revised on 2020-06-30
By Venerable Uttamo Thera（尊者 鄔達摩 長老）
This is referred to as samatha or samādhi (concentration) practices. Sīla only can purify the bodily and verbal unwholesome actions and not the mind. If the mind is not strong enough or in purity and easily break the precepts. The most important point for samādhi is it supports for discernment (paññā or knowledge).
The Buddha said; “Samāhito yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti—Someone who has samādhi sees things as it is.” (SN. 35.99 Samādhisuttaṃ, SN. 56.1 Samādhisuttaṃ) Therefore, sīla and samādhi are the two strong roots of a tree to grow. In many suttas, the Buddha referred to right concentration as the four material jhānas (rūpa-jhāna). This was a common process mentioned in the suttas. There was another way for right samādhi. This was paññā based samādhi.
So, with momentary samādhi (khaṇika samādhi) also can develop knowledge. What are the differences between samatha based and vipassanā based samādhi? Samatha based samādhi is pleasant abiding, last longer and comfortable in practice. The commentary gave an example of crossing a river. Samatha based samādhi is like crossing a river by boat and vipassanā based samādhi is like swimming across the river. Both will arrive on the other shore.
Some people doubt the power of vipassanā based samādhi (i.e., khaṇika samādhi) can lead to realization. There is enough evidence in the experience of past yogis and today's yogis. Every path and fruit have the jhānic power of samādhi. Citta-visuddhi has three kinds of samādhi; khaṇika samādhi (momentary concentration), upacāra samādhi (access concentration) and appanā samādhi (absorption concentration).
After the stage of the purification of the mind, there comes to the five stages of the purification of knowledge follow (paññā-visuddhi); these are; the purifications of view (diṭṭhi); the overcoming of doubt (vicikicchā); knowledge and vision of what is and what is not the path; knowledge and vision of the way; and knowledge and vision (Ñāṇadassana-visuddhi).
We can develop these five stages of purification only in the Buddha Dhamma. Therefore, how much fortunate we are if we miss this chance knowingly and become the most foolish and
revised on 2020-06-30; cited from https://oba.org.tw/viewtopic.php?f=22&t=4702&p=36991#p36991 (posted on 2019-11-22)
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