Craving and Suffering


Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw; 21st January 1961

During the Contemplation and you will see the impermanence of the arising dhamma. The arising dhamma is dukkha sacca, by itself is without any knowledge. Also take the contemplative mind as dukkha sacca, by itself is with knowledge.

The contemplative mind is dukkha. because of its impermanence. Therefore, impermanent dhamma observes the impermanent dhamma.This is dukkha dhamma observes dukkha dhamma. So, dukkha with knowledge (i.e., contemplative mind) can end dukkha of without knowledge (i.e., objects).

Why is that? Because the D.A. process is cutting off. Dukkha sacca means – dukkha – disgusting, kha – useless, sacca – truth; the truth of disgusting and useless. Therefore it’s dukkha sacca. What’s the power of dukkha? Oppressing without any concern to the person with prayers for the khandha.

It’s happening not with misfortune but it appears by tanhā. There are 2 kinds of oppression. Oppression with still having the body (i.e., the arising phenomenon). Oppression with until the body disappears. (i.e., the passing away of phenomenon).

Only the body disappears that knowing the real dukkha (i.e., impermanent dukkha).There are 2 kinds of dukkha; dukkha with khandha not disappears and dukkha with khandha disappears. Dukkha with khandha disappears is the real dukkha. Put the kind of dukkha with the khandha not disappears in the marana dukkha (dukkha of death).

Dukkha with khandha disappears is dukkha sacca – the truth of dukkha. Marana dukkha supports the samatha practice. Dukkha sacca supports vipassanā practice. These are paññātti dukkha and paramattha dukkha. – conceptualand ultimate dukkhas. Marana death is close to dukkha sacca.

If you have strong perception of death and easy to realize Nibbāna. A person with strong marana, listening to sacca dhamma and easy to discern dukkha sacca. Why is that? Because it’s a decisive support – upanisaya paccayo to dukkha sacca. If you have few affection and few dukkha. Therefore before vipassanā practice reflection on death – marananusati has great benefit.

Dukkha sacca is oppressing more for someone with more craving (tanhā, samudaya). Someone with few craving has few dukkha. There are 2 kinds of oppression; bodily suffering and mental suffering – kayika and cetasika dukkhas. First torment with body suffering and then with mental suffering.

The oppression is with their companions; such as 96 kinds of diseases, 25 kinds of dangers, etc. Wanting to change the bodily postures very often are bodily dukkha. From impermanence to arrive at dukkha sacca you must contemplate a lot.

In this way will arrive to the end. Why? Impermanence is still at anicca, dukkha, and anatta. Still not yet arrive to the stage of oppression. In this way tanhā is becoming more thinner. With more knowing and become more thinner. Today I am talking about the differences between seeing anicca and sacca.

The differences are; kilesa is momentarily thinning – out and uprooting. Arriving at kicca ñāṇa and the knowledge becomes sharp. Why? Because you know the oppressive nature. If you have the khandha and will be suffered like this, and then kilesa thins out.

Only arriving at kata ñāṇa and you will see Nibbāna. Asking you to contemplate impermanence is for the developing of kicca ñāṇa and kata ñāṇa respectively (i.e., to know dukkha sacca and seeing the end of dukkha sacca).

At the time of seeing anicca, kilesa is not very thinning out yet. Only at the time of seeing dukkha and kilesa becomes very thin (at the time of seeing the oppressive nature). At the time of seeing anicca and dukkha is still bearable.

Because it is seeing dukkha momentarily. Only by seeing the oppressive nature and kilesa dies out. Only by seeing anicca and you can see the developing of dukkha sacca. Knowing sacca is sacca ñāṇa. Knowing the oppressive nature is kicca ñāṇa.

With the maturity of kicca ñāṇa and will arrive to the kata ñāṇa. (the ending of dukkha.) These are the 3 knowledges. If sacca ñāṇa becomes mature and will arrive to kicca ñāṇa. Seeing the impermanence of dukkha is sacca ñāṇa.

After kilesa thins out continue with the practice and the knowledge of not wanting arises. With its cessation and becomes kata ñāṇa. If the teacher can’t teach these stages is wrong. The disciple not yet discern these 3 stages also not Nibbāna.

How many kinds of kicca ñāṇa? In the 4 meanings of dukkha sacca

  1. Pilanatha – oppressive nature, mind/body oppress and torment the person It’s the active part.
  2. Saṅkhatatha – conditioning by tanhā – craving. It is the passive part.
  3. Santapatha – khandha is always burning with kilesa fire.
  4. Viparinamatha – khandha always has the changing nature.

The builder of the khandha is tanhā. For example, tanhā is like a manager (employer). And kamma is like an employee. So kamma is working for tanhā. Who is the more fearful one? Therefore tanhā is more fearful than kamma (Human beings are in the opposite andworshipping tanhā)

Tanhā is saṅkharakkhandha. Even it arises and ceases, its power (energy) is leaving behind. Therefore the Buddha called it tanhā – the carpenter, the builder and not referred to kamma as such. If tanhā is still existing and kamma can’t reject it as – I don’t want to do it. So the Buddha used it as tanhā samudaya sacca and not kamma samudaya sacca.

[In one of his talks; Sayadaw mentioned that the Bodhisatta’s perfections were coming from the over 4 incalculable aeons – asankheyyakappa of cultivation. Therefore, his kammic energy also incalculable. The Buddha’s power is one of the inconceivable. But after no more tanhā and everything was finished for him. If he could come back again and again means still have tanhā]

With the cessation of tanhā and Nibbāna arises. If tanhā ceases and kamma naturally going with it. Even though tanhā arises andceases, its energy is leaving behind. Therefore, beings are suffered by its arrangements (Gave the example of foot baller andthe ball).

You’re going along the direction sends by tanhā without your wishes. Until tanhā not dies, it’ll never discard its power. (Gave another example of a tailor). Someone with latent tanhā and it’ll connect only dukkha. Someone has a lot of inversion (vipallāsa) and think it as connection with happiness (sukha).

It’ll never connect to sukha but only dukkha. But we are talking about it as good kamma from death to connect with birth. After that comes bhavanga citta – life continuum mind. It’s dukkha sacca. Anantara paccayo – proximity condition, the result is without delay (no intermediate stage). This is giving dukkha without gap between them. Don’t take the cause and effect connection, but as dukkha connects to dukkha.

Tanhā is ordering kamma; “Go and connect like this, connect like this.” There is not any good point in kamma. After birth with consciousness and bhavanga citta, after that adverting mind (āvajjana) arises. Tanhā connects the mind with proximity condition – anantara paccayo, (without any gap).

Therefore whatever mind arises only dukkha sacca arises. Every mind arises and disappears. Put on the right thought glasses – sammā – sankappa on the right view eyes – sammā – ditthi and will see clear. It is only dukkha continues.

Therefore the nature of tanhā is like a tailor has the power of conditioning. It’s saṅkhata dukkha sacca. Arises with the condition of tanhā and sankhata dhamma. It controls the 31 realms of existence. Your thought on tanhā as ordinary small thing (So, all worldlings not taking it seriously and they suffered.).

It connects with dukkha and not sukha. Connection by impermanence and only impermanence arises. Eating is dukkha, bathing is dukkha, excreting and urinating is dukkha, etc. Its power is going up to the worlds of Brahma gods. Except this connection of dukkha sacca and no other thing. Therefore the Buddha said that I only taught dukkha and the cessation of dukkha.

[ Sayadaw continued to talk about tanhā with kamāsava and bhavāsava – taints of sensuality and becoming. Both of them are tanhā. The differences are with the types of person who create them. The one with big and the other with small tanhās.

Kamāsava created the realms below the Brahma gods, and bhavāsava creates the worlds of the Brahma gods worlds. From sotāpanna to anagamin destroy kamāsava by stages, and arahants destroy bhavāsava.]

Always reflecting as all dukkha come from tanhā. During the observing don’t reflect. If you reflect and what’ll happen? And it becomes cintamaya ñāṇa and not bhavanamaya ñāṇa. (Reflection and Observing) They are different. Don’t be mixed up.

What are the differences between cintamaya ñāṇa and bhavanamaya ñāṇa? With cintamaya ñāṇa more bhavanga cittas arise and in bhavanamaya ñāṇa less bhavanga cittas. Bhavanga cittas take the objects of the past. Cintamaya is thinking, planning, reflecting.

Let a time for the reflection. And let a time for observing. In this way it becomes more quicker in the practice. Reflection on one’s own khandha with truths are cintamaya. Contemplation of impermanence is bhavanamaya. With these 2 practices kilesas not easily come in between the practice.

What’re the differences between less and more bhavanga cittas? With more bhavanga cittas is a dukkha patipada person – pracitce with difficulties. It has connection with kilesas. Contemplation without reflection and the realization is slow.

[How to use cintamaya and bhavanamaya ñāṇa? Sayadaw said cintamaya was helpful to stop kilesas come in during vipassanā. He encouraged yogis as before sitting should reflect dukkha or the dangers of tanhā (i.e., cintamaya and then sit for bhavanamaya. More bhavanga citta means with more kilesas or dukkha patipada person.]

Tanhā connects to kamma, to consciousness, to mind/body, etc. Except magga paccayo – path condition, everything is made and connected by tanhā. Making it into a cycle and is called oghā – floods. Without thoughts and ñāṇa is not right. Including the Bodhisatta and wise people were also using it.

Tanhā is tormenting someone with the prayers for the khandha. Connection of dukkha without breaks is also tanhā. Vipassanā is looking at the injuries afflicting by tanhā. It’s oppressive and conditioned in different ways that dukkha sacca.

Let the conditions be; “Do you want to be oppressed?” We have to think about these 2 points. Oppressed means for the passive side. Accept everything to come. Oppressive means the active side. The mind oppresses the mind and form oppresses form.

These are the 2 points of pilanatha – oppression. Saṅkhatatha – knowing that it’s happening according to one’s desire (i.e., desire for the khandha.).


cited from https://oba.org.tw/viewtopic.php?f=22&t=4241&p=36212#p36212 (posted on 2019-03-31)


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