巴利文-漢文 佛學名相 辭彙

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This glossary covers many of the Pali words and technical terms that you may come across in the books and articles available on this website. The "[MORE]" link that follows some entries will take you to a more detailed article on the selected topic.

Many of the entries have been adapted (with permission) from the glossaries in the books Straight from the Heart, Things As They Are, and The Wings to Awakening.

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Abhidhamma(abhidhamma;論): (1) In the discourses of the Pali Canon, this term simply means "higher Dhamma," and a systematic attempt to define the Buddha's teachings and understand their interrelationships. (2) A later collection of analytical treatises based on lists of categories drawn from the teachings in the discourses, added to the Canon several centuries after the Buddha's life.
Abhibba(abhi~n~naa;神通): Intuitive powers that come from the practice of concentration: the ability to display psychic powers, clairvoyance, clairaudience, the ability to know the thoughts of others, recollection of past lifetimes, and the knowledge which does away with mental effluents (see asava).
Acariya(aacariya;老師): Teacher; mentor.
Adhitthana(adhi.t.thaana;決定、決意、受持、依處、攝持): Determination; resolution. One of the ten perfections (paramis).(PS:正確之複數型:paramiyo)
Ajaan[ajaan;阿姜; 老師(泰語)]: (Thai; also "Ajarn", "Ajahn", etc.). Teacher; mentor. Equivalent to the Pali acariya.
Akaliko(also akalika (akaaliko: immediate, in this world 即時的, not delayed 不遲滯的,不受時間限制的): Timeless[無時的,Vism.(清淨道論底本--P.216)]; unconditioned by time or season.
Akusala(akusala;惡,不善): Unwholesome, unskillful, evil, demeritorious. See its opposite, kusala.
Anagami(anaagaami;不來, 阿那含): Non-returner. A person who has abandoned the five lower fetters that bind the mind to the cycle of rebirth (see samyojana), and who after death will appear in one of the Brahma worlds called the Pure Abodes, there to attain nibbana, never again to return to this world.
Anapanasati(aanaapaanasati;安那般那念,安般念, 出入息念): Mindfulness of breathing. A meditation practice in which one maintains one's attention and mindfulness on the sensations of breathing. (PS:原巴利語之意為--入出息念)[MORE]
Anatta(anattaa;無我): Not-self; ownerless.
Anicca(anicca;無常): Inconstant; unsteady; impermanent.
Anupadisesa-nibbana[anupaadisesa-nibbaana;無餘(依)涅槃]: Nibbana with no fuel remaining (the analogy is to an extinguished fire whose embers are cold) -- the nibbana of the arahant after his passing away. (c.f. sa-upadisesa-nibbana)
Anupubbi-katha(anupubbi-kathaa;次第說法): Gradual instruction. The Buddha's method of teaching Dhamma that guides his listeners progressively through increasingly advanced topics: generosity (see dana), virtue (see sila), heavens, drawbacks, renunciation, and the four noble truths. [MORE]
Apaya-bhumi(apaaya-bhuumi;惡趣): State of deprivation; the four lower levels of existence into which one might be reborn as a result of past unskillful actions (see kamma): rebirth in hell, as a hungry ghost, as an angry demon (see Asura), or as a common animal. None of these states is permanent. Compare sugati. [PS:apaya-bhumi--惡趣, 惡處之地(place); duggati--惡道(destination)]
Apaya-mukha(apaaya-mukha;墮惡趣行,墮惡趣法): Way to deprivation -- extra-marital sexual relations; indulgence in intoxicants; indulgence in gambling; associating with bad people. Performance of these acts paves the way for rebirth in one of the lower realms (see apaya-bhumi). (PS:mukha--入口)
Arahant(arahant;阿羅漢, 應供, 無學): A "worthy one" or "pure one"; a person whose mind is free of defilement (see kilesa), who has abandoned all ten of the fetters that bind the mind to the cycle of rebirth (see samyojana), whose heart is free of mental effluents (see asava), and who is thus not destined for further rebirth. A title for the Buddha and the highest level of his Noble Disciples.
Arammana(aaramma.na;所緣,對象): Preoccupation; mental object. [ps:arammana paccaya 所緣緣]
Ariya(ariya;聖): Noble, ideal. Also, a "Noble One" (see ariya-puggala). (cf.ariya-atthavgika-magga -- 八聖道, 八正道)
Ariyadhana(ariyadhana;聖財): Noble Wealth; qualities that serve as 'capital' in the quest for liberation: conviction (see saddha), virtue (see sila(戒)), conscience(慚), fear of evil(愧), erudition(聞), generosity (see dana施), and discernment (see pabba). (PS: sattavidha-ariya-dhana 七聖財, see dhana(財))
Ariya-puggala(ariya-puggala;聖位,聖人): Noble person; enlightened individual. An individual who has realized at least one of the four noble paths (see dhana(財))magga(道) or their fruitions (see phala(果)). Compare puthujjana(凡位,凡夫) (worldling).
Ariya-sacca(ariya-sacca;聖諦): Noble Truth. The word "ariya" (noble) can also mean ideal or standard, and in this context means "objective" or "universal" truth. There are four(四聖諦): stress, the origin of stress, the disbanding of stress, and the path of practice leading to the disbanding of stress.
Asava(aasava;漏;煩惱): Mental effluent, pollutant, or fermentation. Four qualities -- sensuality, views, becoming, and ignorance -- that "flow out" of the mind and create the flood of the round of death and rebirth.
Asura(asura;阿修羅): A race of heavenly beings who, like the Titans of Greek mythology, fought the devas(formal pl. type of Pali is deva) for sovereignty over the heavens and lost. See apaya-bhumi. [MORE]
Avijja(avijjaa;無明): Unawareness; ignorance; obscured awareness; delusion about the nature of the mind. [MORE]
Ayatana(aayatana;入,處,根塵): Sense medium. The inner sense media(六內處) are the sense organs,(六根) -- eyes(眼), ears(耳), nose(鼻), tongue(舌), body(身), and mind(意). The outer sense media(六外處) are their respective objects. (六塵--色,聲,香,味,觸,法)

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Bhante(bhante;尊者,尊師): Venerable sir; often used when addressing a Buddhist monk. (相當於漢地對出家眾之尊稱--法師,師父)
Bhikkhu(bhikkhu;比丘) [bhikkhuni(bhikkhunii比丘尼)]: A Buddhist "monk" ("nun"); a man (woman) who has given up the householder's life to live a life of heightened virtue (see sila(戒)) in accordance with the Vinaya in general, and the Patimokkha rules in particular. See savgha, parisa, upasampada.
Bodhi-pakkhiya-dhamma(bodhi-pakkhiya-dhamma;菩提分,37道品): "Wings to Awakening" -- seven sets of principles that are conducive to Awakening and that, according to the Buddha, form the heart of his teaching: (PS:pakkhiya-- belonging to faction部分的)

 [1] the four frames of reference (cattaro-satipatthana四念處)(see satipatthana(念處));
 [2] four right exertions (cattari sammappadhanani)(四正斷;四正勤;四精進) -- the effort (a)to prevent evil from arising in the mind, (b)to abandon whatever evil has already arisen, (c)to give rise to the good, and (d)to maintain the good that has arisen (PS:sammappadhana--正斷;正勤)
 [3] four bases of success (cattari iddhipadani)(四如意足;四神足 ) -- desire, persistence, intentness, circumspection(PS:iddhipada--如意足;神足
 [4] five dominant factors (indriya)(五根) -- conviction, persistence, mindfulness, concentration, discernment;
 [5] five strengths (bala)(五力) -- identical with [4];
 [6] seven factors of Awakening (bojjhanga)(七覺支) -- mindfulness, investigation of phenomena, persistence, rapture (see piti), serenity, concentration, equanimity; and
 [7] the eightfold path (ariya-atthavgika-magga or magga)(八正道;八聖道) -- Right View, Right Attitude, Right Speech, Right Activity, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration. [MORE]
Bodhisatta(bodhisatta;菩薩, 覺行者): "A being (striving) for Awakening"; the term used to describe the Buddha before he actually become Buddha, from his first aspiration to Buddhahood until the time of his full Awakening. Sanskrit form: Bodhisattva.
Brahma(brahmaa;梵天): "Great One" -- an inhabitant of the non-sensual heavens of form or formlessness. [MORE]
Brahma-vihara(brahmaa-vihaara;梵住): The four "sublime" or "divine" abodes that are attained through the development of boundless metta (goodwill)(慈), karuna (compassion)(悲), mudita (sympathetic joy)(喜), and upekkha (equanimity)(捨). (PS:cattaro-brahmavihara --四梵住 = cattaro-appamana-cittani --四無量心)
Brahmana(braahma.na;婆羅門): The brahmin caste of India has long maintained that its members, by their birth, are worthy of the highest respect. Buddhism borrowed the term brahmin to apply to those who have attained the goal, to show that respect is earned not by birth, race, or caste, but by spiritual attainment. Used in the Buddha sense, this term is synonymous with arahant.
Buddho(buddho;佛陀): Awake; enlightened. An epithet for the Buddha.
Buddha(buddha;佛陀): The name given to one who rediscovers for himself the liberating path of Dhamma, after a long period of its having been forgotten by the world. According to tradition, there is a long line of Buddhas stretching into the distant past. The most recent Buddha was born Siddhattha Gotama in India in the sixth century BCE. A well-educated and wealthy young man, he relinquished his family and his princely inheritance in the prime of his life to search for true freedom and an end to suffering (dukkha(苦)). After seven years of austerities in the forest, he rediscovered the "middle way" and achieved his goal, becoming Buddha. [MORE]

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Cetasika(cetasika;心所;心的;心所有): Mental concomitant (see vedana(受), sabba(想), and savkhara(行).cf. citta, nama and rupa.
Citta(citta;心): Mind; heart; state of consciousness. cf. cetasika, nama and rupa.

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Dana(daana;施): Giving, liberality; offering, alms. Specifically, giving of any of the four requisites to the monastic order. More generally, the inclination to give, without any expectation of reward. Dana is the first theme in the Buddha's system of gradual training (see anupubbi-katha), the first of the ten paramis(波羅密), and one of the seven treasures (see dhana). [MORE]
Deva (Devata)[deva;天神(devataa;女神)]: Literally, "shining one" -- an inhabitant of the heavenly realms (see sagga and sugati). [MORE]
Devadatta(devadatta;提婆達多): A cousin of the Buddha who tried to effect a schism in the Savgha and who has since become emblematic for all Buddhists who work knowingly or unknowingly to undermine the religion from within.
Dhamma (Skt. Dharma)(dhamma;法): (1) Event; a phenomenon in and of itself; (2) mental quality; (3) doctrine, teaching; (4) nibbana. Also, principles of behavior that human beings ought to follow so as to fit in with the right natural order of things; qualities of mind they should develop so as to realize the inherent quality of the mind in and of itself. By extension, "Dhamma" (usu. capitalized) is used also to denote any doctrine that teaches such things. Thus the Dhamma of the Buddha denotes both his teachings and the direct experience of nibbana, the quality at which those teachings are aimed.
Dhamma-vinaya(dhamma-vinaya;法律): "doctrine (dhamma) and discipline (vinaya)." The Buddha's own name for the religion he founded.
Dhana(dhana;財;財物): Treasure(s). The seven qualities[七財(sattadhanani)=七聖財(sattavidha-ariyadhana)] of conviction(信), virtue [see sila(戒)], conscience(慚) & concern(愧), learning(聞), generosity [see dana(施)], and wisdom(慧).
Dhatu(dhaatu;界): Element(元素); property(要素), impersonal condition. The four physical elements or properties are earth(地) (solidity), water(水) (liquidity), wind(風) (motion), and fire(火) (heat). The six elements include the above four plus space(空) and cognizance(識). [PS:四界差別 catu dhatuvavatthana (tuvavatthana 確定;評定;安立;決定;差別)]
Dhutavga(dhuta'nga;頭陀支;頭陀行): Voluntary ascetic practices that monks and other meditators may undertake from time to time in order to cultivate renunciation and contentment, and to stir up energy. For the monks, there are thirteen such practices(十三頭陀支): (1) using only patched-up robes; (2) using only one set of three robes; (3) going for alms; (4) not by-passing any donors on one's alms path; (5) eating no more than one meal a day; (6) eating only from the alms-bowl; (7) refusing any food offered after the alms-round; (8) living in the forest; (9) living under a tree; (10) living under the open sky; (11) living in a cemetery; (12) being content with whatever dwelling one has; (13) sleeping in the sitting posture (i.e., never lying down).
Dukkha(m)(dukkha;dukkha'm;苦): Stress; suffering; pain; distress; discontent. [MORE]

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Ekaggatarammana(ekaggataaramma.na;一境性所緣;一心): Singleness of preoccupation; "one-pointedness." In meditation, the mental quality that allows one's attention to remain collected and focused on the chosen meditation object. Ekaggatarammana reaches full maturity upon the development of the fourth level of jhana. [PS: eka 一 ===> ekagga(eka-agga)一點的;一境的 ===> ekaggata(ekagga-ta)一境性 ===> arammana 所緣;緣境;對象](ekagga-citta 一境心; citta-ekaggata 心一境性)
Ekayana-magga(ekayaana;一乘道): A unified path; a direct path. An epithet for the practice of being mindful of the four frames of reference: body, feelings, mind, and mental qualities.
Evam(eva'm;如是;如此): Thus; in this way. This term is used in Thailand as a formal closing to a sermon. (PS: Evam me sutam --- 如是我聞)

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Foundation of mindfulness: see satipatthana.
Frame of reference: see satipatthana.

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Gotrabhu-bana(gotarabhuu-~naa.na;種姓智): "Change of lineage knowledge": The glimpse of nibbana that changes one from an ordinary person (puthujjana) to a Noble One (ariya-puggala).{PS: gotta(Sk. BSk. gotra)-- 姓;氏姓;種姓;家系; gotrabhu -- 種姓;種姓者[(四雙八輩)聖位之前一位階]}

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Hinayana(hinayaana;小乘): "Inferior Vehicle," originally a pejorative term -- coined by a group who called themselves followers of the Mahayana(大乘), the "Great Vehicle" -- to denote the path of practice of those who adhered only to the earliest discourses as the word of the Buddha. Hinayanists refused to recognize the later discourses, composed by the Mahayanists, that claimed to contain teachings that the Buddha felt were too deep for his first generation of disciples, and which he thus secretly entrusted to underground serpents. The Theravada school of today is a descendent of the Hinayana.

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Idappaccayata(idappaccayataa;此緣性;緣起的道理): This/that conditionality. This name for the causal principle the Buddha discovered on the night of his Awakening stresses the point that, for the purposes of ending suffering and stress, the processes of causality can be understood entirely in terms of forces and conditions that are experienced in the realm of direct experience, with no need to refer to forces operating outside of that realm. (PS:ida 此; paccaya 緣; -ta 性)

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Jhana (Skt. dhyana)(jhaana;禪那): Mental absorption. A state of strong concentration focused on a single physical sensation (resulting in rupa jhana色界禪) or mental notion (resulting in arupa jhana無色界禪). Development of jhana arises from the temporary suspension of the five hindrances (see nivarana) through the development of five mental factors: vitakka (directed thought)(尋), vicara (evaluation)(伺), piti (rapture)(喜), sukha (pleasure)(樂), and ekaggatarammana (singleness of preoccupation)(一心). [MORE]

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Kamma (Skt. karma)(kamma;業): Intentional acts that result in states of being and birth. [MORE]
Kammatthana(kamma.t.thaana;業處) Literally, "basis of work" or "place of work". The word refers to the "occupation" of a meditating monk: namely, the contemplation of certain meditation themes by which the forces of defilement (kilesa), craving (tanha), and ignorance (avijja) may be uprooted from the mind. In the ordination procedure, every new monk is taught five basic kammatthana that form the basis for contemplation of the body: hair of the head (kesa)(髮), hair of the body (loma)(毛), nails (nakha)(甲), teeth (danta)(齒), and skin (taco)(皮). By extension, the kammatthana include all the forty classical meditation themes. Although every meditator may be said to engage in kammtthana, the term is most often used to identify the particular Thai forest tradition lineage that was founded by Phra Ajaan Mun and Phra Ajaan Sao. [MORE]
Kayagata-sati(kaayagataa-sati;身念): Mindfulness immersed in the body. This is a blanket term covering several meditation themes: keeping the breath in mind; being mindful of the body's posture; being mindful of one's activities; analyzing the body into its parts; analyzing the body into its physical properties (see dhatu); contemplating the fact that the body is inevitably subject to death and disintegration. [MORE]
Khandha(khandha;蘊): Heap; group; aggregate. Physical and mental components of the personality and of sensory experience in general. The five bases of clinging (see upadana(取;執著)). See: rupa (physical phenomenon)(色), vedana (feeling)(受), sabba (perception)(想), savkhara (mental fashionings)(行), and vibbana (cognizance)(識).
Khanti or Khanti(khantii;忍;忍辱;忍耐;信忍;信仰): Patience; forbearance. One of the ten perfections (paramis). (PS:khanti-soracca 忍辱柔和)
Kilesa(kilesa;雜染;煩惱;染;欲念): Defilement -- passion, aversion, and delusion in their various forms, which include such things as greed, malevolence, anger, rancor, hypocrisy, arrogance, envy, miserliness, dishonesty, boastfulness, obstinacy, violence, pride, conceit, intoxication, and complacency.
Kusala(kusala;善): Wholesome, skillful, good, meritorious. An action characterized by this moral quality (kusala-kamma(善業)) is bound to result (eventually) in happiness and a favorable outcome. Actions characterized by its opposite (akusala-kamma不善業) lead to sorrow. See kamma. [MORE]

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Lakkhana(lakkhana;標識;相;特相;相好): See ti-lakkhana.
Loka-dhamma[loka-dhamma;世(間)法]: Affairs or phenomena of the world. The standard list gives eight: wealth, loss of wealth, status, loss of status, praise, criticism, pleasure, and pain.
Lokavidu(lokaviduu;世間解): Knower of the cosmos. An epithet for the Buddha.
Lokuttara[lokuttara;出世(間)的] Transcendent; supramundane (see magga(道), phala(果), and nibbana). (PS:loka-uttara)

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Magga(magga;道): Path. Specifically, the path to the cessation of suffering and stress. The four transcendent paths -- or rather, one path with four levels of refinement -- are the path to sotapanna(stream entry預流) (entering the stream to nibbana, which ensures that one will be reborn at most only seven more times), the path to once-returning(sakadagami一來), the path to non-returning(anagami 不來), and the path to arahantship(arahant 無學 ). See phala(果).
Mahathera(mahaathera;大長老): "Great elder." An honorific title automatically conferred upon a bhikkhu of at least twenty years' standing. Compare thera.
Majjhima(majjhima;中間的): Middle; appropriate; just right. [PS:Majjhima Nikaya[中部(阿含)經]; majjhima-patipada 中道(patipada 道;行道;道跡; patipada-bana-dassana-visuddhi 行道智見清淨)}
Mara(maara;魔;魔羅;惡魔;死神): The personification[擬人(化);人格化] of evil[(邪)惡的] and temptation[誘惑(物)].
Metta(mettaa;慈): Loving-kindness; goodwill. One of the ten perfections paramis) and one of the four "sublime abodes" (brahma-vihara).

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Naga(naaga;龍;象): A term commonly used to refer to strong, stately, and heroic animals, such as elephants and magical serpents. In Buddhism, it is also used to refer to those who have attained the goal of the practice. [PS: naga (naga;山)])
Nama(naama;名): Mental phenomena. This term refers to the mental components of the five khandhas(蘊), and includes: vedana (feeling)(受), sabba (perception)(想), savkhara (mental fashionings)(行), and vibbana (cognizance)(識). Compare rupa, citta and cetasika.
Nekkhamma(nekkhamma;離欲;出離): Renunciation; literally, "freedom from sensual lust". One of the ten paramis. [MORE]
Nibbana (Skt. Nirvana)(nibbaana;涅槃): Liberation; literally, the "unbinding" of the mind from the mental effluents (see asava), defilements (see kilesa), and the round of rebirth (see vatta), and from all that can be described or defined. As this term also denotes the extinguishing of a fire, it carries the connotations of stilling, cooling, and peace. (According to the physics taught at the time of the Buddha, a burning fire seizes or adheres to its fuel; when extinguished, it is unbound.) "Total nibbana" in some contexts denotes the experience of Awakening; in others, the final passing away of an arahant. [MORE]
Nimitta(nimitta;相;現相;標識;徵相;瑞兆): Mental sign, image, or vision that may arise in meditation. Uggaha nimitta(取相) refers to any image that arises spontaneously in the course of meditation. Patibhaga nimitta(似相) refers to an image that has been subjected to mental manipulation. [PS: pati-, pati- 對;逆;反 ===> bhaga 部分;領域;時分 ===> patibhaga 對;對比;類似 ===> Patibhaga nimitta(似相); uggaha(ud-grah) 取得;學得;把持 ===> Uggaha nimitta 取相; pari 圓;遍滿;完全; bhaga 幸福;福運. ]
Nirodha(nirodha;滅;滅盡;制止): Cessation; disbanding; stopping.
nivaran[niivara.na;蓋(五蓋的煩惱)]: Hindrances to concentration -- sensual desire, ill will, torpor & lethargy, restlessness & anxiety, and uncertainty.

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Opanayiko[or Opanayika(opanayiko;心靈的)導引;指引;攝入]: Referring inwardly(內心或精神方面地); to be brought inward. An epithet for the Dhamma.

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Pabbajja(pabbajjaa;出家;出家生活): "Going forth (from home to the homeless life)"; ordination as a samanera (samaneri), or novice monk (nun). See upasampada.
Paccattam[paccatta'm;各自的;個別的(Paccatta) 的 acc.(直接)受格;(日譯)對格;目的格]]: Personal; individual.
Pali[also Pali; paali or paa.li;(巴利)三藏聖典;巴利(語);線]: The canon of texts preserved by the Theravada school and, by extension, the language in which those texts are composed. (PS:Pali-bhasa 巴利語)[MORE]
Pabba[pa~n~na;般若;(智)慧]: Discernment; insight; wisdom; intelligence; common sense; ingenuity.
Parami (also paramita)(paaramii;波羅密;完美的;至高成就的): Perfection of the character. A group of ten qualities developed over many lifetimes by a bodhisatta, which appear as a group in the Pali Canon only in the Jataka ("Birth Stories"):
generosity (dana(施)), virtue [sila(戒)], renunciation (nekkhamma), discernment (pabba), energy/persistence (viriya), patience/forbearance (khanti), truthfulness (sacca), determination (adhitthana), good will (metta(慈)), and equanimity (upekkha(捨)).
Parinibbana(parinibbaana;般涅盤): Total Unbinding; the complete cessation of the khandhas that occurs upon the death of an arahant. [cf. sa-upadisesa-nibbana[有餘(依)涅槃] and anupadisesa-nibbana[無餘(依)涅槃]]
Parisa(parisaa;眾;l會眾): Following; assembly. The four groups of the Buddha's following(catasso parisa 四眾) that include monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen. Compare savgha. See bhikkhu/bhikkhuni, upasaka/upasika.
Patimokkha(or Patimokkha (paa.timokkha;波羅提木叉;戒條;戒本;別解脫): The basic code of monastic discipline, consisting of 227 rules for monks (bhikkhus) and 310 for nuns (bhikkhunis). See Vinaya.
Peta(peta;餓鬼): A hungry shade -- one of a class of beings in the lower realms, sometimes capable of appearing to human beings. The petas are often depicted in Buddhist art as starving beings with pinhole-sized mouths through which they can never pass enough food to alleviate their hunger.
Phala(phala;果): Fruition. Specifically, the fruition of any of the four transcendent paths (see magga(道).
Phra[phra;(泰語)尊者;法師]: (Thai) Venerable. Used as a prefix to the name of a monk (bhikkhu).
Piti(piiti;喜): Rapture; bliss; delight. In meditation, a pleasurable quality in the mind that reaches full maturity upon the development of the second level of jhana.
Pubba(pu~n~na;福;善;福德;功德): Merit; worth; the inner sense of well-being that comes from having acted rightly or well and that enables one to continue acting well. {PS: pubba -- n. or nt [中性詞(格;位)]; pubbanam -- dat.[與格;(間接)受詞)] & gen.屬格; 例如 pubbanam vipako 異熟(善果)報 [vipako 異熟; pubbani -- acc..(直接)受格;(日譯)對格;目的格]; nom.[主格] & voc.[呼格]; 例如 sayam katani pubbani 自作福德[sayam 自己的; katani 行為的]}
Puthujjana(puthujjana;凡位;凡夫): One of the many-folk; a "worlding" or run-of-the-mill person. An ordinary person who has not yet realized any of the four stages of Awakening (see magga(道). Compare ariya-puggala(聖位).

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Run-of-the-mill person(凡夫): See puthujjana.
Rupa(ruupa;色,色身;物質;形相): Body; physical phenomenon; sense datum. The basic meaning of this word is "appearance" or "form." It is used, however, in a number of different contexts, taking on different shades of meaning in each. In lists of the objects of the senses, it is given as the object of the sense of sight. As one of the khandha(蘊), it refers to physical phenomena or sensations (visible appearance or form being the defining characteristics of what is physical). This is also the meaning it carries when opposed to nama(名), or mental phenomena. cf. citta and cetasika.

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Sabhava-dhamma(sabhaava-dhamma;自性法;第一義的存在): Condition of nature; any phenomenon, event, property, or quality as experienced in and of itself. (PS: >sabhava-dhamma(自性;實相)
Sacca(sacca;諦;真理): Truthfulness. One of the ten perfections (paramis).
Saddha(saddhaa;信): Conviction, faith. A confidence in the Buddha that gives one the willingness to put his teachings into practice. Conviction becomes unshakeable upon the attainment of stream-entry (see sotapanna(預流, 須陀洹)). (PS: saddha --信者)
Sadhu(saadhu;善哉): (exclamation) "It is well"; an expression showing appreciation or agreement.
Sagga(sagga;天;天界): Heaven, heavenly realm. The dwelling place of the devas. Rebirth in the heavens is said to be one of the rewards for practicing generosity (see dana) and virtue (see sila). Like all waystations in samsara, however, rebirth here is temporary. See also sugati. [MORE]
Sakadagami(sakadaagaamii;一來, 斯陀含): Once-returner. A person who has abandoned the first three of the fetters that bind the mind to the cycle of rebirth (see samyojana), has weakened the fetters of sensual passion and irritation, and who after death is destined to be reborn in this world only once more. [PS: or sakadagamin(sakid-agama-in)]
Sakyamuni(Sakyamuni;釋迦牟尼;釋家族的賢者;哲人): "Sage of the Sakyans"; an epithet for the Buddha.
Sakya-putta(sakya-putta;釋子;釋家族出生者): Son of the Sakyan. An epithet for Buddhist monks, the Buddha having been a native of the Sakyan Republic. [PS: =Sakya-puttiya(belonging to the Sakya son; a (true) follower of the Buddha 釋子的;佛弟子;佛教徒)]
Sallekha-dhamma(sallekha-dhamma;儉約法): Topics of effacement (effacing defilement) -- having few wants, being content with what one has, seclusion, uninvolvement in companionship, persistence, virtue (see sila), concentration, discernment, release, and the direct knowing and seeing of release. [PS: sallekha(sam-likh) 損減;漸損;儉約;制欲;嚴肅; sallekha pariyaya 削減之法門;儉約之教示; sallekha vihara 嚴肅住; sallekha vuttin 損減行者;嚴肅生活者]
Samadhi(samaadhi;三摩地;三昧;定;等持): Concentration; the practice of centering the mind in a single sensation or preoccupation. [PS: = sam-a-dha; sam =>sama:靜;寂;平靜;安穩;同一;平等; a:至(up to; towards; from); dha:放置; ][MORE]
Samana(sama.na;沙門): Contemplative. Literally, a person who abandons the conventional obligations of social life in order to find a way of life more "in tune" (sama) with the ways of nature.
Samanera (Samaneri)[saama.nera(saama.nerii);沙彌(尼)]: Literally, a small samana; a novice monk (nun) who observes ten precepts and who is a candidate for admission to the order of bhikkhus (bhikkhunis). See pabbajja.
Sambhavesin(sambhavesin;求生者): (A being) searching for a place to take birth. [PS:sambhava(sam-bhu)發生;生起;生成; sambhava rupa 生成色]
Sammati(sammati;世俗;通俗): Conventional reality; convention; relative truth; supposition; anything conjured into being by the mind.
Sampajabba(sampaja~n~na;正知;正智): Alertness; self-awareness; presence of mind; clear comprehension.
Samsara(sa'msaara;輪迴;流轉): Transmigration; the round of death and rebirth. See vatta. [MORE]
Samyojana (Sabbojana)(sa'myojana or sa~n~nojana;結, 縛, 使;結縛;繫縛;束縛): Fetter that binds the mind to the cycle of rebirth (see vatta) --
1. self-identification views [sakkaya-ditti (有)身見], 2. uncertainty (vicikiccha疑),
3. grasping at precepts and practices (silabbata-paramasa 戒禁取);
4. sensual passion (kama-raga=kamacchamdo 欲貪),
5. irritation (vyapada 瞋恚); 6. passion for form (rupa-raga 色貪),
7. passion for formless phenomena (arupa-raga 無色貪), 8. conceit (mana 慢),
9. restlessness (uddhacca 掉舉), and 10. unawareness (
avijja 無明).
[PS: (1) -- (3) 三結 tini samyojanani; (1) -- (10) 十結 dasa samyojanani]

Sanditthiko(sandi.t.thiko;自見的;現世的;現證的): Self-evident; immediately apparent; visible here and now. An epithet for the Dhamma. (PS: 自見的 sam-ditta-ika)
Savgha(sa'ngha;僧伽;僧團;和合眾): On the conventional (sammati) level, this term denotes the communities of Buddhist monks and nuns; on the ideal (ariya) level, it denotes those followers of the Buddha, lay or ordained, who have attained at least stream-entry (see sotapanna), the first of the transcendent paths (see magga) culminating in nibbanaRecently, particularly in the West, the term "savgha" has been popularly adapted to mean the wider sense of "community of followers on the Buddhist path," although this usage finds no basis in the Pali Canon. The term "parisa" may be more appropriate for this much broader meaning. [MORE]
Savkhara(sa'nkhara;行): Formation, compound, fashioning -- the forces and factors that fashion things (physical or mental), the process of fashioning, and the fashioned things that result. Savkhara can refer to anything formed or fashioned by conditions, or, more specifically, (as one of the five khandhas(蘊) thought-formations within the mind. (PS: 行蘊 savkhara-kkhandha)
Sabba(sa~n~naa;想): Label; perception; allusion; act of memory or recognition; interpretation. See khandha[(五)蘊].(PS: 想蘊 sabba-kkhandha)
Sabbojana)(sa~n~nojana;結, 縛, 使;結縛;繫縛;束縛): See samyojana.
Sati(sati;念;記憶;憶念;正念;念住): Mindfulness; alertness; self-collectedness; powers of reference and retention. [MORE]
Satipatthana(satipa.t.thaana;念住,念處): Foundation of mindfulness; frame of reference(cattaro-satipatthana [(四)念處)]-- body(身), feelings(受), mind(心), and mental events(法), viewed in and of themselves as they occur.[PS:patthana --setting forth; putting forward; starting point 出發;發趣; Patthana 發趣論(南傳七論之一)]
Sa-upadisesa-nibbana[sa-upaadisesa-nibbaana;有餘(依)涅槃]: Nibbana with fuel remaining (the analogy is to an extinguished fire whose embers are still glowing) -- liberation as experienced in this lifetime by an arahant). (cf. anupadisesa-nibbana)
Sila(siila;戒): Virtue, morality. The quality of ethical and moral purity that prevents one from falling away from the eightfold path. Also, the training precepts that restrain one from performing unskillful actions. Sila is the second theme in the gradual training (see anupubbi-katha), one of the ten paramis, and the second of the seven treasures (see dhana). [MORE]
Sotapanna(sotaapanna;預流, 須陀洹): Stream winner. A person who has abandoned the first three of the fetters that bind the mind to the cycle of rebirth (see samyojana) and has thus entered the "stream" flowing inexorably to nibbana, ensuring that one will be reborn at most only seven more times. (PS: sota-apanna)
Stream-entry, Stream-winner: see sotapanna.
Stupa (also Sthupa[Sk.梵(語)文] (Pali: Thupa (thuupa or stuupa;塔婆;塔;佛塔): Originally, a tumulus or burial mound enshrining relics of a holy person -- such as the Buddha -- or objects associated with his life. Over the centuries this has developed into the tall, spired monuments familiar in temples in Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Burma; and into the pagodas of China, Korea, and Japan. [PS: jhapeti (jhaapeti;荼毗;闍毗;闍維;耶維;耶旬--火葬也)]
Sugati(sugati;善趣;善道): Happy destinations; the two higher levels of existence into which one might be reborn as a result of past skillful actions (see kamma): rebirth in the human world or in the heavens (See sagga). None of these states is permanent. Compare apaya-bhumi. (PS:su-gati)[MORE]
Sugato[also Sugata (sugato;sugata;善逝): Well-faring; going (or gone) to a good destination. An epithet for the Buddha. (PS: su-gata)
Sukha(sukha;樂): Pleasure; ease; satisfaction. In meditation, a mental quality that reaches full maturity upon the development of the third level of jhana.
Sutta (Skt. Sutra)(sutta;經): Literally, "thread"; a discourse or sermon by the Buddha or his contemporary disciples. After the Buddha's death the suttas were passed down in the Pali language according to a well-established oral tradition, and were finally committed to written form in Sri Lanka around 100 BCE. Over 10,000 suttas are collected in the Sutta Piaaka, one of the principal bodies of scriptural literature in Theravada Buddhism. The Pali Suttas are widely regarded as the earliest record of the Buddha's teachings. [MORE]

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Tadi[taadii;如此(高貴者);如是(解脫者)]: "Such," an adjective to describe one who has attained the goal. It indicates that the person's state is indefinable but not subject to change or influences of any sort. [PS: tadisa = tadisaka = tadi adj. such; of such (good) quality(character)]
Tanha(ta.nhaa;渴愛;愛;愛欲: Craving, the cause of stress, which takes three forms -- craving for sensuality, for being, and for not-being. [MORE]
Tapas(tapas;熱;苦行): The purifying "heat" of meditative practice. [PS:tapa=tapo(Vedic Sanskrit-- tapas)]
Tathagata(Tathaagata;如來): Literally, "one who has truly gone (tatha-gata)" or "one who has become authentic "(tatha-agata)," an epithet used in ancient India for a person who has attained the highest spiritual goal. In Buddhism, it usually denotes the Buddha, although occasionally it also denotes any of his arahant disciples. (PS: tatha: thus; so; in this way)
Than: (Thai; also "tan") [than;(泰語)法師] Reverend, venerable.
Thera(thera;長老): "Elder." An honorific title automatically conferred upon a bhikkhu of at least ten years' standing. Compare mahathera.
Theravada(theravaada;上座部): The "Doctrine of the Elders" -- the only one of the early schools of Buddhism to have survived into the present; currently the dominant form of Buddhism in Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Burma. See also Hinayana. [MORE]
Ti-lakkhana(also Tilakkhanani) ti-lakkha.na or tilakkha.naani;三法印]: Three characteristics inherent in all conditioned phenomena -- being inconstant, stressful, and not-self.
Tipitaka (Skt. Tripitaka)(tipi.taka;三藏): The Buddhist Canon; literally, the three "baskets(籠)" -- disciplinary rules, discourses, and abstract philosophical treatises. [MORE]
Tiratana[(also Ratana-ttaya) tiratana or ratana-ttaya;三寶]: The "Triple Gem" consisting of the Buddha, Dhamma, and Savgha -- ideals to which all Buddhists turn for refuge. See tisarana. [MORE]
Tisarana[tisara.na;三皈(依)]: The "Threefold Refuge" -- the Buddha, Dhamma, and Savgha. See tiratana. [MORE]

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Ugghatitabbu[ud-ghatati 之過去分詞(pp.); uggha.tita~n~nuu;敏銳即知者;略解即知者]: Of swift understanding. After the Buddha attained Awakening and was considering whether or not to teach the Dhamma, he perceived that there were four categories of beings:
(1) those of swift understanding, who would gain Awakening after a short explanation of the Dhamma (ugghatitabbu);
(2) those who would gain Awakening only after a lengthy explanation [(
vipaccitabbu also vipabcitabbu) vipaccita~n~nuu;or vipa~ncita~n~nuu;廣說便知者];
(3) those who would gain Awakening only after being led through the practice [
neyya (neyya;經指導修業處後便知者)]; and
(4) those who, instead of gaining Awakening, would at best gain only a verbal understanding of the Dhamma [

Unbinding: See nibbana.
Upadana(upaadaana;取;執著;燃料): Clinging; attachment; sustenance for becoming and birth -- attachment to sensuality, to views, to precepts and practices, and to theories of the self.
Upasampada(upasampadaa;具足;受戒;受具足戒): Acceptance; full ordination as a bhikkhu or bhikkhuni. See pabbajja.
Upasika (upaasikaa;優婆夷;信女)(Upasaka(upaasaka;優婆薩;信士;信男): A female (male) follower of the Buddha. Compare parisa.
Upekkha(upekkhaa;捨;平等心): Equanimity. One of the ten perfections paramis) and one of the four "sublime abodes" (brahma-vihara). [MORE]
Uposatha(uposatha;布薩): Observance day, corresponding to the phases of the moon, on which Buddhist lay people gather to listen to the Dhamma and to observe special precepts. On the new-moon and full-moon uposatha days monks assemble to recite the Patimokkha rules. [MORE]

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Vassa(vassa;雨;雨期;雨期安居;年): Rains Retreat. A period from July to October, corresponding roughly to the rainy season, in which each monk is required to live settled in a single place and not wander freely about.
Vatta(va.t.ta;輪迴;輪轉;相續法): The cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. This denotes both the death and rebirth of living beings and the death and rebirth of defilement (kilesa) within the mind. See samsara. [PS:vatta 義務;服務;儀法;德行(duty; service; function); vattati 存在;轉起;發生;存續(to exit; to happen; to take place; to go on); vattana 行為(conduct)]
Vedana[vedanaa;受;(苦樂的)感受作用]: Feeling -- pleasure (ease), pain (stress), or neither pleasure nor pain. See khandha. (PS: vedana[nupassana 受隨念)
Vicara(vicaara;伺): Evaluation; sustained thought. In meditation, vicara is the mental factor that allows one's attention to shift and move about in relation to the chosen meditation object. Vicara and its companion factor vitakka reach full maturity upon the development of the first level of jhana.
Vijja(vijjaa;明;智): Clear knowledge; genuine awareness; science (specifically, the cognitive powers developed through the practice of concentration and discernment).
Vijja-carana-sampanno(vijjaa-cara.na-sampanno;明行足;明行具足者): Consummate in knowledge and conduct; accomplished in the conduct leading to awareness or cognitive skill. An epithet for the Buddha. (PS: carana 行為;德行;實踐; sampanna 具足;成就)
Vimutti(vimutti;解脫): Release; freedom from the fabrications and conventions of the mind.
Vinaya(vinaya;律藏): The monastic discipline, spanning six volumes in printed text, whose rules and traditions define every aspect of the bhikkhus' and bhikkhunis' way of life. The essence of the rules for monastics is contained in the Patimokkha The conjunction of the Dhamma with the Vinaya forms the core of the Buddhist religion: "Dhamma-vinaya" -- "the doctrine and discipline" -- is the name the Buddha gave to the religion he founded. [MORE]
Vibbana(vi~n~naa.na;識): Cognizance; consciousness; the act of taking note of sense data and ideas as they occur. See khandha. (PS:vibbana-kkhandha 識蘊)
Vipassana(vipassanaa;毗婆舍那, 內觀): Clear intuitive insight into physical and mental phenomena as they arise and disappear, seeing them for what they actually are -- in and of themselves -- in terms of the three characteristics (see ti-lakkhana) and in terms of stress, its origin, its disbanding, and the way leading to its disbanding (see ariya-sacca). (PS:vi 分;離;別;異;反 ===> passati 見;看出;知道 ===> vi-passati ===> vipassati)
Vipassanupakkilesa(觀隨染): Corruption of insight; intense experiences that can happen in the course of meditation and can lead one to believe that one has completed the path. The standard list includes ten: light, psychic knowledge, rapture, serenity, pleasure, extreme conviction, excessive effort, obsession, indifference, and contentment. [PS:vipassab-upakkhilesa ; see Visudhimagga 清靜道論 Pp. 633-638(底本)]
Viriya(viriya;精進;勤): Persistence; energy. One of the ten perfections (paramis), the five faculties (bala; see bodhi-pakkhiya-dhamma), and the five strengths/dominant factors (indriya; see bodhi-pakkhiya-dhamma).
Visakha (also Vesakha, Vesak, Wesak, etc.) Visaakhaa;vesaakhaa;Vesak;Wesak 毗舍佉月]: The ancient name for the Indian lunar month in spring corresponding to our April-May. According to tradition, the Buddha's birth, Awakening, and Parinibbana each took place on the full-moon night in the month of Visakha. These events are commemorated on that day in the Visakha festival(衛塞節), which is celebrated annually throughout the world of Theravada Buddhism.
Vitakka(vitakka;尋): Directed thought. In meditation, vitakka is the mental factor by which one's attention is applied to the chosen meditation object. Vitakka and its companion factor vicara reach full maturity upon the development of the first level of jhana.

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Revised: Sun. 11 July 1999

Original source: http://world.std.com/~metta/glossary.html

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