes cheap dhamma and an easy-going practice, from cheap value it can fall down to no value. (This warning is important. In the past I had read some English books written by westerners in practice and the title of one of the books is- Lazy Guide to Enlightenment, etc.)
In the following, U Candima continues to explain the contemplation of insight on other mind contacts and feelings (vedanās) from the other doors (dvāras). The readers already have the general idea how to do it, so I will leave here.
Contemplation on mind contact and feeling with the body movements
Mr. Brown continues his practice on the mind and body process with the body movements as follows: There are body movements of sitting, standing, lifting the feet, stepping, butting down the feet, taking things, giving things, etc, he takes these objects with concepts and intrinsic nature (paramatā) and contemplate its arising mind and matter (form) process with insight knowledge. For example, in the process of stepping on the foot, the only thing to be aware of is the rising of the mind of the desire to step. The following mind should not give the perception of a mind that wants to step out (saññā) (not like the Mahasi system).
The mind contact will incline toward by itself to the heaviness of form (at the feet) which arisen by itself. As soon as after the inclination, the knowledge mind pays attention to the nature of feeling (vedanā) which experiences good or bad. A mind will will arise by itself, with no concept (perception) of heaviness—such as the mind inclines toward the arising form (rūpa) and feels it. If the concept of object is taken, the above-mentioned mind that just knows the nature of paramatā will stop on its own, a mind that arises by giving a heavy name to it, without wanting to feel it. When putting down the foot, the prominent form (rūpa element) arises with the mind by themselves, yogi has to watch and observe them.
Knowing the paramatā form dhamma is kāyanupassanā satipaṭṭhāna. Discernment of the feeling which experiences the object form is vedanānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna. Contemplation of the mind with vedanā is cittānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna.
Contemplate on the rise and fall of mind and form process according to their cause and effect relationship is dhammānupassanā satipaṭṭhāna. In this way, contemplate to have the clear knowledge on the cause of the arising of ignorance (avijjā) and it's cessation; the cause of the arising of dukkha and its cessation; the cause of the arising and taṇhā, māna and diṭṭhi and their cessation. The following contemplative mind sahetu viññāṇa is seeing penetratively of the mind contact which inclining instantaneously and after the inclination the mind (also sahetu mano-viññāṇa which is the preceding mind) feels the feeling (vedanā) of the desirable or undesirable object (iṭṭha-ārammaṇa and aniṭṭha-ārammaṇa).
At this place, whatever desirable or undesirable object of the feeling (vedanā arises if the contemplative mind only contemplates just as feeling to pain and pleasure and only knowing as feeling. The following contemplative mind also can contemplate and discern the preceding knowing mind.
If the yogi not contemplate just as vedanā but as me and mine with diṭṭhi-taṇhā, and with the base of desirable object of feeling and the pleasant nature of the mind arises by itself. This mind is discerned by the following contemplative mind. If based on the undesirable object of vedanā, an unpleasant mind arises by itself. This arising mind also has to contemplate with the following contemplative mind with insight knowledge by way of three characteristics.
This 1st bhavaṅga or 1st level of purified mind or the contemplative knowledge mind cannot discern the mind and body of the 3rd bhavaṅga and also the mind and body of the 2nd bhavaṅga, it also cannot take these objects. Similarly, the first samādhi cannot take worldly objects of the senses, such as man, woman, my son, my daughter, human being, dog, tree, etc. These sensual conceptual objects are like all the objects outside the house compound (see the analogy of the three bhavaṅga samādhis compare with the 3 doors of the house)
With the 1st bhavaṅga samādhi, as mentioned above contemplate the mind and form contemplating thoroughly by insight knowledge until all doubts are clear away, and then abandoning it and changing into the 2nd bhavaṅga samādhi. At that time, this 2nd samādhi can’t contemplate and see the four elements, 32 parts of the body objects and worldly sensual objects which the 1st samādhi has discerned, these objects cease. In the same way, it does not see the 36 types of mind and form, which the 3rd Samādhi discerns.
After arriving at the 2nd bhavaṅga it takes the cessation of worldly conceptual objects and worldly paramatā objects with the perception of the mind. Abandoning the cessation (i.e., come out from Samādhi) and paying attention to the physical body, and it discerns the groups of refined particles are falling apart. At that time, the 2nd samādhi cannot contemplate all the external objects of outside the house compound which are like sensual conceptual objects (i.e., ordinary mind) and the objects of inside the house compound which are like the four elements and 32 body parts (i.e., the 1st samādhi). It also cannot see the objects inside the bedroom, which are like 36 kinds of mind and form (i.e., 3rd samādhi). From the 1st bhavaṅga to the 2nd bhavaṅga is like opening the main house door and entering inside the house.
If the yogi not entering into the 1st bhavaṅga and with the ordinary mind cannot know all the objects of mind and form related to the 1st, the 2nd and the 3rd bhavaṅga samādhis respectively. It's like knowing the objects of earth, forest, mountain, etc. and the mind knows them as man, woman, I am hot, I am unbearable, etc. which are non-existence of concepts with taṇhā, mama and diṭṭhi mind. In the same way, if the yogi abandoning all the three bhavaṅgas cannot take the objects of related to them, and he has the mind of like someone who does not practice only has common view and knowledge. At that time, the yogi only with the speculation of knowledge can know the contemplating objects with their minds and the nature of the contemplative mind.
This is the description of the analytical knowing of the paramatā mind and form nāma-rūpa pariggaha ñāṇa by way of purification of view (diṭṭhi-visuddhi).
Note: Afflicted rūpa (form), the inclination of the mind, experience of vedanā—these pair of mind and form can be contemplated at the 1st bhavaṅga and also at the 2nd bhavaṅga.
Purification by Overcoming Doubt
In the purification of view (nāma-rūpa pariggaha ñāṇa) explained about the objects of mind and form which can be contemplated by the levels of bhavaṅga samādhi (i.e., 1st, the 2nd and the 3rd bhavaṅga respectively). Now here U Candima continues to explain the causes of their arising to the mind and form in three levels which is the arising of the discernment of the conditions of mind and form (paccaya-pariggaha ñāṇa).
After his discernment of the present nature of mind and form, Mr. Brown knows them with the analytical direct knowledge as these are not mine, not my construction and nor the I-ness exists. If this khandha group is not my construction, then what made it happen? This desire for knowledge arises in him, and he contemplates it with his discerning knowledge of the Buddha's teachings.
In the Chachakka Sutta- the Buddha taught as follows:
"Dependent on the body and tangibles, body consciousness arises, the meeting of the three is contact, with contact as condition there is feeling, with feeling as conditions there is craving."
Based on the four elements is the body clear element (kāya-pasāda). Dependent on contact of body clear element and the tangible object, the result of body consciousness arises. Again dependent on the contact of the 3 (i.e., body consciousness, body clear element and tangible object), the result of the new element body contact (kāya-samphassa) arises. This new arising body contact changes the object into mind element (dhamma-dhātu) by connecting the bhavaṅga and new cause arises. Dependent on this cause, the tangible mind-objects (ahetuka and sa-hetuka) in bhavaṅga result in the arising of mind-consciousness.
Again with this mind-object (dhamma-ārammaṇa), ahetuka-mano-viññāṇa and bhavaṅga dependent on the three contact that the result of mind-contact (mano-samphassa) arises. This cause of mind contact causes the result of feeling which experiences the desirable and undesirable objects arises. If this feeling with the new arising sahetu viññāṇa sticks with moha (delusion), the result of lobha, dosa, diṭṭhi unwholesome dhamma arises. If this rooted mind-consciousness (sahetu viññāṇa) arises along with the path factors (maggaṅgas), it can abandon the corresponding defilement, and lobha, dosa, moha, etc., these defilement will cease.
In this way, Mr. Brown continues to contemplate and reflect on the other sense-doors to understand the causes and effects relationship of mind and form, until overcoming doubt.
Present supporting conditions for the cause of khandha
Here I will not describe U Candima's description on this topic. I will only give a general idea about it. The conditions for the causes are—kamma, citta, utu, āhāra, sense objects, sense doors, dependent co-origination process, etc. (Here Mogok Sayadaw's teaching on this subject is very good for contemplation).
The arising of the mind process and its ending
After contemplation on the present conditions for the arising khandha, Mr. Brown continues to deal with the following questions in his mind.
Mr. Brown uses the Paṭiccasamuppāda (dependent co-arising) teaching with contemplation to find out the above questions for the answers. The answers for them are as follows:
- This khandha process is the action (kamma) of a past life process.
- In this present life, the arising of new mind processes (existence or alive) is the cause of kammic energy, the four elements and the present sense objects. New minds not arising (i.e., death) is the ending of the energy for the round of kamma result (vipāka vaṭṭa) or the life span of the khandha built by kamma.
- In this present life however we support the khandhas with nutriments, we still cannot stop ageing, sickness, and death (It is like a house that becomes slowly degraded is the ending of the vipāka vaṭṭa energy).
- Even though this present khandha is over if it still has kamma and new khandha of the next life (future life) will arise again. The khandha house will continue to build new life due to the presence of the kamma.
- Because of kamma we get the new life of the khandha house.
In this way, overcoming doubt and knowing the causal relationship between the aggregates (khandha) of mind and form is paccaya-pariggaha ñāṇa. The arising of the paccaya-pariggaha ñāṇa in the yogi's mind that clear away doubt on the past khandha, present khandha, future khandha and on the teaching of PAṬICCASAMUPPĀDA.
Purification of the path and not-path
In this section I will not explain what U Candima explains in his book. Here I only give the general idea about them. Yogis have to contemplate the three universal characteristics of anicca, dukkha and anatta for many times. First with the 1st bhavaṅga samādhi with their corresponding objects such as 32 body parts, four elements, etc. And then with the 2nd bhavaṅga and the 3rd bhavaṅga respectively. Contemplations are quite in detail.
At the end of contemplation with the 3rd samādhi section, he writes:
In this way, with the four postures (lying, sitting, standing and walking) contemplating the basic mind and form (nāma-rūpa) at the six sense-doors. This contemplation of knowledge is the coarser rise and fall knowledge (udayabbaya ñāṇa). When the contemplation and reflective power become powerful and sati power with contemplative knowledge power becomes better or increased. And then the knowledge mind is able to contemplate the objects of mind and form more and more details. Yogi entering the three bhavaṅgas of samādhi back and forth quickly able to discern in details each level of the objects. Even the yogi can discern the collision with form particles with each other. (It is mentioned in one of The-inn Gu Sayadaw's talks that he can hear sounds.) Another experience is from the five sense-doors the inclination of the contact element can be discerned as like electric current with electric particles falling apart, like sparks. In this way, discernment of contemplative knowledge becomes powerful so that it doesn't need special attentive sati, and it's like contemplation and discernment arise automatically.
U Candima continues to explain some experiences of the 10 insight corruptions (vipassanupakkilesas) yogis encounter. I will not explain it because readers can find them in other teachings.
At that time, (with the above experiences) yogi without knowingly cling to these things with thinking as “I attain the path and fruit”. He can abandon his contemplation of paramatā mind and form objects. If yogi has these experiences, he should know that it's still not the supramundane path knowledge. At that time, yogi has to continue with its primary paramatā mind and form objects until insight knowledge becomes purified. This is the insight process of purification of the path and not-path. In most cases, the above experience of insight corruption occurs more often in people who have not learned knowledge (Pariyat).
Purification of the way
Knowledge of rise and fall (the mature stage)
In this section U Candima explains about knowledge of the dissolution of formations (bhavaṅgañāṇa); knowledge of dissolving things as fearful (bhayañanam); knowledge of fearful things as dangerous (ādīnava ñāṇa) and knowledge of disenchantment with all formations (nibbidā ñāṇa); knowledge of desire for deliverance (muñcitukamyatā ñāṇa); knowledge of reflecting contemplation (paṭisaṅkhā ñāṇa); knowledge of equanimity toward formations (saṅkhārupekkhā ñāṇa).
From the knowledge of equanimity toward path knowledge
Whatever living being maybe, if they have the khandhas and every time the sense objects contact with the sense-doors, the impermanence of mind and form always exists there even though they can contemplate with insight or not. The nature of their rising and falling conditions will not end. A yogi has faith (saddha) as if he can discern mind and form will arrive at Nibbāna. He has effort (viriya) to discern them, and has mindfulness (sati) to contemplate them without fail. Every time mind and form arise, one can contemplate straight away with samādhi, and with wisdom (paññā) contemplate the nature of mind and form. All these are only worldly objects, and behind these five factors there is a latent element (anusaya) with dissatisfaction. This dissatisfaction has a desire to free from the impermanent mind and form. There is conceit if seeing impermanent mind and form must be able to attain Nibbāna which is the cessation of them. The desire is for the permanent Nibbāna, and what one gets is impermanent. But the mind is unable to stay at a place which is free from mind and form objects.
This happening because there is clinging with desire in the contemplative mind for the cessation of impermanent khandha. This level is the early stage of knowledge of equanimity. From there, when the power of contemplation becomes strong, the knowledge of contemplation is freed from desires, and one can only see them (without reaction) while contemplating. This is the mature stage of the knowledge of equanimity.
Knowledge of conformity (Anuloma-ñāṇa)
This knowledge is still contemplating with equanimity the worldly objects of conditioned mind and form with the three characteristics. Even though it’s contemplating on the impermanence of the mind and form, which are not ending yet. The contemplating knowledge is like stopping the impermanence of a conditioned mind and form with calmness. When contemplating in this way and reflection arises as follows. Mind and form conditioned phenomena are in the processes of arising, presence and dissolution (three sub-moments of duration) after attaining the khandha. If the yogi does not abandon it, he will not free or liberate, but except this object of conditioned worldly dhamma there is no other object to incline on. He also became a little tired from contemplation. Even though becoming tired, he still doesn't know and see Nibbāna yet, also not free from the worldly province. With the desire to be freed by contemplating it but arriving back to the worldly province.
From the above reflection and yogi contemplates it every time with the desire to know but not free from the lokiya province. In this way, he reflects and contemplates for many times and makes a strong decision. "I'll not realise Nibbāna" with this decision and put down his concern and abandon all his desires and volition to do it. At that time, the mind wanting to contemplate to know, to free; and the mind wanting to find the cause to be free, how to look for it, etc. and then all these mental formations (citta saṅkhāra) with desire are ceased and fall into bhavaṅga.
(This process is similar to some mentioned in the commentary and teachers, such as jumping to cross the trench, a sea-bird looking for the shore)
At that time, the minds with all the worldly mental formations are ceased, and it takes the object of Nibbāna which is freed from the shape and image of worldly objects. It stays by itself like it has no owner. This is taking the object of cessation of the worldly mental formations or the object of Nibbāna—the truth of cessation of Dukkha.
This mind is specially purified and able to take the object of Nibbāna because it could abandon both desire of wanting to take the worldly paramatā objects and wanting to realize Nibbāna. At the contemplative knowledge, all the desires are ceased, and it liberated from the bondage of craving (taṇhā).
Here is the ending of Sayadaw U Candima teaching on right samādhi and insight. Readers who want to know more in detail please search for the English translation of his book on the internet www.amazon.com as an ebook.
In the following I want to offer the readers an important simple practice related to kamma (the law of action) and its result which was mentioned in his book:
“Jonathan Livingston Seagull” written by American author Richard Bach”
The reason for fewer followers in Buddhism and the reason for easy disappearance
The Buddha taught human beings to see the faults of sensual pleasures and to abandon them. But humans like sensual pleasures with strong desire. He taught humans to look after their sīla (precepts), virtues and morality. But they do not want to look after it. The Buddha taught them to purify their minds by practising samādhi. But humans prefer their minds to be suffused with variegated defiled objects. The Buddha taught to contemplate the nature of the khandhas—mind and matter as inconstant, suffering and non-self. But human being clings to them as a person, a being or a soul (self) and sees them as constant (permanent), happy, self and beautiful (subha).
As a result, Buddhists are fewer in numbers than other faiths and Dhamma tends to disappear.
(Sañjaya, the first teacher of Sāriputta, said that there are more fools than wise people, and this is true. The wise will come to Dhamma and the fools to other views).
A simple experiment for one who disbelieves in the law of actions and its results
Here is an offering to someone (or people) who does not believe in the law of actions and its result, which can be known directly with the following experiment. This practice refers to people who have wrong livelihood such as: killing (to animals), murdering (criminal gang, mafia gang, etc.), etc. They should do this experiment by themselves."
Practise in this way for around 30 or 40 minutes, one has to suffer as one's own action. As an example, if one had killed pigs, he would suffer like pigs; if killed cows, he would suffer like cows, etc. All these people will know themselves according to their own actions. After gaining an understanding of your behavior, you want to walk away from the exercise, then slowly reduce your inhalation and exhalation. And don't stop it instantly. Don't put effort in the breathing. Abandoning all the objects or views one has been seen (It seems this point is important. No-one should carry around one's own unwholesome actions in the mind—We only need to learn our mistakes and try our best to correct and change them.)
I once saw a Chinese documentary about this issue. One of the scenes showed a middle-aged man killing a donkey by hitting the poor being on the head with a sledgehammer (It's too cruel). There is another scene which shows the same man squatting on the floor with both hands on his head, crying with pain and moving on the floor. Facing this suffering person was the Chinese yogis who were meditating on their seats.
Western evolutionary theory speculates that human beings developed from monkeys. But they don't have a devolutionary theory. The Buddha taught both evolution and devolution but not as theories and as law—The Law of Kamma or Actions which are mental, verbal and physical actions respectively. Of these three, mental law is the most important one and the basic for the others— mental→verbal→ physical actions. The law of kamma is a natural law, not man-made. It never deviates from the truth. Laws and regulations made by man are made by worldlings full of defilement. As a result, it sometimes causes problems, danger, and suffering. (For example, gun laws in the United States; some politicians and political leaders change laws and regulations because of corruption—for their purposes: control of power and wealth.)
The Buddhist law of karma is related to evolution and degeneration (devolution). The dhamma of evolution is the wholesome or positive dhamma, while the dhamma of degeneration (devolution) is the unwholesome or negative dhamma. There is a special law of action which transcends both of them (i.e., positive and negative). This is the Noble Eightfold Path. Human beings have mind and body. Evolution of the mind is more important than physical evolution, which is also based in the mind. Therefore, if the human mind does not evolve, human will retreat into monkey, hell being and hungry shades. There are ways to evolution and devolution, and Buddha Dhamma is for this purpose. Even it has a special way to transcend them. All the discourses in the Pāli Nikāyas are related to these three paths. For worldly evolution and devolution, there are two important suttas in the Sutta Nipāta—these are: Maṅgala (Blessings) Sutta and Parābhava (Downfall) Sutta. Therefore, Buddha's Dhamma is an education related to humans. Without this noble education, humans never know how to deal with their mental defilement and solving the human problems, instead, they will always nourish their defiled minds!
It's amazing to see humans never learn from their mistakes and do the wrong things or following the wrong ways to deal with their problems. The worst thing is even they don't consider it as a problems—e.g., some world leaders, governments and politicians. They are making the same mistakes and problems again and again and never learnt from the history of the world. Humanity has created many problems in the world today that support this important point.
Western discoveries and inventions in science and technology created Western hedonism, leading to insatiable lust and greed, creating colonisation around the world. The two world wars of the 20th century began in the West. After the 2nd World War, there was a Cold War between capitalism and communism. After the Soviet Union collapsed, communism was nearly in demise. What is happening in the world in this 21st century? In the field of political influence and economy, there are still confrontations, rivalries, struggles and battles between the superpowers, up to the international level.
So the Buddha Dhamma and world history teach us that material progress or evolution is not true progress because it is based on hedonism and represents desire, greed, lust, selfishness, jealousy, delusion, etc. These unwholesome dhammas will lead to the devolution of mankind. It will create disharmony, no peace and happiness, and lead to suffering. Therefore, material progress must go hand in hand with the mind or mental progress or development. This gap can be filled by the wholesome and noble education of ancient sages and Buddhism. Actions based on wrong views, wrong ideas and wrong actions will never bring peace and happiness on earth. Man can create Heaven or Hell on this beautiful earth.
revised on 2023-07-20
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- Content of "A Noble Search" (Dhamma Talks by Sayadaw U Candima)
- Content of Dhamma Talks by Sayadaw U Ukkaṭṭha and Sayadaw U Candima
- Content of Publications of Bhikkhu Uttamo
According to the translator—Bhikkhu Uttamo's words, this is strictly for free distribution only, as a gift of Dhamma—Dhamma Dāna. You may re-format, reprint, translate, and redistribute this work in any medium.