Realizing Nibbāna (Maṅgala Sutta – Protection with Blessing)
revised on 2020-07-31
By Venerable Uttamo Thera（尊者 鄔達摩 長老）
The 32nd blessing is seeing the noble truths, and 33rd realizes Nibbāna. So, what are the differences between them? Seeing the noble truths is the four Path Knowledge. These are; the Path Knowledge of a stream enterer, the path knowledge of a once-returner, the path knowledge of a non-returner and the path knowledge of an arahant.
At the time of thoroughly penetrates the Four Noble Truths and the path knowledge arises. Realizing Nibbāna is the four fruitions (phalas). These are; from the stream-enterer to the arahant. After the path knowledge (magga ñāṇa) and follows by fruition. It is without delay—akālika.
According to the conditional relations—paṭṭhāna, it is anantara-paccaya—proximity condition. This becomes evident by direct yogi’s experience. But some scholars take it as has to wait for sometimes in the future. To acquire for the proficiency has to develop it for sometimes like jhānas. For other dhammas has to wait for sometimes in the future, e.g., the result of dāna.
The attainment of fruition (phala samāpatti) is meditative attainment. A noble disciple can enter into supramundane absorption (lokuttara jhāna) with Nibbāna as an object. To experience the bliss of Nibbāna here and now. The attainment is reached by resolving (adhiṭṭhāna) to attain fruition. And then developing in sequence beginning with the knowledge of rising and fall—impermanence.
In a Dhamma talk by a teacher who mentioned seeing Nibbāna; “It’s the real cessation of the khandha and also can be checked. Sitting in front of a Buddha statue and resolve. Because after the Path knowledge, come the fruition. Therefore, the yogi can enter into fruition state (phalasamāpatti). Lord! Let me discern the cessation of the khandha again. And makes an hour of resolution and sits there.
It starts again from rise and fall (impermanence). But the rise and fall process is not becoming increase or decrease as before (i.e., before the Path Knowledge arose in practice). Discerning (seeing) rise and fall for sometimes and it stops happening. But don’t satisfy with it. Testing for another one and a half hours, and then two hours, three hours, etc. by increasing the period with resolutions.
If it’s real, you’ll attain it. If it’s fake, then you can’t attain it. Instead, it becomes worse. With more testing and it becomes more significant. The yogi’s in and out breaths are cool with the body. People around him are bitten by mosquitoes but not the yogi in the fruition state. Because of kilesa smell and people are bitten by mosquitoes.”
Life is a very heavy burden, physically or mentally. When people are becoming older and older, sick, or near death even become clearer. The mental burden comes from our daily life welfare and for others. These kinds of mental burden are quite a lot and it will never end. Life also has a lot of disturbances and never peaceful.
Ven. Sāriputta, after his enlightenment, wanted to put down this body as soon as possible. In saṁsāra, he never had real peace and happiness because of the khandha. He said that even better to carry around the Mount Meru on his back than the khandha. Because when the time comes for the destruction of the world, everything is disappeared. (Thag. 81 and Comy.)
But not the khandha burden and dukkha for living beings who still have kilesas. Therefore, for all noble beings (from the Buddha to sotāpanna) when they had free time preferred to stay in the fruition. They can put down their khandha burdens for sometimes accordingly to their levels. In one of Mogok Sayadaw’s talks on the truth of cessation—nirodha sacca, one is vivekattā—the peaceful nature of Nibbāna.
Sayadaw said as follows: “If observing the mind and body with nyan eye, they are in chaos with impermanence (Nyan is in Burmese for knowledge—ñāṇa). But if observing Nibbāna, it’s totally clear without anything. Showing it with the practice, it becomes clearer. For example, if we do the contemplation on feeling (vedanānupassanā), mind (citta) and dhammas are also included. The life span of feeling is only ① and ②. At ① it arises and at ② it disappears.
Asking to contemplate feeling is giving a designation only. One has to contemplate its impermanence. Feeling arises on the body , and one has the contemplative mind in the heart. At the time of contemplation, it is not there. To discern anicca vipassanā has to be put effort, has to think and has to be mindful.
Therefore, the matter of seeing anicca is necessary to be worked hard and tiresome. At Nibbāna you must answer as it’s not tiresome. At the time of seeing anicca is seeing the chaos. A place without chaos is Nibbāna. With the more mature of insight and it becomes seeing more anicca and chaotic.
There is no need to say about seeing Nibbāna if we can’t discern the chaos of anicca, and even can’t speculate about it. After discerning more and more anicca, the yogi is becoming more wearisome. Only that the mind develops into the knowledge of not wanting it. At the time the yogi can decide for it as real dukkha, then suddenly it ceases with a blip. With the disappearing of kilesa that anicca disappears.
And then the path knowledge sees the clearance (or emptiness). It’s not the mind cutting of kilesas, but the path factors (i.e., the Noble Eightfold Path). The mind includes a co-nascence condition (sahajātapaccaya). Don’t take Nibbāna as seeing nothingness. The dying out of kilesas has the nature of good-looking.
The nature of well-being will be attained after the parinibbāna (the passing away of an arahant. Here Sayadaw referred to Kilesa Nibbāna and Khandha Nibbāna). If we look at the 31 realms of existence, we will only find out the chaos of anicca made by kilesa. Nibbāna is free from the chaos of kilesa that it has the nature of clearance of things.
Nibbāna doesn’t have the kind of mind and body we have. If we ask; is it body or mind? You can answer it as the mind dhamma (nāma-dhamma). It’s not the mind of arising and passing away. It was the place for a practicing yogi to arrive there. This is the place where the dhamma is leading to it. They have to incline towards it. Our mind inclines towards the sense-objects.
For the mind dhamma of Nibbāna, others have to incline towards it. For the attainment of cessation (Nirodha-samāpatti), the yogi’s mind can incline towards it for seven days. (Sayadaw gave a simile for this.). In Mandalay Zay-Cho Bazaar, at the center of it is a clock tower. It was like this clock-tower, from whichever direction the car came, had to look at it.
In the same way anyone had arrived there he could not shun away from it. This is the best of the best. At every free time, noble beings used to incline towards it. Why is that? To have peace and comfort. It can give peace and comfort that the place of happiness.
Therefore, you can call it as happiness. Every worldly matter gives dukkha (because of the three universal characteristics). But Nibbāna has the characteristic of happiness, peace and joy. Nibbāna has the body or not? If it has the body and must have to be changed.
How could it be without the body? Without any form and sign, but the yogi experienced it with happiness. This is still having the khandha (i.e., when the yogi still alive). It is a very significant place. So, Nibbāna is the holiest element. If without dukkha, the worldlings must also like it. This was the best for the Buddha. Therefore, there is nothing better than that.”
One of the most important things to understand the Buddha-Dhamma is we cannot take the indirect meanings as direct meanings and vice versa. Especially the teaching on Nibbāna is very difficult to understand. Because it is the supramundane Dhamma, which cannot be expressed in language directly, therefore, the Buddha and enlightened beings only could describe it with metaphors or metaphorical terms.
So, we have to bear in mind this important point. If not, with our ideas and views, it can create wrong views about Nibbāna. We can see them in the history of Buddhism developed from this point (even from the Buddha’s time to the present-day). These were 62 kinds of wrong views in the Discourse of Nets view. Most of them came from practice and misinterpreted their experiences. Practicing with wrong views cannot develop the path.
In Search of Nibbāna
The following extraction is from a talk by Mogok Sayadaw on Nibbāna. It is interesting for contemplation. “In the khandha, there are two noble truths. The physical body or matter (rūpa) is like fuel dukkha sacca (the noble truth of suffering) and perishable. Greed (lobha) is like fire samudaya sacca (the noble truth of the origin of suffering) and also perishable. Therefore, we can’t rely on them.
The Buddha was asking the Rohitassa devata to look for Nibbāna in this two armed-length body (or fathom-long body); one found nothing but the perishable dhamma. Matter (rūpa) is body aggregate. Greed (lobha) and path factors (maggaṅga) are aggregate of mental formation (saṅkhārakkhandha).
These are not free from the khandha. In this khandha, only found the three noble truths, and not included Nibbāna. We can’t find Nibbāna here. Why? Because Nibbāna is not connecting with the khandha. If Nibbāna is in the khandha, then it will be perishable.
But the Buddha taught that the Four Noble Truths existed in the khandha. Therefore, it is certain that Nibbāna is not mixed-up with the perishable khandha. Then it will exist outside the khandha. Even the khandha perishes, it doesn’t. So, it is stable Nibbāna (dhuva nibbāna) and happy Nibbāna (sukha nibbāna).
Not everyone can see it. Only for someone who learns the method from a teacher and practice will see it. By not wanting the khandha when it ceases and you will see it. After that, it becomes one’s property. If you know, dukkha sacca thoroughly will realize Nibbāna.
It doesn’t mix up with dukkha sacca that it must be sukha sacca. Then it will be only peaceful when you attain it. For a practiser, by not wanting the khandha dukkha sacca and in a blip the khandha disappears and Nibbāna arises.
Something is leaving behind not connecting with the khandha. It will arise only without this khandha. For the practiser, his mind stays with the imperishable. The reason we do not find Nibbāna cannot move away from the things covered on it. It exists as external nature. Not as an internal nature (i.e., in the khandha).
Nibbāna is very strange Dhamma. By searching outside the khandha also you can’t find it (i.e., not searching at the right place). For example, the story of Rohitassa devata, and the Buddha taught him to find in the khandha. It existed in the fathom-long body. But it does not exist in the internal and external of the khandha (ajjhatta and bahiddhā).
Why don’t we attain Nibbāna? Because we are taking affection in the perishable nature of the things, e.g. to one’s own khandha, family members, belongings, etc. Only you’ll attain it by not wanting the perishable things. Asking you to contemplate impermanence is let you know about the perishable dhamma (phenomena).
First, it has to discern impermanence (anicca). Second, you have to disenchant with it. Third, discern the ending of it. If you want the perishable things, you will only get them. By not wanting, you will get the imperishable Dhamma. If you find out the perishable, you will get the trace to Nibbāna. By following to the ending of perishable, you will find the imperishable Nibbāna.”
At last, I want to present the teaching on Nibbāna from the Dhamma talks given by Sayadaw Dr. Nandamālābhivamsa. Not complete translations, only extractions. These are very interesting, and most of them are from the suttas. There were two kinds of dhamma we could find in some suttas. These are; conditioned phenomena (saṅkhata dhamma) and unconditioned phenomenon (asaṅkhata dhamma).
The meaning of saṅkhata is; saṅ = by causes, khata = the products made by the combination of causes. Therefore, asaṅkhata means—Dhamma (i.e., Nibbāna) not made by causes.
The Buddha using both of them in the suttas. Using them together was in the Abhidhamma. This was in the Dhamma-saṅgaṇī, the first book of Abhidhamma. Saṅkhata is conditioned phenomena and asaṅkhata is an unconditioned phenomenon.
Saṅkhata dhamma is the five aggregates (khandhas). The whole cosmos is the five khandhas. So, the human being is the same. These were explained in general by the Buddha. The wholesome and unwholesome dhammas are in the saṅkhata.
These are the four realms; sensuous plane (kāmabhūmi), fine-material plane (rūpabhūmi), immaterial plane (arūpabhūmi) and supramundane (lokuttara), i.e. path knowledge consciousness and fruition consciousness. Free from the causes is Nibbāna (asaṅkhata).
In the Asaṅkhatasaṁyutta (Saṁyutta Nikāya, e.g., SN.43.1. Kāyagatāsatisuttaṃ), the Buddha called asaṅkhata as the cessation of rāga (lust), dosa (hatred) and delusion (moha). Here, it may cause confusion because the cessation of lust, hatred and delusion is also called the Path Knowledge. The cessation of them is showing the causes. The abandonment is defilement (kilesa) and taking the object is Nibbāna.
All the path knowledge and fruitions (from sotāpatti magga to arahatta magga) are taking Nibbāna as an object. By taking Nibbāna as object and kilesa also ceases. Therefore, there are levels of Nibbāna and cessation levels of kilesa. In the Kosambī Sutta, from sotāpanna (stream‐enterer) to anāgāmin (non-returner) are only seeing Nibbāna. It was like seeing the water inside the well by going downwards and still not touching the water yet.
Only the arahant is touching the water and abandoning all kilesa. We can see Nibbāna only with the path knowledge and fruition knowledge. Therefore, Nibbāna is very difficult to see it because everyone is inside the province of saṅkhata. It can also be guessed by inferring (anumāna).
In the Jambukhādakasaṃyuttaṃ (e.g., SN. 38.1. Nibbānapañhāsuttaṃ), Ven. Sāriputta also said that the cessation of lust, hatred and delusion was Nibbāna. There are no causes to produce Nibbāna. It does not arise by kamma, mind, temperature and nutrient or sense door and sense object (these are the causes for the body and mind.). They do not produce it. Path and fruition consciousness are also in the five khandhas. But they are not in the clinging khandha (i.e., upādānakkhandha).
Clinging khandha is dukkha. Nibbāna is the cessation of clinging khandha (or) dukkha nirodha—the cessation of dukkha. The cessation of the causes is Nibbāna. Nibbāna is the cessation of both dukkha and samudaya (dukkha and its origin—i.e., taṇhā). Therefore, it can divide into two kinds as the cessation of cause and result, i.e., kilesa and khandha. As examples; two elements of Nibbāna;
- the Nibbāna element with the residue (sa-upādisesa nibbhānadhātu)
- and the Nibbāna element without the residue (anupādisesa nibbhānadhātu).
For these two Nibbānas took the example of the Buddha. When the Buddha gained enlightenment at the time of under the Bodhi tree was the first kind of Nibbāna element, i.e., the destruction of kilesas, but the physical body was still there. At the old age of 80, after he passed away and there was no more khandhas in the future, it was the second kind of Nibbāna element.
We can also explain it with the three rounds of existence (three vattas). These are kilesa vatta, kamma vatta and vipāka vatta. They are connections between cause and result. Without kilesa and kamma cannot function. And without both of them and no khandhas arise. The cessation of them is Nibbāna. The living being is the five khandhas. If without khandhas and there is nothing to call about it. But we cannot say Nibbāna has nothing.
Khandhas really exist. But their existence and Nibbāna are not the same type. If there is becoming, then also there is no becoming. Without becoming that there are no beginning and end. Therefore, Nibbāna has no beginning and end. With the only becoming, you will have them. For example, if you have a wound and it is painful.
After taking treatment with medicine, it is cured and no wound and pain anymore. Therefore, the wound and pain disappear is really existed. So, Nibbāna is this kind of existence. Therefore, dukkha exists and dukkha disappears also exist. If we are thinking about it with craving (taṇhā), no-one will want it. Because there is no becoming.
People are craving for becoming. Therefore, they do not desire for the peaceful element of not becoming. Also, in the Kosambī Sutta, the Buddha said; “Bhavanirodho nibbānaṃ—the cessation of becoming is Nibbāna.” Bhava—existence or becoming is the combination of three rounds of existence (three vattas).
These are; wanting (taṇhā or kilesa), action (kamma) and getting (khandha) = existence or dukkha.
So, it is the same as—dukkhanirodho nibbānaṃ— The cessation of dukkha is Nibbāna. Therefore, with the stopping of the causes and the cessation of the effect (result) comes into being. If we contemplate them and it becomes very profound. These are in gist. If we understand dukkha, and we will understand Nibbāna. If we know existence (bhava) and we know Nibbāna.
The Buddha also taught it in detail. Because people could think about it from the points of saṅkhata. Therefore, he gave examples of it had no four great elements (mahābhūta rūpa), without the mind (nāma), etc. In ancient India, some took the immaterial jhānas (arūpa jhānas) as Nibbāna. There is neither coming, nor going, nor staying (some Buddhists had these ideas.).
There are also some in the Udāna Pāli—The Buddha’s Exclamations. In one of the suttas, the Buddha said; “There is, monks, an unborn (ajāta), unbecome, unmade, unfabricated. If there were not that unborn, unbecome, unmade, unfabricated, there would not be the case that emancipation from the born, become, made, fabricated would be discerned. But precisely because there is an unborn, unbecome, unmade, unfabricated, emancipation from the born, become, made, fabricated is thus discerned” (Verbatim of verse at Udāna 81).
Other teachings on Nibbāna were; Viññāṇaṁ anidassanaṁ, anantaṁ sabbato pabhaṁ. Viññāṇa anidassanaṁ is translated by Ajahn Ṭhānissaro as consciousness without feature. The usage of this consciousness is significant because except in two places in the texts, we cannot find it anywhere.
These were in the Kevaṭṭa Sutta (DN. 11, Dīgha Nikāya) and Brahmanimantanika Sutta (MN. 49, Majjhima Nikāya). People were interpreting it differently, that became mistaken about it. Only we know it rightly by consulting with other suttas.
Viññāṇa is the knowing mind. The consciousness here was, Nibbāna could be known only with this significant consciousness, and not by others. Anidassanaṁ here was, not like seeing with the eye. It does not have the beginning and end—ananta. This word—sabbato pabhaṁ was used in many books on Nibbāna differently.
In the commentary pabba means port. To Nibbāna, there are ways. (as like many ports). These are referring to the 38 ways of meditation (sometimes as 40 types). It can be entered from many sides. In the sub-commentary, pabhaṁ referred to the light. It means Nibbāna has light.
The problem is, light is matter (rūpa). If Nibbāna has light, and then it becomes matter. These are metaphorical terms and we cannot take it directly. Nibbāna does not have the defilement of delusion (moha—it referred to darkness.). So, it has the nature of no darkness. In the simile of the Vipers Discourse (i.e., Āsīvisopama Sutta, SN 35. 238 —Saḷāyatana-saṃyutta), Nibbāna was referred to as the other shore.
This was also a metaphorical term. Nibbāna has to be taken as the cessation of dukkha and its origin (i.e., khandhas and kilesas). So, Nibbāna is the ending of saṅkhata. It is not changing from saṅkhata to asaṅkhata, not a changed element. It was like a wound grew out and cured. If, come from changing and it becomes of the arising dhamma. It is without anicca that there is no beginning nor end.
A few days before he passed away, Mogok Sayādawgyi gave a talk on Nibbāna and the practice. I translated it as “A simile for Nibbāna”. I don’t know the origin of the simile. It could be from the Buddha himself. This simile of Nibbāna looked very simple, but it is profound and easy to understand the nature of Nibbāna with its practice. Therefore, I want to give an outline of this talk for contemplation.
“The main important point in studying the Pāli Canons (piṭakas) is to know the three universal characteristics of phenomena. Teaching on the 28 matters (rūpa) are impermanent (anicca). The 53 minds are impermanent (i.e., 52 mental factors + one consciousness—cetasikas and citta). Forty-five years of the Buddha Dhamma were focused on impermanence. At the end of the impermanent phenomena, one will discover the cessation of the phenomena (i.e., Nibbāna). Don’t be with too many dhammas and teachers. It can’t be deviated from the Buddhist path by following this way. We need to change the worldling eye to the noble eye. The eyes given by the parents were for the matters of living and eating, not for the realization of Nibbāna.
With the noble eye, one will get the noble view. This view is pure and not mixed with defilements. Whatever situations which the noble beings (here refers to Arahants) were in, their minds were unshaken, free from attachment. One will get the noble eye and its right view by discerning of impermanence. This is the teaching for becoming a stream-enterer (Sayādaw explained the five functional path factors and how it connected in practice). Right view and right thought can’t be separated. They are like the eyes and glasses. No right thought can’t get right view. When discerning of anicca had these two wisdom factors and the other three samādhi factors. Mindfulness reminds yogi to look at here and samādhi turns the mind straight towards the object. Right effort pushes the mind towards the object of anicca. Therefore, when seeing anicca the yogi gets the path factors.
Mind can be alive one only, therefore the yogi sees his own death. It can’t be shown with the dimension, but it can be sensed. Knowing the existence and nonexistence (i.e., arising and passing away) is the view of the noble one. This is the view of purity. In the whole rounds of existence, we (most beings) had seen other people’s death but never had seen one’s own death. With the noble eyes, the yogi sees his own impermanent, dukkha, not-self, loathsome (asubha) and the truth of dukkha. Even the Brahmā gods can’t see their own deaths. The yogi will become disenchanted with his khandha by seeing his own death moment to moment. At the time of not wanting all these deaths and his khandha disappears. Then the yogi sees the place of no deaths. The cessation of the khandha is Nibbāna.
Sayadaw talked about Nibbāna. Dāna, sīla and samatha practices are for dying (because not free from rounds of existence) with the vipassanā magga dhamma get the undying Nibbāna. With the conditioned phenomena, the yogi gets the unconditioned. This is the reason why Nibbāna is difficult to understand because with the conditions, one attains the unconditioned. It was like digging a cave. During the second world war, Japanese jet fighter planes came to bomb people. So, they had to dig caves in the mountain area for safety.
“The cave is not existing in the past, present and future times. It appears by digging. The digging is like seeing impermanence. The rock fragments are khandhas. The empty cave is like Nibbāna—no khandhas.
The true refuge is unconditioned Nibbāna (here the empty cave). The impermanence and the rock fragments are conditions. The empty cave (Nibbāna) and the rock fragments (khandhas) are not the same.”
This was the reason Ven. Sāriputta described Nibbāna as real happiness because it had no mind and body. The cessation is a presence phenomenon (atthi). It was like the above simile of empty cave as a true refuge. We cannot know Nibbāna with the feeling of saṅkhata by thinking. A human with the thoughts of taṇhā (craving) will always be far from Nibbāna. Worldlings do not want Nibbāna, because it has nothing for them. Therefore, they are afraid of it.
But the Buddha taught Nibbāna in many ways. He asked people to sit for meditation. Asked them to see the arising and passing away phenomena. Only by seeing dukkha that we do not want it. Nibbāna is unconditioned—asaṅkhata. In Nibbāna, we cannot find the things which belong to the conditioned (saṅkhata).
In the Jewels Discourse (Ratana Sutta, Snp 2.1 or Khp 7), the following verses were very good examples of Nibbāna. These were;
The above verses represented Nibbāna as the cessation of kilesa and khandha or dukkha. Whatever cessation may be, all are not becoming (unbecome). Now, we are encountering the perfect and completed teachings (sāsana) of the Buddha and should make an effort in practice. It needs a lot of sustained effort to realize Nibbāna. The following story was good for contemplation.
A monk went to the forest for practice. Without success, he gave up the practice and came back to the monastery. The Buddha knew about it and told him. In his dispensation (sāsana), there were monks with a good reputation in their practices. So, why he wanted the bad reputation of a lazy monk by giving up his practice and coming back. He was a diligent person in one of his past lives.
In one of their past lives, the bodhisatta was the leader of a merchant group. They were traveling in a desert area. It was so hot in the day time that, they only travelled at night, by following the northern star. One time the guide was fallen into sleep and the group returned to their last camping site. Now they were facing the problem of shortage of water.
The bodhisatta found a plot of earth with grasses overgrown on it. They were trying to dig the ground there. At a depth of 60 armed lengths (180’), they found a slab of rock. They heard the sound of flowing water underneath. Therefore, the bodhisatta asked a very strong young man to break up the rock.
At last, they got the water. This strong young man was this present monk. Dhamma and water which one was more valuable? With the attainment of Dhamma, he would never die again and peaceful forever.
The 30th blessing to 33rd blessings is about sīla, samādhi, paññā and Nibbāna. They are connecting, and also about the Four Noble Truths and the noble eightfold path. For fulfilling these blessings, we need to practice the four satipaṭṭhāna. This is practicing to know about oneself. Whatever happening in the world, whether it is good or bad or neutral, at last ending up with perishing.
We are ignorant about ourselves and the natural law with heedlessness. We practice to know and understand the nature of the khandha. People have the delusion that takes the becoming as pleasurable. Whatever situation they are in always happy with it. This is a craving for becoming (bhava taṇhā) and view of eternalism (sassata diṭṭhi). Some are craving for non-becoming (vibhava taṇhā) and view of annihilationism. They crave for it without any knowledge about it.
Nibbāna means; Ni—freedom, liberation, vāna— clinging and grasping (vānābhāva). Therefore, it means freedom or liberation from clinging and grasping. Beings have the strongest attachment and clinging to themselves—atta taṇhā pemaṁ natthi. Some living beings still have attachment to the dhamma—Dhamma rāga or Dhamma nandi (e.g., non-returner—anāgāmi). Therefore, the qualities of Nibbāna are:
- Freedom from attachment is Nibbāna.
- The best real happiness is Nibbāna.
(3) Nibbāna is not in the loka (world), but it transcends it. Loka—the world—is khandhas, āyatana, dhātus, the all.
- Nibbāna can be seen with the mind, i.e., with the path and fruition mind.
The mind cannot function without objects. Therefore, Nibbāna can be known by the realization of it. So, we do not need to debate and argue about it. It is wasting time and never reaching to the point.
- It can be realized with the four-path knowledge (from sotāpatti to arahatta maggas).
There are two ways to Nibbāna; i.e., samatha-yānika and vipassanā-yānika (based on samatha and insight, respectively). There is nothing more important than the ending of dukkha. Therefore, the Buddha taught that the realization of Nibbāna is the highest protection with a blessing.
revised on 2020-07-31; cited from https://oba.org.tw/viewtopic.php?f=22&t=4702&p=36996#p36996 (posted on 2019-11-22)
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