Dukkha Exists and Dukkha Ceases

Dhamma Talks by Mogok Sayadaw; 9th to 12th February 1961

(The following 4 talks were based on the Anuradha Sutta)


Where was the beginning of this life came from? Sankhara paccaya viññānaṁ:Volitional formation conditions consciousness (here rebirth consciousness). So, it started from the mind. Following it to the end; Dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti—The whole mass of suffering arises. (see the 12 links of D.A process which lead to Dukkha).

So, it’s the assemblage of dukkha. In the whole life whatever happens all of them are the assemblage of dukkha. It’s the arising of the assemblage of dukkha. Therefore, whatever is happening in the body and mind are the truth of dukkha (Dukkha Sacca).

They are arising and passing away that have to take it as dukkha (born and die all the time every moment). In all the 12 links of D.A process each of the link doesn’t arise itself alone but with other dhammas together.

(Every mind at least has the 7 universal mental factors together with it. See the Abhidhamma, especially the conditional Relations—Patthāna). Therefore, it’s the assemblage of dukkha and not a person nor a being. From birth to death is the process of dukkha. Ven. Anuradha was discerning impermanence but couldn’t realize Nibbāna.

Because he was hindered by wrong view. Whatever arising is dukkha sacca and without dispel wrong view like this, the contemplation will not lead to the realization of Nibbāna. From the 6 sense doors whatever arises is only the assemblage of dukkha arising.

By knowing in this way wrong view falls away. After that come the contemplation of impermanence. And then you will realize easily the Path and Fruition Knowledges.

Dispel wrong view first and later do vipassanā. If you don’t know the khandha arising process can’t dispel wrong view. Before dispelling wrong view, first have to know the khandha process.

Khandha process (D.A) →dispel wrong view→vipassanā (insight practice)→Path and Fruit. Dukkha can’t arise without samudaya(cause).

For example, because of viññānaṁ samudaya (caused by consciousness), mind and body dukkha arise (viññānaṁ paccaya nāma-rūpam), etc.

Therefore in the whole saṁsāra, samudaya and dukkha processes are arising all the time. No personality nor a being is inside the natural process (natural phenomena of the process)

Here Samudaya not refer to lobha but for the causes. The causes of dukkha and the results of dukkha exist only. Not a person nor a being arises.

Among the 4 Noble Truths; the 2 truths of Samudaya and dukkha are already explained. There are 2 more truths; magga and nirodha have to be explained. It needs a teacher to help.

Sankhara nirodha→viññānaṁ nirodho→ follow to the end; Dukkhakkhandassa nirodho hoti—With the cessation of Volitional formation→consciousness ceases…… The whole mass of dukkha ceases. (see the 12 links of D.A process)

The whole assemblage of dukkha ceases. It will only cease by contemplation and practice. Therefore, magga and nirodha; samudaya and dukkha are in pairs. Cessation by itself is naturally arise and cease. Contemplation of the cessation is ceasing by not wanting it. Can only contemplate by not wanting it, you’ll see Nirodha—the ending of Dukkha.

The physical body is still exist but you can’t see the khandha process. It ceases in knowledge (mind). If khandha ceases then dukkha also ceases. If Khandhas are arising in serial then dukkha also arising. So, if you know the khandha process, the arising and ceasing of it and wrong view will fall away.


Whatever arising in the khandha is dukkha arising. If you can catchmup with the arising dhamma, then you are contemplating of dukkha sacca. It becomes, the arising dhamma is dukkha sacca and the contemplation is magga sacca.

If you can’t catch it and connects with dukkha sacca. Originally there is no person nor being in it. I am helping you dispel wrong views which will send you to painful rebirths. Following with the knowing is getting the magga.

The reason saṁsāra was long for us was never had been followed dukkha sacca with knowledge before. Without it, Dukkhakkhandassa samudayo hoti—the whole mass of suffering arises. With knowledge;

Dukkhakkhandassa nirodho hoti—the whole mass of dukkha ceases. So, I remind you always follow with knowning. Asankhata dhamma (unconditioned phenomenon) is Nibbāna.

The way to it is vipassanā. The reason we were wandering in saṁsúra was without vipassanā before. (Continued to talk on citt cittānupassanā ) If seeing the arising mind contemplate it. If you can’t catch it, them contemplate at feeling.

Again if you can’t, then contemplate on craving. Whatever mind arises from the 6 sense door have to contemplate. If you can’t will mix-up with the I-ness. For e.g, when itching mind arises and becomes I am itchy. It becomes identity view (sakkāya ditthi).

(Continued the story of Anuradha) The question of after a being dies still becoming? Death is dying consciousness and birth is rebirth-linking consciousness (patisandhiviññānaṁ) There is no being in it. In the beginning it’s dukkha sacca.

In the middle and at the end also dukkha sacca. There is no being for dying and becoming. This kind of question the Buddha never answered because it was asking with wrong view. No need to answer for it. In that way wrong view is falling away.

Wrong views fall away by knowledge is cula-sotāpanna. Have the same right view as sotāpanna). It’s not falling away by contemplation. After falling away by knowledge with contemplation is easy to get the Path and Fruition Knowledges.

If wrong view is destroyed one of the unwholesome roots is falling apart. Anuradha himself didn’t know know how to exactly answer the question meaned, he himself had wrong view and doubt.


(In the beginning of the talk) Only after dispelled wrong view by knowledge should do the vipassanā contemplation. Because vipassanā contemplation is working with the paramattha dhamma (ultimate phenomena).

Everything arise from the 6 sense doors of mind and body process; no person nor living being exists. For example, from the eye door eye consciousness arises, good or bad feeling, like or dislike tanhā, etc… no phenomenon has any person or living being. Person or being is only exists in speech and not in reality.

(continued the Anuradha’s story) The Buddha answered to his questions posed by other sect, and first cleared away his wrong view and doubt. With regarding to the 5 khandhas, using the 3 universal characteristics and explained to him in the Q&A forms. Whatever arising from the khandhas; all are anicca, dukkha and anatta dhammas and not include person nor living being.

If wrong view and doubt are not destroyed whatever rebirth is taken, the seed of hell will follow behind as latent tendency. Even arrive to the celestial and Brahma god realms the seed of hell follows together there. In everyday life people are looking after their bodily needs seem to be have compassion for themselves.

If you really have pity on yourself must destroy wrong view and doubt. Without the seed of hell falls off you have to carry your burdened khandha as chicken, pig and cow. Become a horse is better than a pig because you have to work with your shoulder and back (toiling for human).

As a pig serves with your flesh (eaten by human). In hell, it’s worse than a pig. Suffer alive in hell and can’t die. Pig dies only once but the hell being dies instantly and borns instantly. It continues until the kammas are finished. (The last part of the talk had strong saṁvega)


The duty of the Buddha and savakas were explained about the khandha and its process. The duty of the Buddha was teaching people about the way of practice and how to do it. Your responsibility is practicing to end dukkha.

In talking about how to do it, I have to point out the process of the khandha—D.A process. If you want and you can cut it. If you don’t want also up to you. If you don’t want then just stay with dukkha. Dukkhakkhandassa samudayo hoti— the whole mass of suffering will arise. You have to do the practice from the vapassanā knowledge to the Path Knowledge.

Even by practice if you can’t cut it off in this life, and in next life you’ll sure about it. I can give you the guarantee. Why? Because near the end of his life the Buddha told about this to Subhadda (see the Mahāparinibbāna Sutta). But you have to practice without fail. Don’t doubt about it.

It’s like the example of building fire by rubbing the bamboos. To become hot is our duty. The fire to come out is dhamma duty. It becomes hot fire will come out. With contemplation and seeing impermanence, wrong view of permanence can’t arise. By killing ditthi tanhā,

upadānā and kamma, and no future birth will come into existence. Without the cause of tanhā, upadānā and kamma the future result of birth can’t arise. Saccanulomika Nyan — knowledge according to the truth is the knowledge of seeing impermanence.

Impermanence is dukkha sacca and knowing is nyan. Therefore this is the knowledge, in accordance with the truth. Whatever arises in the khandhas contemplate as dukkha arises and dukkha passes away.

Knowing them is saccanulomika nyan. After that continue the contemplation until become disenchanment and the ending of it. The ending of dukkha is Nibbāna.

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